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Monica Verdoia, Patrizia Pergolini, Lucia Barbieri, Roberta Rolla, Matteo Nardin, Federica Negro, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Recent trials have failed to demonstrate any clinical benefit from pre-treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions, (PCI), even in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. However, suboptimal platelet inhibition during (PCI) has been shown to enhance the risk of acute ischemic complications, such as stent thrombosis and periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI), thus raising the attention on the potential advantages of adjunctive glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitors to obviate to the delayed onset of action of oral antiplatelet drugs...
February 15, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Martin Müller, Ruth Seidenberg, Sabine K Schuh, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Clyde B Schechter, Alexander B Leichtle, Wolf E Hautz
OBJECTIVE: Patients presenting with suspected urinary tract infection are common in every day emergency practice. Urine flow cytometry has replaced microscopic urine evaluation in many emergency departments, but interpretation of the results remains challenging. The aim of this study was to develop and validate tools that predict urine culture growth out of urine flow cytometry parameter. METHODS: This retrospective study included all adult patients that presented in a large emergency department between January and July 2017 with a suspected urinary tract infection and had a urine flow cytometry as well as a urine culture obtained...
2018: PloS One
Samuel B St Clair, Joshua Hoines
Climate change is restructuring plant populations and can result in range shifts depending on responses at various life stages of plants. In 2013, a widespread and episodic flowering event provided an opportunity to characterize how Joshua tree's reproductive success and population structure vary in response to the climate variability across its range. We examined the reproductive success and stand structure of 10 Joshua tree populations distributed across the Mojave Desert. Joshua tree density varied by more than an order of magnitude across sites...
2018: PloS One
Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Berit Brurok, Øyvind Sandbakk
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in Paralympic sitting sports athletes represents their maximal ability to deliver energy aerobically in an upper-body mode, with values being influenced by sex, disability-related physiological limitations, sport-specific demands, training status and how they are tested. OBJECTIVES: To identify VO2peak values in Paralympic sitting sports, examine between-sports differences and within-sports variations in VO2peak and determine the influence of sex, age, body-mass, disability and test-mode on VO2peak...
2018: PloS One
Lise Bernard, Teuta Eljezi, Hélène Clauson, Céline Lambert, Yassine Bouattour, Philip Chennell, Bruno Pereira, Valérie Sautou
Infusion medical devices (MDs) used in hospitals are often made of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). These plasticizers may leach out into infused solutions during clinical practice, especially during risk-situations, e.g multiple infusions in Intensive Care Units and thus may enter into contact with the patients. The migrability of the plasticizers is dependent of several clinical parameters such as temperature, contact time, nature of the simulant, etc… However, no data is available about the influence of the flow rate at which drug solutions are administrated...
2018: PloS One
Yilin Meng, Cen Gao, David K Clawson, Shane Atwell, Marjanne Russell, Michal Vieth, Benoît Roux
Understanding protein conformational variability remains a challenge in drug discovery. The issue arises in protein kinases, whose multiple conformational states can affect the binding of small-molecule inhibitors. To overcome this challenge, we propose a comprehensive computational framework based on Markov State Models (MSMs). Our framework integrates the information from explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to accurately rank-order the accessible conformational variants of a target protein. We tested the methodology using Abl kinase with a reference and blind-test set...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
W James Morgan, Devin A Matthews, Magnus Ringholm, Jay Agarwal, Justin Z Gong, Kenneth Ruud, Wesley D Allen, John F Stanton, Henry F Schaefer
Geometric energy derivatives which rely on core-corrected focal-point energies extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit of coupled cluster theory with iterative and noniterative quadruple excitations, CCSDTQ and CCSDT(Q), are used as elements of molecular gradients and, in the case of CCSDT(Q), expansion coefficients of an anharmonic force field. These gradients are used to determine the CCSDTQ/CBS and CCSDT(Q)/CBS equilibrium structure of the S0 ground state of H2 CO where excellent agreement is observed with previous work and experimentally derived results...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
[Introduction: Low health literacy (HL) is an obstacle to therapeutic patient education (TPE), especially for people in a vulnerable situation, who are also at greater risk of chronic illnesses and their complications. It therefore seems essential to rethink TPE programmes in order to ensure greater equity based on analysis of the characteristics of HL interventions and their possible relationships with TPE.Methods: A scoping review of the literature was performed from November 2014 to January 2016 using the following search engines: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, OpenGrey, SUDOC, thè and BDSP and the following search terms: "health literacy", "Littératie en santé", "literacy", "Littératie", "numeracy", "numératie", "compétence en santé" combined with the keywords: "programme", "program", "intervention", "méthode", "method", "technique", "outil", "tool".Results: After selecting forty out of 206 studies, interventions were classified into two main types of specific interventions to promote comprehension of resources intended for patients and generally complex interventions designed to support and improve HL skills.Discussion: While the level of health literacy has an impact on TPE programme accessibility, TPE programmes need to be made more accessible and TPE must constitute an opportunity to address health literacy needs via its own specific modalities. Creating partnerships between social/educational and health settings might be an effective strategy to strengthen the interrelationships between HL and TPE, as might training that prepares caregivers-educators to improve patient HL.Conclusion].
