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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668018/how-strong-was-the-bottleneck-associated-to-the-peopling-of-the-americas-new-insights-from-multilocus-sequence-data
#1
Nelson J R Fagundes, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Rohina Rubicz, Larissa Tarskaia, Michael H Crawford, Francisco M Salzano, Sandro L Bonatto
In spite of many genetic studies that contributed for a deep knowledge about the peopling of the Americas, no consensus has emerged about important parameters such as the effective size of the Native Americans founder population. Previous estimates based on genomic datasets may have been biased by the use of admixed individuals from Latino populations, while other recent studies using samples from Native American individuals relied on approximated analytical approaches. In this study we use resequencing data for nine independent regions in a set of Native American and Siberian individuals and a full-likelihood approach based on isolation-with-migration scenarios accounting for recent flow between Asian and Native American populations...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667845/development-of-an-instrument-to-assess-athletic-trainers-attitudes-toward-transgender-patients
#2
Kristine A Ensign, Brian M Dodge, Debra Herbenick, Carrie L Docherty
CONTEXT:   The unique contexts in which athletic trainers (ATs) work require specific tools in order to understand their attitudes toward diverse patient populations, including sexual and gender minorities. OBJECTIVE:   To develop and validate the Attitudes Toward Transgender Patients (ATTP) instrument for ATs. DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study. SETTING:   Semistructured interviews, paper-based questionnaire, and electronic questionnaire...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667823/luciferase-advisor-high-accuracy-model-to-flag-false-positive-hits-in-luciferase-hts-assays
#3
Dipan Ghosh, Uwe Koch, Kamyar Hadian, Michael Sattler, Igor V Tetko
Firefly luciferase is an enzyme that has found ubiquitous use in biological assays in high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns. The inhibition of luciferase in such assays could lead to a false positive result. This issue has been known for a long time, and there have been significant efforts to identify luciferase inhibitors in order to enhance recognition of false positives in screening assays. However, although a large amount of publicly accessible luciferase counterscreen data is available, to date little effort has been devoted to building a chemoinformatic model that can identify such molecules in a given data set...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667691/spin-crossover-fe-ii-complexes-of-a-cross-bridged-cyclam-derivative
#4
Bohuslav Drahoš, Zdeněk Trávníček
A cross-bridged cyclam derivative containing two 2-pyridylmethyl pendant arms (L = 4,11-bis((pyridin-2-yl)methyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraaza-bicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane) was synthesized by dialkylation of the cross-bridged cyclam with 2-chloromethylpyridine. A series of Fe(ii) complexes with L and different counter-anions of the formulas [Fe(L)][FeCl4]·H2O (1·H2O), [Fe(L)]Cl2·4H2O (2·4H2O), [Fe(L)](BF4)2·0.5CH3CN (3·0.5CH3CN) and [Fe(L)](BPh4)2·CH3OH (4·CH3OH) was prepared and thoroughly characterized. In all the cases, the [Fe(L)]2+ cation adopts a cis-V configuration with a distorted octahedral geometry, and with the FeN6 donor set...
April 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667679/vibrational-spectroscopy-of-hydrogens-in-diamond-a-quantum-mechanical-treatment
#5
Francesco Silvio Gentile, Simone Salustro, Jacques Kontak Desmarais, Anna Maria Ferrari, Philippe D'Arco, Roberto Dovesi
The electronic and vibrational features of the VHn (n = 1 to 4) family of defects in diamond (hydrogen atoms saturating the dangling bonds of the atoms surrounding a vacancy) are investigated at the quantum mechanical level by using the periodic supercell approach, an all electron Gaussian type basis set, hybrid functionals, and the Crystal code. Most of the results have been collected for supercells containing 64 atoms; however, in order to explore the effect of the defect concentration on both the IR and Raman spectra, supercells containing 216, 512 and 1000 atoms have also been considered in the VH4 case...
April 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667584/pharmacist-interventions-during-patient-rounds-in-two-intensive-care-units-clinical-and-financial-impact
#6
B E Bosma, P M L A van den Bemt, P H G J Melief, J van Bommel, S S Tan, N G M Hunfeld
INTRODUCTION: The risk of prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADE) on the intensive care unit (ICU) is high. Based on studies carried out in North America or the UK, a clinical pharmacy service can reduce ADEs and lower overall costs. This study looks into the clinical and financial impact of interventions made by pharmacists during patient rounds in two ICU settings in the Netherlands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quality improvement study was performed in a general teaching hospital (GTH) and a university hospital (UH) in the Netherlands...
