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Sasha G Burrowes, Nihal A Salem, Alexander M Tseng, Sridevi Balaraman, Marisa R Pinson, Cadianna Garcia, Rajesh C Miranda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a leading cause of intellectual disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that developmental ethanol exposure results in loss of microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-9, and loss of these miRNAs, in turn, mediates some of ethanol's teratogenic effects in the developing brain. We previously found that ethanol increased methylation at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus in mouse fetal neural stem cells (NSC), advancing a mechanism for epigenetic silencing of this locus and consequently, miR-9 loss in NSCs...
April 7, 2017: Alcohol
Rodrigo O de Castro, Luciana Previato, Victor Goitea, Anna Felberg, Michael F Guiraldelli, Adrian Filiberti, Roberto J Pezza
The efficiency and type of pathway chosen to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critically influenced by the nucleosome packaging and the chromatin architecture surrounding the DSBs. The Swi/Snf (PBAF and BAF) chromatin-remodeling complexes contribute to DNA damage-induced nucleosome remodeling, but the mechanism by which it contributes to this function is poorly understood. Herein, we report how the Baf200 (Arid2) PBAF-defining subunit regulates DSB repair. We used cytological and biochemical approaches to show that Baf200 plays an important function by facilitating homologous recombination-dependent processes, such as recruitment of Rad51 (a key component of homologous recombination) to DSBs, homology-directed repair, and cell survival after DNA damage...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Atsushi Oba, Shu Shimada, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Taketo Nishikawaji, Kaoru Mogushi, Hiromitsu Ito, Satoshi Matsumura, Arihiro Aihara, Yusuke Mitsunori, Daisuke Ban, Takanori Ochiai, Atsushi Kudo, Hiroshi Asahara, Atsushi Kaida, Masahiko Miura, Minoru Tanabe, Shinji Tanaka
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent genomic studies have identified frequent mutations of AT-rich interactive domain 2 (ARID2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it is not still understood how ARID2 exhibits tumor suppressor activities. METHODS: We established the ARID2 knockout human HCC cell lines by using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and investigated the gene expression profiles and biological functions. RESULTS: Bioinformatic analysis indicated that UV-response genes were negatively regulated in the ARID2 knockout cells, and they were sensitized to UV irradiation...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
M Kunz, M Hölzel
Recent attempts to characterize the melanoma mutational landscape using high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified new genes and pathways involved in the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma. Apart from mutated BRAF, NRAS, and KIT, a series of new recurrently mutated candidate genes with impact on signaling pathways have been identified such as NF1, PTEN, IDH1, RAC1, ARID2, and TP53. Under targeted treatment using BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors either alone or in combination, a majority of patients experience recurrences, which are due to different genetic mechanisms such as gene amplifications of BRAF or NRAS, MEK1/2 and PI3K mutations...
March 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Sung Hak Lee, Seung Hyun Jung, Tae-Min Kim, Je-Keun Rhee, Hyeon-Chun Park, Min Sung Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Chang Hyeok An, Sug Hyung Lee, Yeun-Jun Chung
Although gene-to-gene analyses identified genetic alterations such as APC, KRAS and TP53 mutations in colon adenomas, it is largely unknown whether there are any others in them. Mutational profiling of high-grade colon adenoma (HGCA) that just precedes colon carcinoma might identify not only novel adenoma-specific genes but also critical genes for its progression to carcinoma. For this, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 12 HGCAs and identified 11 non-hypermutated and one hypermutated (POLE-mutated) cases...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
Nuria C Bramswig, O Caluseriu, H-J Lüdecke, F V Bolduc, N C L Noel, T Wieland, H M Surowy, H-J Christen, H Engels, T M Strom, D Wieczorek
Chromatin remodeling is a complex process shaping the nucleosome landscape, thereby regulating the accessibility of transcription factors to regulatory regions of target genes and ultimately managing gene expression. The SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) complex remodels the nucleosome landscape in an ATP-dependent manner and is divided into the two major subclasses Brahma-associated factor (BAF) and Polybromo Brahma-associated factor (PBAF) complex. Somatic mutations in subunits of the SWI/SNF complex have been associated with different cancers, while germline mutations have been associated with autism spectrum disorder and the neurodevelopmental disorders Coffin-Siris (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes (NCBRS)...
