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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936398/vitamin-d-is-associated-with-severity-and-mortality-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-us-population-based-study
#1
Hyun-Seok Kim, Laura Rotundo, Neil Kothari, Sung-Hoon Kim, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Background and Aims: There has been increasing evidence that vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Since metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D and the severity and mortality of NAFLD. Methods: Data was obtained from the United States Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 1988-1994, with follow-up mortality data through 2011. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of hepatic steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases and categorized as normal, mild, moderate or severe...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923026/dementia-and-cognitive-disorder-identified-at-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination-a-study-from-sweden
#2
Anette Ekström, Marianne Kristiansson, Karin Sparring Björkstén
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. METHODS: In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine...
September 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910193/lifestyle-markers-predict-cognitive-function
#3
Steven C Masley, Richard Roetzheim, Gwendolyn Clayton, Angela Presby, Kelley Sundberg, Lucas V Masley
OBJECTIVE: Rates of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing rapidly. None of the current treatment regimens for Alzheimer's disease are effective in arresting progression. Lifestyle choices may prevent cognitive decline. This study aims to clarify which factors best predict cognitive function. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional analysis of 799 men and women undergoing health and cognitive testing every 1 to 3 years at an outpatient center...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901441/profiling-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-adipose-tissues-of-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis
#4
Ke Chen, Linghao Wang, Wenjun Yang, Changfa Wang, Gui Hu, Zhaohui Mo
Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is a rare disorder characterized by aberrant multiple and symmetric subcutaneous adipose tissue accumulation in the face, neck, shoulders, back, chest and abdomen, severely affecting the quality of life of patients. At present, precise MSL etiology and pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. The present study first utilized a digital gene expression technique with a next‑generation sequencing platform to profile differentially expressed genes in three cases of MSL vs. normal control tissue...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842833/ceramide-and-its-related-neurochemical-networks-as-targets-for-some-brain-disorder-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Justyna Brodowicz, Edmund Przegaliński, Christian P Müller, Malgorzata Filip
Correlational and causal comparative research link ceramide (Cer), the precursor of complex sphingolipids, to some psychiatric (e.g., depression, schizophrenia (SZ), alcohol use disorder, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance) and neurological (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD)) disorders. Cer generation can occur through the de novo synthesis pathway, the sphingomyelinase pathways, and the salvage pathway. The discoveries that plasma Cer concentration increase during depressive episodes in patients and that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants functionally inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to Cer, have initiated a series of studies on the role of the ASM-Cer system in depressive disorder...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818082/comparing-chronic-condition-rates-using-icd-9-and-icd-10-in-va-patients-fy2014-2016
#6
Jean Yoon, Adam Chow
BACKGROUND: Management of patients with chronic conditions relies on accurate measurement. It is unknown how transition to the ICD-10 coding system affected reporting of chronic condition rates over time. We measured chronic condition rates 2 years before and 1 year after the transition to ICD-10 to examine changes in prevalence rates and potential measurement issues in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. METHODS: We developed definitions for 34 chronic conditions using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and compared the prevalence rates of these conditions from FY2014 to 2016 in a 20% random sample (1...
August 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806610/risk-factors-of-transition-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-and-death-a-cohort-study
#7
Haihong Xue, Qianqian Sun, Long Liu, Liye Zhou, Ruifeng Liang, Runlian He, Hongmei Yu
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors is essential for developing strategies that prevent or minimise transitions from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and death. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for progression to AD and death among Chinese individuals with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We conducted a multisite, population-based cohort study on 437 community-dwelling elderly MCI residents in Taiyuan, China from 2010 to 2014...