Aurore Margat, Rémi Gagnayre, Pierre Lombrail, Vincent de Andrade, Sylvie Azogui-Levy
INTRODUCTION: Low health literacy (HL) is an obstacle to therapeutic patient education (TPE), especially for people in a vulnerable situation, who are also at greater risk of chronic illnesses and their complications. It therefore seems essential to rethink TPE programmes in order to ensure greater equity based on analysis of the characteristics of HL interventions and their possible relationships with TPE. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was performed from November 2014 to January 2016 using the following search engines: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, OpenGrey, SUDOC, thèses...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Hao-Ting Huang, Guan-You Ho, Zung-Hang Wei
This study designs a microscaled thermoelectric component featuring a nanogap of varying size (133-900 nm) between the tips of the component. Electricity and heat are transmitted between the gap of the tips through the thermionic emission of electrons. Because the gaps exhibit a discontinuous structure, the phonon's contribution to thermal conductivity can be virtually neglected, thereby enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of the designed thermoelectric component. The experimental results reveal that a narrow tip gap generates stronger thermoelectric effects, with Seebeck voltage and Seebeck coefficient being respectively, one and two orders of magnitude greater than those of the thermoelectric effects of nanowires...
February 23, 2018: Small
Tess Bright, Lambert Felix, Hannah Kuper, Sarah Polack
BACKGROUND: The populations of many low and middle-income countries (LMIC) are young. Despite progress made towards achieving Universal Health Coverage and remarkable health gains, evidence suggests that many children in LMIC are still not accessing needed health care services. Delayed or lack of access to health services can lead to a worsening of health, and can in turn negatively impact a child's ability to attend school, and future employment opportunities. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing access to health services for children over five years in LMIC settings...
February 23, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
M Petrelli, K El Omari, L Spina, Y Le Guer, G La Spina, D Perugini
Water plays a key role in magma genesis, differentiation, ascent and, finally, eruption. Despite the recognized crucial function of water, there are still several issues that continue to blur our view about its role in magmatic systems. What are the timescales of H2 O accumulation in crystallizing magmas? What are the ascent rates of water-rich residual melts leading to explosive eruptions? Here, we track the timescale of water accumulation in a residual melt resulting from crystallization of a hydrous CO2 -bearing magmatic mass stored at mid- to deep-crustal levels in a subduction-related geodynamic setting...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
David A Kroodsma, Juan Mayorga, Timothy Hochberg, Nathan A Miller, Kristina Boerder, Francesco Ferretti, Alex Wilson, Bjorn Bergman, Timothy D White, Barbara A Block, Paul Woods, Brian Sullivan, Christopher Costello, Boris Worm
Although fishing is one of the most widespread activities by which humans harvest natural resources, its global footprint is poorly understood and has never been directly quantified. We processed 22 billion automatic identification system messages and tracked >70,000 industrial fishing vessels from 2012 to 2016, creating a global dynamic footprint of fishing effort with spatial and temporal resolution two to three orders of magnitude higher than for previous data sets. Our data show that industrial fishing occurs in >55% of ocean area and has a spatial extent more than four times that of agriculture...