April 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667215/a-simple-signaling-rule-for-variable-life-adjusted-display-derived-from-an-equivalent-risk-adjusted-cusum-chart
#7
Philipp Wittenberg, Fah Fatt Gan, Sven Knoth
The variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) is the first risk-adjusted graphical procedure proposed in the literature for monitoring the performance of a surgeon. It displays the cumulative sum of expected minus observed deaths. It has since become highly popular because the statistic plotted is easy to understand. But it is also easy to misinterpret a surgeon's performance by utilizing the VLAD, potentially leading to grave consequences. The problem of misinterpretation is essentially caused by the variance of the VLAD's statistic that increases with sample size...
April 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667145/ethical-challenges-faced-by-healthcare-professionals-who-care-for-suicidal-patients-a-scoping-review
#8
Victoria Saigle, Eric Racine
For each one of the approximately 800,000 people who die from suicide every year, an additional twenty people attempt suicide. Many of these attempts result in hospitalization or in contact with other healthcare services. However, many personal, educational, and institutional barriers make it difficult for healthcare professionals to care for suicidal individuals. We reviewed literature that discusses suicidal patients in healthcare settings in order to highlight common ethical issues and to identify knowledge gaps...
April 17, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667041/perception-versus-reality-elucidating-motivation-and-expectations-of-current-fellowship-council-minimally-invasive-surgery-fellows
#9
Jeffrey R Watkins, Aurora D Pryor, Michael S Truitt, D Rohan Jeyarajah
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study is to determine minimally invasive trainee motivation and expectations for their respective fellowship. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is one of the largest non-ACGME post-residency training pathways though little is known concerning the process of residents choosing MIS as a fellowship focus. As general surgery evolves, it is important to understand resident motivation in order to better prepare them for a surgical career. METHODS: A survey invitation was sent to current trainees in the Minimally Invasive and related pathways through the Fellowship Council...
April 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667037/use-of-seasonal-parameters-and-their-effects-on-fod-landfill-gas-modeling
#10
Nathan Bruce, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng, Hoang Lan Vu
Temporal and spatial variations in landfill gas generations and emissions have been observed and reported by others. Real-time gas data between 2008 and 2014 from a municipal landfill located in a cold, semi-arid climate were consolidated to fit a linear-interpolated form of LandGEM. Seasonal variations in gas collection were observed in the landfill. LandGEM's default decay rate k was not applicable for this Canadian landfill due to significant overestimation (32.2% error). Optimal seasonal k and Lo collection parameters had 8...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666949/precision-medicine-against-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-beyond-crizotinib
#11
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Andrea De Giglio, Carmen Mecca, Cataldo Arcuri, Sabrina Marini, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Angelo Sidoni, Guido Bellezza, Lucio Crinò, Rita Chiari
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite the initial response, virtually all ALK-positive patients develop an acquired resistance to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, usually within 12 months. Several next-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib limitation, providing an unprecedented survival for this subset of patients. The aim of this review to summarize the current knowledge on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on the role of novel ALK inhibitors in this setting...
April 17, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666773/estimating-intraspecific-genetic-diversity-from-community-dna-metabarcoding-data
#12
Vasco Elbrecht, Ecaterina Edith Vamos, Dirk Steinke, Florian Leese
Background: DNA metabarcoding is used to generate species composition data for entire communities. However, sequencing errors in high-throughput sequencing instruments are fairly common, usually requiring reads to be clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), losing information on intraspecific diversity in the process. While Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) haplotype information is limited in resolving intraspecific diversity it is nevertheless often useful e.g. in a phylogeographic context, helping to formulate hypotheses on taxon distribution and dispersal...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666214/metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Cara Tomas, Julia Newton
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665809/generating-evidence-for-health-policy-in-challenging-settings-lessons-learned-from-four-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-implementation-research-studies-in-nigeria
#14
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Muktar H Aliyu, Olusegun A Adeyemi, Frank Oronsaye, Bolanle Oyeledun, Amaka G Ogidi, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Implementation research (IR) facilitates health systems strengthening and optimal patient outcomes by generating evidence for scale-up of efficacious strategies in context. Thus, difficulties in generating IR evidence, particularly in limited-resource settings with wide disease prevention and treatment gaps, need to be anticipated and addressed. Nigeria is a priority country for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). This paper analyses the experiences of four PMTCT IR studies in Nigeria, and proffers solutions to major challenges encountered during implementation...
