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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145612/developmental-and-gut-related-changes-to-microbiomes-of-the-cultured-juvenile-spiny-lobster-panulirus-ornatus
#1
Mei C Ooi, Evan F Goulden, Gregory G Smith, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
With recent technologies making it possible for commercial scale closed life-cycle aquaculture production of spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) comes a strong impetus to further understand aspects of lobster health. The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in host health, affecting growth, digestion, immune responses and pathogen resistance. Herein we characterise and compare gut microbiomes across different developmental stages (6-7 d post-emergence [dpe], 52 dpe and 13 months post-emergence [mpe]) and gut regions (foregut, midgut and hindgut) of cultured P...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145445/a-new-approach-by-optical-coherence-tomography-for-elucidating-biofilm-formation-by-emergent-candida-species
#2
Melyna Chaves Leite de Andrade, Marcos Andre Soares de Oliveira, Franz de Assis Graciano Dos Santos, Pamella de Brito Ximenes Vilela, Michellangelo Nunes da Silva, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira Macêdo, Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima Neto, Henrique Jonh Pereira Neves, Ildnay de Souza Lima Brandão, Guilherme Maranhão Chaves, Renato Evangelista de Araujo, Rejane Pereira Neves
The majority of microorganisms present a community lifestyle, establishing biofilm ecosystems. However, little is known about its formation in emergent Candida species involved in catheter-related infections. Thus, various techniques may be used in the biofilm detection to elucidate structure and clinical impact. In this context, we report the ability of emergent Candida species (Candida haemulonii, C. lusitaniae, C. pelliculosa, C.guilliermondii, C. famata and C. ciferrii) on developing well structured biofilms with cell viability and architecture, using optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145163/spread-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-harboring-integron-via-swine-farm-waste-water-treatment-plant
#3
Jin-Hyeong Park, Young-Ji Kim, Binn-Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144718/the-emerging-role-of-gammacore%C3%A2-in-the-management-of-cluster-headache-expert-panel-recommendations
#4
Stephen D Silberstein, Anne H Calhoun, Christina Treppendahl, David W Dodick, Alan M Rapoport, Avinash Mamidi, Peter Vargas, Thomas H Ebert, Stewart J Tepper
A panel of 9 experts, including neurologists, other headache specialists, and medical and pharmacy directors, from 4 health plans (1 integrated delivery network and 3 plans with commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid lines of business), convened to discuss cluster headache (CH). Topics covered included the current treatment landscape, treatment challenges, economic impact of disease, and gaps in care for patients with CH. One major challenge in the management of CH is that it is underrecognized and frequently misdiagnosed, leading to delays in and suboptimal treatment for patients who suffer from this painful and disabling condition...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144247/the-child-opportunity-index-and-disparities-in-pediatric-asthma-hospitalizations-across-one-ohio-metropolitan-area-2011-2013
#5
Andrew F Beck, Bin Huang, Kathryn Wheeler, Nikki R Lawson, Robert S Kahn, Carley L Riley
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the Child Opportunity Index (COI), a nationally available measure of relative educational, health/environmental, and social/economic opportunity across census tracts within metropolitan areas, is associated with population- and patient-level asthma morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2011 and 2013 in a southwest Ohio county. Participants included all children aged 1-16 years with hospitalizations or emergency department visits for asthma or wheezing at a major pediatric hospital...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144166/imaging-assessment-of-acute-ischaemic-stroke-a-review-of-radiological-methods
#6
Aubrey Smith, Chris Rowland Hill
Acute ischaemic stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide and a cause of major physical and psychological morbidity. Current evidence based treatment includes intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), both requiring careful patient selection and to be administered as quickly as possible within a limited time window from symptom onset. Imaging plays a crucial role identifying patients who may benefit from MT or IVT whilst excluding those that maybe harmed. For IVT, imaging must as a minimum exclude haemorrhage, stroke mimics and provide an estimate of non-viable brain...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144072/relapse-and-cytogenetic-evolution-in-myeloid-neoplasms
#7
Natalie Ertz-Archambault, Katalin Kelemen
Based on the current WHO Classification of Myeloid Neoplasms, cytogenetic findings play a central role in the diagnostic classification of the myeloid malignancies. Cytogenetic abnormalities detected at primary diagnosis may change over time. Karyotype changes can be characterized as cytogenetic evolution, cytogenetic regression or a combination of both. While the exact mechanism of cytogenetic evolution is not completely understood, the process of cytogenetic evolution is not random, but follows different, and often disease-specific patterns during progression and relapse of myeloid neoplasms...