July 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799137/ethanol-alters-app-processing-and-aggravates-alzheimer-associated-phenotypes
#8
Daochao Huang, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Dandan Lou, Weitao Zhou, Lingling Zheng, Zhe Wang, Fang Cai, Weihui Zhou, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
The majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic with unknown causes. Many dietary factors including excessive alcohol intake have been reported to increase the risk to develop AD. The effect of alcohol on cognitive functions and AD pathogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ethanol exposure and Alzheimer's disease. Cell cultures were treated with ethanol at different dosages for different durations up to 48 h and an AD model mouse was fed with ethanol for 4 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796009/different-exposures-to-risk-factors-do-not-explain-the-inverse-relationship-of-occurrence-between-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-italian-nested-case-control-study
#9
Federica Prinelli, Fulvio Adorni, Maria Lea Correa Leite, Carla Pettenati, Antonio Russo, Simona Di Santo, Massimo Musicco
Several studies reported that cancer is less frequent in persons with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases (AD/PD) and vice-versa. We evaluated whether a different distribution of known nongenetic risk factors for cancer and AD/PD, might explain their inverse relationship of occurrence. We nested 2 case-control studies in a subsample of a large cohort of 1,000,000 resident in Lombardy Region in Italy (n=1515), followed-up for cancer and AD/PD occurrence since 1991 until 2012. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AD/PD in subjects with and without cancer and the risk of cancer in those with and without AD/PD...
August 8, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782481/rational-approaches-design-strategies-structure-activity-relationship-and-mechanistic-insights-for-esterase-inhibitors
#10
Harbinder Singh, Jatinder Vir Singh, Navdeep Kaur, Mohit Sanduja, Gurpreet Singh, Preet Mohinder Singh Bedi, Sahil Sharma
BACKGROUND: Esterase is an enzyme that splits esters into an acid and alcohol. Varieties of esterases are present in human body to control diverse set of cellular processes and execute their specific functions. It can be seen that any increase in metabolites produced by these enzymes lead to severe pathological conditions like Alzheimer disease, hypercholesterolemia etc. OBJECTIVE: Numerous esterase inhibitors have been developed and reported by the researchers around the globe, but not systematically summarized yet...
August 7, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692781/depression-as-a-risk-factor-of-organic-diseases-an-international-integrative-review
#11
Teodora Bica, Ruth Castelló, Loren L Toussaint, Pilar Montesó-Curto
PURPOSE AND DESIGN: This integrative review offers a systematic synthesis of the international literature regarding the role of depression as a risk factor in physical illnesses and the mechanisms of this connection. Special attention is paid to those modifiable factors. FINDINGS: Published studies of depression and physical illness and disease(N = 24) from five countries that were indexed in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), APA PsycNET, Scopus, Dialnet, and CUIDEN were examined...
July 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689644/childhood-stress-and-adversity-is-associated-with-late-life-dementia-in-aboriginal-australians
#12
Kylie Radford, Kim Delbaere, Brian Draper, Holly A Mack, Gail Daylight, Robert Cumming, Simon Chalkley, Cecilia Minogue, Gerald A Broe
OBJECTIVES: High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. SETTING: Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses...
October 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673719/newly-developed-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-relation-to-energy-metabolism-cholinergic-and-monoaminergic-neurotransmission
#13
REVIEW
Jan Korábečný, Eugenie Nepovimová, Tereza Cikánková, Katarína Špilovská, Lucie Vašková, Eva Mezeiová, Kamil Kuča, Jana Hroudová
Current options for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment are based on administration of cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) and/or memantine, acting as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Therapeutic approaches vary and include novel cholinesterase inhibitors, modulators of NMDA receptors, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, immunotherapeutics, modulators of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP), amyloid-beta binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) modulators, antioxidant agents, etc...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652219/the-fate-of-the-brain-cholinergic-neurons-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Giancarlo Pepeu, Maria Grazia Giovannini
The aims of this review are: 1) to describe which cholinergic neurons are affected in brain neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia; 2) to discuss the possible causes of the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons, 3) to summarize the functional consequences of the cholinergic deficit. The brain cholinergic system is basically constituted by three populations of phenotypically similar neurons forming a series of basal forebrain nuclei, the midpontine nuclei and a large population of striatal interneurons...
