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Body Focused Repetitive Behavior

Katherina A Lebedeva, Hector J Caruncho, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Because stress is a significant risk factor for depression, many animal models of depression employ chronic stress as a precipitating event. However, almost without exception, stress-induced animal models of depression focus on a single bout of depression and therefore, they do not provide any means to understand the typical cycling of mood observed in most patients with depression. Here we assessed whether repeated cycles of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone would sensitize depression-like behavior...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Kristel T E Kleijer, Denise van Nieuwenhuize, Henk A Spierenburg, Sara Gregorio-Jordan, Martien J H Kas, J Peter H Burbach
Contactin-5 (Cntn5) is an immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule that is exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. In view of its association with neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study focused on Cntn5-positive areas in the forebrain and aimed to explore the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of the Cntn5 null mutant (Cntn5(-/-)) mouse in relation to these areas and ASD symptomatology. A newly generated antibody enabled us to elaborately describe the spatial expression pattern of Cntn5 in P7 wild type (Cntn5(+/+)) mice...
March 27, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Dimitris Bolis, Leonhard Schilbach
Autism is a developmental condition, characterized by difficulties of social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although several important conceptions have shed light on specific facets, there is still no consensus about a universal yet specific theory in terms of its underlying mechanisms. While some theories have exclusively focused on sensory aspects, others have emphasized social difficulties. However, sensory and social processes in autism might be interconnected to a higher degree than what has been traditionally thought...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Jorge Villalba
Context • Excoriation (skin picking) disorder is characterized by the need or urge to pick, scratch, pinch, touch, rub, scrub, squeeze, bite, or dig the skin, and it can be a perplexing condition for the inexperienced physician. Treatments include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and alternative therapies. Alternative therapies for excoriation disorder and other body-focused repetitive behaviors include yoga, aerobic exercise, acupuncture, biofeedback, hypnosis, and inositol and N-acetylcysteine, among others...
January 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
Tian Hao Zhu, Mio Nakamura, Benjamin Farahnik, Michael Abrouk, Jason Reichenberg, Tina Bhutani, John Koo
Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair, or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation, and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Mark Stoutenberg, Ashley Falcon, Kris Arheart, Selina Stasi, Francia Portacio, Bryan Stepanenko, Mary L Lan, Catarina Castruccio-Prince, Joshua Nackenson
Background Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle modification program could be effectively conducted using a large group format in a community-based setting. Method One hundred twenty-one participants enrolled in a 16-week, community-based lifestyle modification program and separated in small teams of 13 to 17 individuals...
September 16, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Jon E Grant, Eric W Leppink, Jerry Tsai, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Erin E Curley, Brian L Odlaug, Nancy J Keuthen
BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM) and skin-picking disorder (SPD) have been characterized as body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBs). Because BFRBs frequently co-occur, we sought to discover the similarities and differences for individuals having both TTM and SPD as opposed to 1 of these disorders. METHODS: Participants with primary TTM (N = 421) were evaluated regarding the comorbidity of SPD, and participants with primary SPD (N = 124) were evaluated regarding the comorbidity of TTM...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Jana Zímová, Pavlína Zímová
Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Archana Singal, Deepashree Daulatabad
Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Simon Morand-Beaulieu, Kieron P O'Connor, Maxime Richard, Geneviève Sauvé, Julie B Leclerc, Pierre J Blanchet, Marc E Lavoie
CONTEXT: Tic disorders (TD) are characterized by the presence of non-voluntary contractions of functionally related groups of skeletal muscles in one or multiple body parts. Patients with body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB) present frequent and repetitive behaviors, such as nail biting or hair pulling. TD and BFRB can be treated with a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that regulates the excessive amount of sensorimotor activation and muscular tension. Our CBT, which is called the cognitive-psychophysiological (CoPs) model, targets motor execution and inhibition, and it was reported to modify brain activity in TD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Laura T Jiménez-Barrón, Jason A O'Rawe, Yiyang Wu, Margaret Yoon, Han Fang, Ivan Iossifov, Gholson J Lyon
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that affect social interaction and communication and are characterized by repetitive behaviors. There is now a large body of evidence that suggests a complex role of genetics in ASDs, in which many different loci are involved. Although many current population-scale genomic studies have been demonstrably fruitful, these studies generally focus on analyzing a limited part of the genome or use a limited set of bioinformatics tools. These limitations preclude the analysis of genome-wide perturbations that may contribute to the development and severity of ASD-related phenotypes...