December 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143777/margination-of-fluorescent-polylactic-acid-polyaspartamide-based-nanoparticles-in-microcapillaries-in-vitro-the-effect-of-hematocrit-and-pressure
#8
Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Rosa D'Apolito, Gaetano Giammona, Gennara Cavallaro, Giovanna Tomaiuolo
The last decade has seen the emergence of vascular-targeted drug delivery systems as a promising approach for the treatment of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this field, one of the major challenges is carrier margination propensity (i.e., particle migration from blood flow to vessel walls); indeed, binding of these particles to targeted cells and tissues is only possible if there is direct carrier-wall interaction. Here, a microfluidic system mimicking the hydrodynamic conditions of human microcirculation in vitro is used to investigate the effect of red blood cells (RBCs) on a carrier margination in relation to RBC concentration (hematocrit) and pressure drop...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143249/next-generation-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-going-off-the-shelf
#9
Marco Ruella, Saad S Kenderian
Autologous, patient-specific chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy has emerged as a powerful and potentially curative therapy for cancer, especially for CD19-positive hematological malignancies. Indeed, on August 30, 2017, the University of Pennsylvania-designed CD19-directed CART (CART-19) cell therapy (CTL019, tisagenlecleucel-t, Kymriah - Novartis) became the first CART therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the development of CART technology and its wider application is partly limited by the patient-specific nature of such a platform and by the time required for manufacturing...
November 16, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143222/quantitative-analysis-of-the-level-of-readability-of-online-emergency-radiology-based-patient-education-resources
#10
David R Hansberry, Michael D'Angelo, Michael D White, Arpan V Prabhu, Mougnyan Cox, Nitin Agarwal, Sandeep Deshmukh
PURPOSE: The vast amount of information found on the internet, combined with its accessibility, makes it a widely utilized resource for Americans to find information pertaining to medical information. The field of radiology is no exception. In this paper, we assess the readability level of websites pertaining specifically to emergency radiology. METHODS: Using Google, 23 terms were searched, and the top 10 results were recorded. Each link was evaluated for its readability level using a set of ten reputable readability scales...
November 15, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143190/role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-management-of-perianal-crohn-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Jose C Gallego, Ana Echarri
Perianal fistulas are a major problem in many patients with Crohn's disease. These are usually complex fistulas that adversely affect patients' quality of life, and their clinical management is difficult. Medical treatment sometimes achieves cessation of discharge and closure of the external opening; however, it is difficult to assess the status of the rest of the fistula tract. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice with which to evaluate the condition of perianal fistulas and allows for assessment of the status of inaccessible areas...