June 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633628/olfactory-testing-in-consecutive-patients-referred-with-suspected-dementia
#15
Ib Thrane Christensen, Elna-Marie Larsson, Ida E Holm, Ole B F Nielsen, Stig Andersen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and early and accurate diagnosis is important. Olfactory dysfunction is an early sign of AD. The contribution by test of olfactory function has been surveyed in AD vs a line of conditions but remains to be settled in the workup of unselected patients referred with suspected dementia. METHODS: We performed a two-step investigation: first, a comparative study of healthy controls and probable AD patients to test the applicability of the chosen scents (cuisine study); second, a study of consecutive patients referred to our geriatric outpatient clinic for suspected dementia with the investigating personnel blinded to the results of the Olfactory Test (blinded study)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585296/satisfaction-and-difficulties-of-french-professional-home-caregivers-in-supporting-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-or-alcohol-misuse
#16
Alba Moscato, Isabelle Varescon
In France, few studies have examined home care when it comes to ageing support and even fewer have considered alcohol misuse in this context. The studies also show that being old and having alcohol use disorders are two unfavourable conditions for receiving help, whereas for the Alzheimer's disease, there is a clear need for optimal care. In this article, we study professional home caregiver's perceptions of their job along with their difficulties and satisfactions in supporting older people with Alzheimer's disease or alcohol misuse...
June 6, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573213/chemoproteomic-profiling-of-bile-acid-interacting-proteins
#17
Shentian Zhuang, Qiang Li, Lirong Cai, Chu Wang, Xiaoguang Lei
Bile acids (BAs) are a family of endogenous metabolites synthesized from cholesterol in liver and modified by microbiota in gut. Being amphipathic molecules, the major function of BAs is to help with dietary lipid digestion. In addition, they also act as signaling molecules to regulate lipid and glucose metabolism as well as gut microbiota composition in the host. Remarkably, recent discoveries of the dedicated receptors for BAs such as FXR and TGR5 have uncovered a number of novel actions of BAs as signaling hormones which play significant roles in both physiological and pathological conditions...
May 24, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567345/dementia-and-osteoporosis-in-a-geriatric-population-is-there-a-common-link
#18
Candice L Downey, Adam Young, Emily F Burton, Simon M Graham, Robert J Macfarlane, Eva-Maria Tsapakis, Eleftherios Tsiridis
AIM: To determine the existence of a common pathological link between dementia and osteoporosis through reviewing the current evidence base. METHODS: This paper reviews the current literature on osteoporosis and dementia in order to ascertain evidence of a common predisposing aetiology. A literature search of Ovid MED-LINE (1950 to June 2016) was conducted. The keywords "osteoporosis", "osteoporotic fracture", "dementia" and "Alzheimer's disease" (AD) were used to determine the theoretical links with the most significant evidence base behind them...
May 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550245/amyloid-burden-in-obstructive-sleep%C3%A2-apnea
#19
Chang-Ho Yun, Ho-Young Lee, Seung Ku Lee, Hyun Kim, Hyung Suk Seo, Seong Ae Bang, Sang Eun Kim, Douglas N Greve, Rhoda Au, Chol Shin, Robert J Thomas
To test the hypothesis that excessive amyloid deposition is a biological link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease, we determined whether OSA increases cerebral amyloid burden, relative to controls, using Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging. The subjects were adult participants (age 50-65 years) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Polysomnography, brain MRI including 3D images, and a detailed neuro-cognitive function test battery were done in 2011-2012. Nineteen OSA subjects (Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥15/h, 21...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532510/gender-differences-in-psychiatric-diagnoses-in-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-register-study
#20
Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström
BACKGROUND: Gender differences regarding psychiatric ill-health are well known in the general population. However, not much research is done on people with intellectual disability, and especially not among older people with intellectual disability. METHODS: People with intellectual disability aged 55+ years in 2012 in Sweden were identified through a register containing information on those receiving support and service for this type of disability. The cohort comprised 3609 women and 4327 men with mean age 65 and 64 years, respectively...
May 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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