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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#1
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914285/human-parechovirus-and-enterovirus-initiate-distinct-cns-innate-immune-responses-pathogenic-and-diagnostic-implications
#2
Danielle Fortuna, Ana María Cárdenas, Erin H Graf, Larry A Harshyne, D Craig Hooper, Michael Prosniak, John Shields, Mark T Curtis
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) cause a range of human diseases including serious CNS infections. Little is known regarding the immune response to HPeV meningitis compared to EV meningitis or how the immune response to HPeV reflects its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the innate immune response to HPeV CNS infection in order to increase our understanding of HPeV pathogenesis and possibly help identify HPeV in the clinical setting...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914278/fdstools-a-software-package-for-analysis-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-data-with-the-ability-to-recognise-and-correct-str-stutter-and-other-pcr-or-sequencing-noise
#3
Jerry Hoogenboom, Kristiaan J van der Gaag, Rick H de Leeuw, Titia Sijen, Peter de Knijff, Jeroen F J Laros
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is on the advent of a broad scale application in forensic research and casework. The improved capabilities to analyse evidentiary traces representing unbalanced mixtures is often mentioned as one of the major advantages of this technique. However, most of the available software packages that analyse forensic short tandem repeat (STR) sequencing data are not well suited for high throughput analysis of such mixed traces. The largest challenge is the presence of stutter artefacts in STR amplifications, which are not readily discerned from minor contributions...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914190/culturally-competent-patient-provider-communication-in-the-management-of-cancer-an-integrative-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Ottilia Brown, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi, Dalena Rm van Rooyen, Colleen Aldous, Leonard Charles Marais
BACKGROUND: Managing cancer in a multicultural environment poses several challenges, which include the communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. Culture is an important consideration in clinical care as it contributes to shaping patients' health-related values, beliefs, and behaviours. This integrative literature review gathered evidence on how culturally competent patient-provider communication should be delivered to patients diagnosed with cancer. DESIGN: Whittemore and Knafl's approach to conducting an integrative literature review was used...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914099/discrepancies-between-multicriteria-decision-analysis-based-ranking-and-intuitive-ranking-for-pharmaceutical-benefit-risk-profiles-in-a-hypothetical-setting
#5
K Hoshikawa, S Ono
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been generally considered a promising decision-making methodology for the assessment of drug benefit-risk profiles. There have been many discussions in both public and private sectors on its feasibility and applicability, but it has not been employed in official decision-makings. For the purpose of examining to what extent MCDA would reflect the first-hand, intuitive preference of evaluators in practical pharmaceutical assessments, we conducted a questionnaire survey involving the participation of employees of pharmaceutical companies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913986/establishing-clinical-meaning-and-defining-important-differences-for-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis-%C3%A2-measures-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-using-standard-setting-with-patients-parents-and-providers
#6
Esi M Morgan, Constance A Mara, Bin Huang, Kimberly Barnett, Adam C Carle, Jennifer E Farrell, Karon F Cook
BACKGROUND: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures are used increasingly in clinical care. However, for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), scores lack a framework for interpretation of clinical severity, and minimally important differences (MID) have not been established, which are necessary to evaluate the importance of change. METHODS: We identified clinical severity thresholds for pediatric PROMIS measures of mobility, upper extremity function (UE), fatigue, and pain interference working with adolescents with JIA, parents of JIA patients, and clinicians, using a standard setting methodology modified from educational testing...
December 2, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#7
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913591/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-alpha-oscillations
#8
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: While working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks employed to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static", involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed: 1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant and 2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913373/mobile-phone-apps-to-improve-medication-adherence-a-systematic-stepwise-process-to-identify-high-quality-apps
#9
Karla Santo, Sarah S Richtering, John Chalmers, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Clara K Chow, Julie Redfern
BACKGROUND: There are a growing number of mobile phone apps available to support people in taking their medications and to improve medication adherence. However, little is known about how these apps differ in terms of features, quality, and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review the medication reminder apps available in the Australian iTunes store and Google Play to assess their features and their quality in order to identify high-quality apps...
December 2, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913345/facial-age-estimation-with-age-difference
#10
Zhenzhen Hu, Yonggang Wen, Jianfeng Wang, Meng Wang, Richang Hong, Shuicheng Yan
Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labeled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911467/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-charging-effect-in-scanning-electron-microscopy-for-metal-nanostructures-on-insulating-substrates
#11
R Flatabø, A Coste, M M Greve
Scanning electron microscopy is perhaps the most important method for investigating and characterizing nanostructures. A well-known challenge in scanning electron microscopy is the investigation of insulating materials. As insulating materials do not provide a path to ground they accumulate charge, evident as image drift and image distortions. In previous work, we have seen that sample charging in arrays of metal nanoparticles on glass substrates leads to a shrinkage effect, resulting in a measurement error in the nanoparticle dimension of up to 15% at 10 kV and a probe current of 80 ± 10 pA...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911083/nonlinear-growth-models-as-measurement-models-a-second-order-growth-curve-model-for-measuring-potential
#12
Daniel McNeish, Denis Dumas
Recent methodological work has highlighted the promise of nonlinear growth models for addressing substantive questions in the behavioral sciences. In this article, we outline a second-order nonlinear growth model in order to measure a critical notion in development and education: potential. Here, potential is conceptualized as having three components-ability, capacity, and availability-where ability is the amount of skill a student is estimated to have at a given timepoint, capacity is the maximum amount of ability a student is predicted to be able to develop asymptotically, and availability is the difference between capacity and ability at any particular timepoint...