November 15, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143090/pattern-of-lower-intestinal-ostomies-in-a-low-income-country-case-of-southeast-of-niger-republic
#12
Harissou Adamou, Oumarou Habou, Ibrahim Amadou Magagi, Ousseini Adakal, Amadou Magagi, Maazou Halidou, Rachid Sani
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ostomies are common surgical procedures performed in visceral surgery as part of management for several gastrointestinal diseases. This study aims to report the socio-demographic characteristics, indications and prognosis of intestinal ostomies in low-income country. METHODS: This was a 4-year retrospective study (January 2013 to December 2016) at Zinder National Hospital (Niger). All patients with a digestive ostomy on an ileum or colic segment were included in the study...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143089/surgical-treatment-of-gastro-pulmonary-fistula-following-bariatric-surgery-possible-and-safe
#13
Alon Ben Nun, David Simansky, Merav Rokah, Nona Zeitlin, Nir Golan, Ramez Abu Khalil, Michalle Soudack
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a common surgical management of morbid obesity. Major complication rate is 3-8%. Staple line leak is one of the most serious complications. In a small group of patients, a gastro-pulmonary fistula is formed. Endoscopic and minimally invasive measures are the first line of treatment with considerable success rate. There are very poor data in the literature what should be done in cases of failure. In this paper, we report our positive experience with definitive surgical repair...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142545/rapid-screening-of-pyogenic-staphylococcus-aureus-for-confirmation-of-genus-and-species-methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-factors-by-using-two-novel-multiplex-pcr
#14
Abdul Haque, Asma Haque, Muhammad Saeed, Aysha Azhar, Samreen Rasool, Sidra Shan, Beenish Ehsan, Zohaib Nisar
Objectives: Emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major medical problem of current era. These bacteria are resistant to most drugs and rapid diagnosis can provide a clear guideline to clinicians. They possess specific virulence factors and relevant information can be very useful. We designed this study to develop multiplex PCRs to provide rapid information. Methods: We studied 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and detected methicillin resistance by cefoxitin sensitivity and targeting of mecA gene...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142380/epidemiological-study-of-patients-of-road-traffic-injuries-attending-emergency-department-of-a-trauma-center-in-new-delhi
#15
Puneet Misra, Anindo Majumdar, Mahesh Chandra Misra, Shashi Kant, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Amit Gupta, Subodh Kumar
Background and Aims: There is paucity of data regarding some of the lesser known contextual and epidemiological factors with respect to road traffic injuries (RTIs). The objective was to study the epidemiological profile of RTI victims attending an emergency department of a tertiary care trauma center. Methods: The present study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the emergency department of a tertiary care trauma center in New Delhi. All patients of RTI attending the emergency department during the designated data collection days were included in the study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142216/polymer-mimics-of-biomacromolecular-antifreezes
#16
REVIEW
Caroline I Biggs, Trisha L Bailey, Ben Graham, Christopher Stubbs, Alice Fayter, Matthew I Gibson
Antifreeze proteins from polar fish species are remarkable biomacromolecules which prevent the growth of ice crystals. Ice crystal growth is a major problem in cell/tissue cryopreservation for transplantation, transfusion and basic biomedical research, as well as technological applications such as icing of aircraft wings. This review will introduce the rapidly emerging field of synthetic macromolecular (polymer) mimics of antifreeze proteins. Particular focus is placed on designing polymers which have no structural similarities to antifreeze proteins but reproduce the same macroscopic properties, potentially by different molecular-level mechanisms...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142122/adaptive-immune-responses-following-senecavirus-a-infection-in-pigs
#17
Mayara F Maggioli, Steve Lawson, Marcelo de Lima, Lok R Joshi, Tatiane C Faccin, Fernando V Bauermann, Diego G Diel
Senecavirus A (SVA), an emerging picornavirus of swine, causes vesicular disease (VD) that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. Many aspects of SVA interactions with the host and the host immune responses to infection, however, remain unknown. In the present study, humoral and cellular immune responses to SVA were evaluated following infection in pigs. We show that SVA infection elicited an early and robust neutralizing antibody (NA) response, which coincided with and was strongly correlated with VP2- and VP3-specific IgM responses...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#18
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141971/role-of-microrna-regulation-in-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-nutritional-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Ravi Kasiappan, Dheeran Rajarajan
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141705/phenotypic-and-molecular-genetic-characteristics-of-yersinia-pestis-at-an-emerging-natural-plague-focus-junggar-basin-china
#20
Yujiang Zhang, Tao Luo, Chao Yang, Xihong Yue, Rong Guo, Xinhui Wang, Mingde Buren, Yuqin Song, Ruifu Yang, Hanli Cao, Yujun Cui, Xiang Dai
The 15th natural plague focus in China, the Junggar Basin plague focus, is located near an important communication route connecting China and Central Asia and was discovered after 2005. To characterize the phenotypic and genetic diversity of the Yersinia pestis population in this newly established focus, we collected 25 Y. pestis strains from six counties across Junggar Basin in 2005-2006, and determined their biochemical features and genotypes based on multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats analysis...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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