October 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
David C Houghton, Joyce Maas, Michael P Twohig, Stephen M Saunders, Scott N Compton, Angela M Neal-Barnett, Martin E Franklin, Douglas W Woods
Hair pulling disorder (HPD; trichotillomania) is thought to be associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity and functional impairment. However, few methodologically rigorous studies of HPD have been conducted, rendering such conclusions tenuous. The following study examined comorbidity and psychosocial functioning in a well-characterized sample of adults with HPD (N=85) who met DSM-IV criteria, had at least moderate hair pulling severity, and participated in a clinical trial. Results revealed that 38...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Justin C Strickland, Jean M Abel, Ryan T Lacy, Joshua S Beckmann, Maryam A Witte, Wendy J Lynch, Mark A Smith
BACKGROUND: Exercise is associated with positive outcomes in drug abusing populations and reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. To date, most research has focused on aerobic exercise, and other types of exercise have not been examined. This study examined the effects of resistance exercise (strength training) on cocaine self-administration and BDNF expression, a marker of neuronal activation regulated by aerobic exercise. METHODS: Female rats were assigned to either exercising or sedentary conditions...
June 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sarah A Redden, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: The significance of family history in body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBs) (i.e. trichotillomania and skin picking) has received scant research attention. We sought to understand the clinical and cognitive impact of having a first-degree relative with a BFRB or a substance use disorder (SUD). METHODS: 265 participants with BFRBs undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluations. Those with a first-degree relative with a BFRB or an SUD were compared to those without on a number of clinical and cognitive measures...
April 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Shannon M Bennett, John T Walkup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Jagoda Jóźwik-Pruska
Healthy body is characterized by the presence of a dynamic and balanced equilibrium between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity. In oxidative stress this balance is switched to reactions of oxidation leading to increased production of ROS, exceeding the capacity of physiological antioxidant systems. Oxidative stress is known to be linked to many disturbances, disorders and diseases. One of these is the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by abnormalities in social communication and interaction, as well as by occurrence of repetitive, restricted patterns of behavior or activities...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Shinichi Furuya, Takashi Hanakawa
Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) impairs not only motor dexterity, but also somatosensory perception involved in well-trained behavioral tasks. Occupations that carry a risk of developing FTSD include musician, writer, painter, surgeon, and golfer, which are characterized by repetitive and precise motor actions over a prolonged period. Behavioral studies have uncovered various undesirable effects of FTSD on sensorimotor functions, such as a loss of independent movement control, unintended muscular co-activation, awkward limb posture, and impairment of fine discrimination of tactile and proprioceptive sensations...
March 2016: Neuroscience Research
Eric W Leppink, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Research on trichotillomania (TTM) and excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) has suggested that impulsivity may be an important cognitive underpinning of the behavior, but many studies have produced mixed results. This analysis assessed impulsivity in TTM and SPD using three measures: the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire (EIQ), and the Stop-Signal Task (SST). METHODS: Two hundred and eighty three subjects with TTM or SPD completed measurement of impulsivity as a part of participation in several research studies...
2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Jon E Grant, Maria C Mancebo, Marc E Mooney, Jane L Eisen, Steven A Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: The course of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) (eg, trichotillomania, skin picking, and nail biting) has received scant research attention. We sought to understand the longitudinal course of BFRBs over an 8-year period and whether the co-occurrence of a BFRB with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects the course of OCD. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-five participants with OCD completed annual interviews using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation to estimate BFRB and OCD symptom severity during each week of follow-up...
August 2015: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Sarah Raza, Brett T Himmler, Stephanie M Himmler, Allonna Harker, Bryan Kolb, Sergio M Pellis, Robbin Gibb
Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social behavior, communication, and aberrant repetitive behaviors. A major focus of animal models of autism has been to mimic the social deficits of the disorder. The present study assessed whether rats exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) show deficits in social play as juveniles that are consistent with the social deficits observed in autism. Dams were exposed to an acute dose of VPA on gestational day 12.5. Later, the playful interactions and associated ultrasonic vocalizations of the juveniles were examined...
December 2015: Behavioural Pharmacology
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