January 25, 2017: Human Genetics
Jaclyn C Watkins, Brooke E Howitt, Neil S Horowitz, Lauren L Ritterhouse, Fei Dong, Laura E MacConaill, Elizabeth Garcia, Neal I Lindeman, Larissa J Lee, Ross S Berkowitz, Marisa R Nucci, Christopher P Crum
Human papillomavirus-negative keratinizing vulvar cancers typically harbor TP53 mutations as do their precursors, differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. However, atypical verruciform proliferations are also associated with these malignancies and their pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study compared 11 atypical verruciform lesions, including atypical verruciform hyperplasia, vulvar acanthosis with altered differentiation, and verruciform lichen simplex chronicus, with 14 human papillomavirus-negative keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas...
November 11, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Farah R Zahir, Tracy Tucker, Sonia Mayo, Carolyn J Brown, Emilia L Lim, Jonathan Taylor, Marco A Marra, Fadi F Hamdan, Jacques L Michaud, Jan M Friedman
The disruption of genes involved in epigenetic regulation is well known to cause Intellectual Disability (ID). We reported a custom microarray study that interrogated among others, the epigenetic regulatory gene-class, at single exon resolution. Here we elaborate on identified intragenic CNVs involving epigenetic regulatory genes; specifically discussing those in three genes previously unreported in ID etiology-ARID2, KDM3A, and ARID4B. The changes in ARID2 and KDM3A are likely pathogenic while the ARID4B variant is uncertain...
November 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Uwe Hillen, Florian Grabellus, Cindy Franklin, Antje Sucker, Dirk Schadendorf, Bastian Schilling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
L M Saleh, W Wang, S E M Herman, N S Saba, V Anastas, E Barber, M Corrigan-Cummins, M Farooqui, C Sun, S M Sarasua, Z Zhao, N K Abousamra, O Elbaz, H A Abdelghaffar, A Wiestner, K R Calvo
The lymph node (LN) is the site of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell activation and proliferation. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression has been shown to have a role in CLL pathogenesis; however, a comparison of miRNA expression between CLL cells in the LN and the peripheral blood (PB) has previously not been reported. On the basis of the analysis of 17 paired LN and PB samples from CLL patients, we identify a panel of miRNAs that are increased in LN CLL cells correlating with an activation phenotype...
February 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Courtney Hodges, Jacob G Kirkland, Gerald R Crabtree
During the last decade, a host of epigenetic mechanisms were found to contribute to cancer and other human diseases. Several genomic studies have revealed that ∼20% of malignancies have alterations of the subunits of polymorphic BRG-/BRM-associated factor (BAF) and Polybromo-associated BAF (PBAF) complexes, making them among the most frequently mutated complexes in cancer. Recurrent mutations arise in genes encoding several BAF/PBAF subunits, including ARID1A, ARID2, PBRM1, SMARCA4, and SMARCB1 These subunits share some degree of conservation with subunits from related adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in model organisms, in which a large body of work provides insight into their roles in cancer...
August 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Yujie Duan, Ling Tian, Qingzhu Gao, Li Liang, Wenlu Zhang, Yi Yang, Yaqiu Zheng, E Pan, Shengwei Li, Ni Tang
Exome and whole-genome sequencing studies have drawn attention to the role of somatic mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological roles of AT-rich interactive domain 2 (ARID2) in the pathogenesis of HCC. We found that ARID2 expression was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with non-tumorous tissues. Restoration of ARID2 expression in hepatoma cells was sufficient to suppress cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice, whereas ARID2 knockdown contributed to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and tumorigenicity...
July 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Hao Liu, Fengping Li, Yu Zhu, Tingting Li, Haipeng Huang, Tian Lin, Yanfeng Hu, Xiaolong Qi, Jiang Yu, Guoxin Li
Peritoneal metastasis occurs in more than half of patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer and is associated with the worst prognosis. The associated genomic events and pathogenesis remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to characterize the mutation spectrum of gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis and provide a basis for the identification of new biomarkers and treatment targets. Matched pairs of normal gastric mucosa and peritoneal tissue and matched pairs of primary tumor and peritoneal metastasis were collected from one patient for whole-exome sequencing (WES); Sanger sequencing was employed to confirm the somatic mutations...