December 2, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911078/laboratory-grown-subaerial-biofilms-on-granite-application-to-the-study-of-bioreceptivity
#13
Daniel Vázquez-Nion, Benita Silva, Federica Troiano, Beatriz Prieto
Simulated environmental colonisation of granite was induced under laboratory conditions in order to develop an experimental protocol for studying bioreceptivity. The experimental set-up proved suitable for producing subaerial biofilms by inoculating granite blocks with planktonic multi-species phototrophic cultures derived from natural biofilms. The ability of four different cultures to form biofilms was monitored over a three-month growth period via colour measurements, quantification of photosynthetic pigments and EPS, and CLSM observations...
December 2, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910823/optimized-mlaa-for-quantitative-non-tof-pet-mr-of-the-brain
#14
Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Ahmadreza Rezaei, Sune H Keller, Flemming L Andersen, Liselotte Højgaard, Adam E Hansen, Søren Holm, Johan Nuyts
For quantitative tracer distribution in positron emission tomography, attenuation correction is essential. In a hybrid PET/CT system the CT images serve as a basis for generation of the attenuation map, but in PET/MR, the MR images do not have a similarly simple relationship with the attenuation map. Hence attenuation correction in PET/MR systems is more challenging. Typically either of two MR sequences are used: the Dixon or the ultra-short time echo (UTE) techniques. However these sequences have some well-known limitations...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910723/powered-mobility-intervention-understanding-the-position-of-tool-use-learning-as-part-of-implementing-the-alp-tool
#15
Lisbeth Nilsson, Josephine Durkin
PURPOSE: To explore the knowledge necessary for adoption and implementation of the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use (ALP) tool in different practice settings for both adults and children. To consult with a diverse population of professionals working with adults and children, in different countries and various settings; who were learning about or using the ALP tool, as part of exploring and implementing research findings. METHOD: Classical grounded theory with a rigorous comparative analysis of data from informants together with reflections on our own rich experiences of powered mobility practice and comparisons with the literature...
December 2, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910670/alignment-and-absolute-wavelength-calibration-of-imaging-bragg-spectrometers
#16
G Bertschinger, O Marchuk, R Barnsley
In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910612/jet-diagnostic-enhancements-in-preparation-for-dt-operations
#17
J Figueiredo, A Murari, C Perez Von Thun, D Marocco, M Tardocchi, F Belli, M García Muñoz, A Silva, S Soare, T Craciunescu, M Santala, P Blanchard, I Balboa, N Hawkes
In order to complete the exploitation of the JET ITER-like Wall and to take full benefit from deuterium-tritium experiments on JET, a set of diagnostic system refurbishments or upgrades is in progress. These diagnostic enhancements focus mainly on neutron, gamma, fast ions, instabilities, and operations support. These efforts intend to provide better spatial, temporal, and energy resolution while increasing measurement coverage. Also previously non-existing capabilities, such as Doppler reflectometry is now available for scientific exploitation...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910559/multi-energy-x-ray-detector-calibration-for-t-and-impurity-density-n-measurements-of-mcf-plasmas
#18
J Maddox, N Pablant, P Efthimion, L Delgado-Aparicio, K W Hill, M Bitter, M L Reinke, M Rissi, T Donath, B Luethi, B Stratton
Soft x-ray detection with the new "multi-energy" PILATUS3 detector systems holds promise as a magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasma diagnostic for ITER and beyond. The measured x-ray brightness can be used to determine impurity concentrations, electron temperatures, ne(2)Zeff products, and to probe the electron energy distribution. However, in order to be effective, these detectors which are really large arrays of detectors with photon energy gating capabilities must be precisely calibrated for each pixel...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910554/a-libs-method-for-simultaneous-monitoring-of-the-impurities-and-the-hydrogenic-composition-present-in-the-wall-of-the-tj-ii-stellarator
#19
B López-Miranda, B Zurro, A Baciero, M Martínez
The study of plasma-wall interactions and impurity transport in the plasma fusion devices is critical for the development of future fusion reactors. An experiment to perform laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, using minor modifications of our existing laser blow-off impurity injection system, has been set up thus making both experiments compatible. The radiation produced by the laser pulse focused at the TJ-II wall evaporates a surface layer of deposited impurities and the subsequent radiation produced by the laser-produced plasma is collected by two separate lens and fiber combinations into two spectrometers...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910518/aerogel-cherenkov-detector-for-characterizing-the-intense-flash-x-ray-source-cygnus-spectrum
#20
Y Kim, H W Herrmann, A M McEvoy, C S Young, C Hamilton, D D Schwellenbach, R M Malone, M I Kaufman, A S Smith
An aerogel Cherenkov detector is proposed to measure the X-ray energy spectrum from the Cygnus-intense flash X-ray source operated at the Nevada National Security Site. An array of aerogels set at a variety of thresholds between 1 and 3 MeV will be adequate to map out the bremsstrahlung X-ray production of the Cygnus, where the maximum energy of the spectrum is normally around 2.5 MeV. In addition to the Cherenkov radiation from aerogels, one possible competing light-production mechanism is optical transition radiation (OTR), which may be significant in aerogels due to the large number of transitions from SiO2 clusters to vacuum voids...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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