February 23, 2018: Science
L Max Almond, Alessandro Gronchi, Dirk Strauss, Mariam Jafri, Samuel Ford, Anant Desai
Extended surgery remains the mainstay of treatment in retroperitoneal sarcoma, although conflicting data exist on the benefit of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies, particularly with regard to tumour grade and histological type. Experience of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in extremity soft tissue sarcoma can inform treatment strategies, however these data cannot be universally extrapolated to the retroperitoneum where disease biology and anatomical considerations are different. The present review sets a historical context before discussing recent evidence and on-going multi-centre trials in retroperitoneal sarcoma...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Anne-Marie Mendyk, Alain Duhamel, Yannick Bejot, Didier Leys, Laurent Derex, Olivier Dereeper, Olivier Detante, Pierre-Yves Garcia, Olivier Godefroy, Francisco Macian Montoro, Jean-Philippe Neau, Sébastien Richard, Thierry Rosolacci, Igor Sibon, Denis Sablot, Serge Timsit, Mathieu Zuber, Charlotte Cordonnier, Régis Bordet
BACKGROUND: Setting up a follow-up secondary prevention program after stroke is difficult due to motor and cognitive impairment, but necessary to prevent recurrence and improve patients' quality of life. To involve a referent nurse and a caregiver from the patient's social circle in nurse-led multimodal and long-term management of risk factors after stroke could be an advantage due to their easier access to the patient and family. The aim of this study is to compare the benefit of optimized follow up by nursing personnel from the vascular neurology department including therapeutic follow up, and an interventional program directed to the patient and a caregiving member of their social circle, as compared with typical follow up in order to develop a specific follow-up program of secondary prevention of stroke...
February 22, 2018: Trials
Kristoffer Halvorsrud, Darren Flynn, Gary A Ford, Peter McMeekin, Ajay Bhalla, Joyce Balami, Dawn Craig, Phil White
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial thrombectomy is the gold standard treatment for large artery occlusive stroke. However, the evidence of its benefits is almost entirely based on trials delivered by experienced neurointerventionists working in established teams in neuroscience centres. Those responsible for the design and prospective reconfiguration of services need access to a comprehensive and complementary array of information on which to base their decisions. This will help to ensure the demonstrated effects from trials may be realised in practice and account for regional/local variations in resources and skill-sets...
February 22, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Joseph Daniels, Tim Lane, Kabelo Maleke, Wini Mogos, Ryan Assaf, Helen Struthers, James McIntyre, Tom Coates
We explored to whom rural men who have sex with men (MSM) disclose their sexual identity and HIV status in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Participants were recruited using a modified snowball sampling method in order to complete a questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. There were 47 participants of whom 22 self-reported as HIV-positive. Most participants disclosed their sexuality and HIV status to immediate family members and gay-identified friends. We found that the longer someone had identified as MSM, the more likely they were to be HIV-positive and not go to clinic...
February 23, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Lachlan P Lindoy, Gavin S Huang, Meredith J T Jordan
Quantum thermodynamic parameters can be determined using path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations. These simulations, however, become computationally demanding as the quantum nature of the system increases, although their efficiency can be improved by using higher order approximations to the thermal density matrix, specifically the action. Here we compare the standard, primitive approximation to the action (PA) and three higher order approximations, the Takahashi-Imada action (TIA), the Suzuki-Chin action (SCA) and the Chin action (CA)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Bruno Nunes Cabral Tenorio, Marco Antonio Chaer Nascimento, Alexandre Braga Rocha
The time-dependent version of the density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to calculate the total photoabsorption cross section of a number of molecules, namely, benzene, pyridine, furan, pyrrole, thiophene, phenol, naphthalene, and anthracene. The discrete electronic pseudo-spectra, obtained in a L2 basis set calculation were used in an analytic continuation procedure to obtain the photoabsorption cross sections. The ammonia molecule was chosen as a model system to compare the results obtained with TDDFT to those obtained with the linear response coupled cluster approach in order to make a link with our previous work and establish benchmarks...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Tom Halverson, Dmitri Iouchtchenko, Pierre-Nicholas Roy
We propose a variational approach for the calculation of the quantum entanglement entropy of assemblies of rotating dipolar molecules. A basis truncation scheme based on the total angular momentum quantum number is proposed. The method is tested on hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecules confined in C60 fullerene cages themselves trapped in a nanotube to form a carbon peapod. The rotational degrees of freedom of the HF molecules and dipolar interactions between neighboring molecules are considered in our model Hamiltonian...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Shavkat Mamatkulov, Nadine Schwierz
Metal cations are essential in many vital processes. In order to capture the role of different cations in all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of biological processes, an accurate parametrization is crucial. Here, we develop force field parameters for the metal cations Li+ , Na+ , K+ , Cs+ , Mg2+ , Ca2+ , Sr2+ , and Ba2+ in combination with the TIP3P water model that is frequently used in biomolecular simulations. In progressing toward improved force fields, the approach presented here is an extension of previous efforts and allows us to simultaneously reproduce thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aqueous solutions...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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