April 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665741/lymphomatoid-papulosis-presenting-as-a-rash-in-a-patient-with-hiv-infection
#15
Sian Warren, Vincent Li, Rachel Drayton, Kenneth May
A 43-year-old Malaysian man with well-controlled HIV infection on combination antiretroviral therapy presented with a six-week history of a widespread rash. The patient was otherwise well but was developing new lesions on a daily basis. Referral to Dermatology instigated punch biopsies, which revealed a diagnosis of lymphomatoid papulosis type A. This case highlights the importance of swift referral, especially in cases of spontaneous regression of symptoms, in order to obtain the correct diagnosis. In most patients, this condition tends to be chronic, with its chronicity and benign clinical course setting it apart from cutaneous anaplastic T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease, which are major entities in the histological differential diagnosis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665616/milfm-multiple-index-latent-factor-model-based-on-high-dimensional-features
#16
Hojin Yang, Hongtu Zhu, Joseph G Ibrahim
The aim of this article is to develop a multiple-index latent factor modeling (MILFM) framework to build an accurate prediction model for clinical outcomes based on a massive number of features. We develop a three-stage estimation procedure to build the prediction model. MILFM uses an independent screening method to select a set of informative features, which may have a complex nonlinear relationship with the outcome variables. Moreover, we develop a latent factor model to project all informative predictors onto a small number of local subspaces, which lead to a few key features that capture reliable and informative covariate information...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665471/comparison-between-liquid-chromatography-and-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry-for-beta-agonists-screening-in-feeding-stuff
#17
L Herpin, E Bichon, L Rambaud, F Monteau, B Le Bizec
β-agonistic drugs have been forbidden as growth promoters in rearing animals in Europe since the late 1980s (Dir 96/22/EC). Specific and sensitive analytical methods based on UHPLC-MS/MS allow to monitor a large set of these substances. However, optimal performances are not observed for all the target analytes, especially for those exhibiting the highest polarities. We developed an SFC-MS/MS approach to cover the huge elution window of β-agonists, from the most polar which are usually eluted in the void volume when using reversed phase chromatography in conventional HPLC to the most apolar ones...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665393/comparative-experimental-theoretical-studies-on-the-egfr-dimerization-under-the-effect-of-egf-egf-analogues-binding-highlighting-the-importance-of-egf-egfr-interactions-at-site-iii-interface
#18
Masomeh Mehrabi, Hamid Mahdiuni, Hassan Rasouli, Kamran Mansouri, Mohsen Shahlaie, Reza Khodarahmi
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases play significant roles in cell proliferation and signaling. All the members of the EGFR/ErbB family are primary goals for cancer therapy, particularly for tumors of breast, cervix, ovaries, kidney, esophagus, prostate and non-small-cell lung carcinoma and head and neck tumors. However, the therapeutic ability of accessible anti-ErbB agents is limited. Therefore, recognizing EGF analogues or small organic molecules with high affinity for the extracellular domain of the EGFR is a critical target on cancer research...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665070/a-time-to-be-born-variation-in-the-hour-of-birth-in-a-rural-population-of-northern-argentina
#19
Carlye Chaney, Laura G Goetz, Claudia Valeggia
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at investigating the timing of birth across the day in a rural population of indigenous and nonindigenous women in the province of Formosa, Argentina in order to explore the variation in patterns in a non-Western setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study utilized birth record data transcribed from delivery room records at a rural hospital in the province of Formosa, northern Argentina. The sample included data for Criollo, Wichí, and Toba/Qom women (n = 2421)...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664913/cost-benefit-analysis-of-introducing-next-generation-sequencing-metagenomic-pathogen-testing-in-the-setting-of-pyrexia-of-unknown-origin
#20
Jia Hui Chai, Chun Kiat Lee, Hong Kai Lee, Nicholas Wong, Kahwee Teo, Chuen Seng Tan, Praveen Thokala, Julian Wei-Tze Tang, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Vernon Min Sen Oh, Tze Ping Loh, Joanne Yoong
Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) is defined as a temperature of >38.3°C that lasts for >3 weeks, where no cause can be found despite appropriate investigation. Existing protocols for the work-up of PUO can be extensive and costly, motivating the application of recent advances in molecular diagnostics to pathogen testing. There have been many reports describing various analytical methods and performance of metagenomic pathogen testing in clinical samples but the economics of it has been less well studied...
2018: PloS One
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