July 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Elizabeth Margolskee, Vaidehi Jobanputra, Preti Jain, Jinli Chen, Karthik Ganapathi, Odelia Nahum, Brynn Levy, Julie Morscio, Vundavalli Murty, Thomas Tousseyn, Bachir Alobeid, Mahesh Mansukhani, Govind Bhagat
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T- or NK-cell origin (T/NK-PTLD) are rare entities and their genetic basis is unclear. We performed targeted sequencing of 465 cancer-related genes and high-resolution copy number analysis in 17 T-PTLD and 2 NK-PTLD cases. Overall, 377 variants were detected, with an average of 20 variants per case. Mutations of epigenetic modifier genes (TET2, KMT2C, KMT2D, DNMT3A, ARID1B, ARID2, KDM6B, n=11). and inactivation of TP53 by mutation and/or deletion(n=6) were the most frequent alterations, seen across disease subtypes, followed by mutations of JAK/STAT pathway genes (n=5)...
June 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Chul-Hyun Lim, Yu Kyung Cho, Sang Woo Kim, Myung-Gyu Choi, Je-Keun Rhee, Yeun-Jun Chung, Sug-Hyung Lee, Tae-Min Kim
Mutation profiles and intratumoral heterogeneity are not well understood for benign gastric adenomas, some of which progress into malignant gastric adenocarcinomas. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of three microsatellite stable (MSS) and two microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) gastric adenomas with three regional tumor biopsies per case. We observed that the mutation abundance of benign gastric adenomas was comparable to those of gastric adenocarcinomas, suggesting that the mutational makeup for gastric carcinogenesis may already be achieved in benign adenomas...
June 28, 2016: Oncotarget
L Tian, Y J Duan, L Z Nie, Z Li, Z Chen, Q Z Gao, Y Yang, N Tang, J Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a new tumor-suppressor gene Arid2 on the expression level of CD44 and the mechanism that Arid2 regulates the invasion and metastasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and Huh7. METHODS: Recombinant pGL3-CD44 reporter plasmids were transfected into hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 cells infected with adenovirus Arid2(Ad-Arid2). Dual luciferase assays were used to determine the relative luciferase activities of reporter plasmids...
March 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Muhammad Zaki Hidayatullah Fadlullah, Ivy Kim-Ni Chiang, Kalen R Dionne, Pei San Yee, Chai Phei Gan, Kin Kit Sam, Kai Hung Tiong, Adrian Kwok Wen Ng, Daniel Martin, Kue Peng Lim, Thomas George Kallarakkal, Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa, Shin Hin Lau, Mannil Thomas Abraham, Rosnah Binti Zain, Zainal Ariff Abdul Rahman, Alfredo Molinolo, Vyomesh Patel, J Silvio Gutkind, Aik Choon Tan, Sok Ching Cheong
Emerging biological and translational insights from large sequencing efforts underscore the need for genetically-relevant cell lines to study the relationships between genomic alterations of tumors, and therapeutic dependencies. Here, we report a detailed characterization of a novel panel of clinically annotated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, derived from patients with diverse ethnicity and risk habits. Molecular analysis by RNAseq and copy number alterations (CNA) identified that the cell lines harbour CNA that have been previously reported in OSCC, for example focal amplications in 3q, 7p, 8q, 11q, 20q and deletions in 3p, 5q, 8p, 18q...
May 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Li Zhang, Wei Wang, Xiaobin Li, Sai He, Jianfeng Yao, Xiaolong Wang, Di Zhang, Xuejun Sun
Aberrant expression of microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been reported in several human cancers and is associated with prognosis of patients. However, the clinical significance of miR‑155 and its underlying mechanisms involved in hepatocarcinogenesis remain to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-155 was elevated in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines. Clinical association analysis revealed that high expression of miR-155 was correlated with malignant clinicopathological characteristics including large tumor size, high Edmondson-Steiner grading and TNM tumor stage...
June 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Qiao Fan, Virginie J M Verhoeven, Robert Wojciechowski, Veluchamy A Barathi, Pirro G Hysi, Jeremy A Guggenheim, René Höhn, Veronique Vitart, Anthony P Khawaja, Kenji Yamashiro, S Mohsen Hosseini, Terho Lehtimäki, Yi Lu, Toomas Haller, Jing Xie, Cécile Delcourt, Mario Pirastu, Juho Wedenoja, Puya Gharahkhani, Cristina Venturini, Masahiro Miyake, Alex W Hewitt, Xiaobo Guo, Johanna Mazur, Jenifer E Huffman, Katie M Williams, Ozren Polasek, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Zoran Vatavuk, James F Wilson, Peter K Joshi, George McMahon, Beate St Pourcain, David M Evans, Claire L Simpson, Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An, Robert P Igo, Alireza Mirshahi, Audrey Cougnard-Gregoire, Céline Bellenguez, Maria Blettner, Olli Raitakari, Mika Kähönen, Ilkka Seppala, Tanja Zeller, Thomas Meitinger, Janina S Ried, Christian Gieger, Laura Portas, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Najaf Amin, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Albert Hofman, Johannes R Vingerling, Ya Xing Wang, Xu Wang, Eileen Tai-Hui Boh, M Kamran Ikram, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Preeti Gupta, Vincent Tan, Lei Zhou, Candice E H Ho, Wan'e Lim, Roger W Beuerman, Rosalynn Siantar, E-Shyong Tai, Eranga Vithana, Evelin Mihailov, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Caroline Hayward, Robert N Luben, Paul J Foster, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Hoi-Suen Wong, Paul Mitchell, Andres Metspalu, Tin Aung, Terri L Young, Mingguang He, Olavi Pärssinen, Cornelia M van Duijn, Jie Jin Wang, Cathy Williams, Jost B Jonas, Yik-Ying Teo, David A Mackey, Konrad Oexle, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Andrew D Paterson, Norbert Pfeiffer, Tien-Yin Wong, Paul N Baird, Dwight Stambolian, Joan E Bailey Wilson, Ching-Yu Cheng, Christopher J Hammond, Caroline C W Klaver, Seang-Mei Saw, Jugnoo S Rahi, Jean-François Korobelnik, John P Kemp, Nicholas J Timpson, George Davey Smith, Jamie E Craig, Kathryn P Burdon, Rhys D Fogarty, Sudha K Iyengar, Emily Chew, Sarayut Janmahasatian, Nicholas G Martin, Stuart MacGregor, Liang Xu, Maria Schache, Vinay Nangia, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Alan F Wright, Jeremy R Fondran, Jonathan H Lass, Sheng Feng, Jing Hua Zhao, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick J Wareham, Taina Rantanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Chi Pui Pang, Li Jia Chen, Pancy O Tam, Vishal Jhanji, Alvin L Young, Angela Döring, Leslie J Raffel, Mary-Frances Cotch, Xiaohui Li, Shea Ping Yip, Maurice K H Yap, Ginevra Biino, Simona Vaccargiu, Maurizio Fossarello, Brian Fleck, Seyhan Yazar, Jan Willem L Tideman, Milly Tedja, Margaret M Deangelis, Margaux Morrison, Lindsay Farrer, Xiangtian Zhou, Wei Chen, Nobuhisa Mizuki, Akira Meguro, Kari Matti Mäkelä
Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error...
March 29, 2016: Nature Communications
Wei Yuan, Zhou Zhang, Binghua Dai, Qing Wei, Jinjin Liu, Yuzhen Liu, Yun Liu, Lin He, Daizhan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Genomic alterations of small bowel cancers remain poorly understood due to the rarity of these diseases. In the current study, the authors report the identification of somatic mutations from patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma by whole-exome sequencing. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing and follow-up analysis were conducted in 12 matched tumor-normal tissue duodenal adenocarcinoma tissue pairs to examine the genetic characteristics of this disease. Somatic mutations (single-nucleotide variants and short insertion/deletions) were obtained and filtered and then searched for recurrently mutated genes and pathways...
June 1, 2016: Cancer
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