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Madhulika A Gupta, Branka Vujcic, Aditya K Gupta
Dissociation and conversion (defined as the somatic component of dissociation) can play an important mediating role in the exacerbation of the stress-reactive dermatoses (eg, psoriasis, idiopathic urticaria, atopic dermatitis), dermatoses that are exacerbated by excessive scratching (eg, lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis) and koebnerization, and the self-induced dermatoses (dermatitis artefacta, acne excoriée, skin picking disorder, trichotillomania, onychotillomania/onychophagia). Dissociative symptoms often coexist with obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the more severe cases of the self-induced dermatoses...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
Austin W Blum, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
A notable number of people struggle to control the desire to bite their nails, resulting in impairment and distress. Understanding this behavior and the inability to control it has received little research attention. One possible mechanism to understand nail biting is through the use of neurocognitive assessments. Neurocognitive assessments of pathological nail biting, however, are lacking. This analysis assesses the clinical presentation and neurocognitive profile of adults with nail biting relative to participants without nail biting...
February 1, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
O Marouane, M Ghorbel, M Nahdi, A Necibi, N Douki
Onychophagia is defined as a chronic habit of biting nails, commonly observed in both children and young adults. This oral habit may lead to various medical and dental problems. To date, onychophagia is considered an unsolved problem in medicine and dentistry. In this paper we describe an exclusive nonpunitive fixed appliance utilizing a stainless steel twisted round wire bonded from canine to canine, in the mandibular arch, as a treatment of onychophagia. It was used successfully in young adult patients and maintained for a month...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
Kevin Gipson, Ryan Avery, Heena Shah, Derek Pepiak, Rodolfo E Bégué, John Malone, Luke A Wall
Löffler syndrome, a fulminant eosinophilic pneumonitis associated with the larval migratory phase of human parasites, is rarely reported in the United States. A previously healthy 8-year-old male was hospitalized with tachypnea, cough, hypoxemia, and fever of one week's duration. History revealed exposure to pigs on his family's farm in southernmost Louisiana, where the patient was responsible for cleaning the farm's pigpens. His fingernails were soiled and extremely short, with the edge of the nail bed exposed secondary to onychophagia...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Navya Bezawada, Li-Everington Raoul G T, Graeme P Currie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Pierre Halteh, Richard K Scher, Shari R Lipner
Onychophagia, defined as habitual nail biting, is a common disorder affecting 20-30% of the population and all age groups. It may lead to significant psychosocial problems, have a negative impact on quality of life, and cause complications involving both the nail unit and the oral cavity. The objective of this paper is to review the prevalence, etiology, history, physical examination, complications and management of nail biting. Since onychophagia is a challenging disorder to treat, a multi-disciplinary approach should be taken involving dermatologists, internists, pediatricians, psychiatrists and dentists...
March 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Archana Singal, Deepashree Daulatabad
Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Louise Smith, Derek K Tracy, Giovanni Giaroli
Licensed pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorders include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. However, a large proportion of patients show minimal or no therapeutic response to these treatments. The glutamatergic system has been implicated in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, and it has been postulated that n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) could have a therapeutic effect on these conditions through its actions on the glutamatergic system and the reduction of oxidative stress...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa, María Rosa Paneque Gamboa, Yamilka Almeida Muñiz, Leticia María Quesada Oliva, Damiana Escalona Oliva, Sonia Torres Naranjo
INTRODUCTION: Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development...
2014: Medwave
R Ellison, S Rahman, D Barker, C Larmour
This paper describes a case of subgingival foreign body embedment in the form of a finger nail fragment, as a consequence of onychophagia (fingernail biting). The result was periodontal infection that was concurrent with apical pathology on an adjacent non-vital tooth. This finding complicated the diagnosis and management of this case. Although foreign body impactions are relatively rare, they should be considered in a differential diagnosis, especially when the clinician is presented with an unusual clinical picture...
May 2014: British Dental Journal
Mariana C Morales-Chávez, Yusthin M Rueda-Delgado, David A Peña-Orozco
INTRODUCTION: Oral diseases in psychiatric patients are usually a result of bad oral hygiene and psychopharmaceutical side-effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect the most prevalent oral lesions in patients hospitalized in a psychiatric institution in Caracas, Venezuela with the confirmed diagnosis of psychiatric illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A transversal study consisted of 65 hospitalized patients with psychiatric disorders out of whom 50 were males and 15 females...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Przemysław Pacan, Adam Reich, Magdalena Grzesiak, Jacek C Szepietowski
Onychophagia is defined as a chronic nail biting behaviour affecting about 20-30% of the general population. However, nail biting seems to be an ignored problem in a daily clinical practice. We have analysed the influence of onychophagia on quality of life (QoL) and stigmatisation level among 339 medical students with and without nail biting. Those with onychophagia demonstrated significantly higher QoL impairment compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Subjects who had been unable to stop nail biting behaviour in the past (p < 0...
November 2014: Acta Dermato-venereologica
F Micheli, M Gatto, O Gershanik, A Steinschnaider, M Fernandez Pardal, M Massaro
A series of 75 cases of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) from Argentina, whose ages ranged from 6 to 55 with a mean of 20.02, were evaluated to compare findings with those reported for other countries. Mean age at onset was 7.44 years and mean overall duration of symptoms was 12.58 years; 6.7% of cases were mild, 49% moderate and 44.3% severe. Most frequent presenting motor tics were excessive blinking in 41 followed by head jerking in 16 and eye winking in six, while phonic tics included coprolalia in 28...
1995: Behavioural Neurology
Giulio Cesar Gequelim, Cynthia Yone Kubota, Sarah Sanches, Daniela Dranka, Marcelo Murilo Mejia, Fernando Mitsuo Sumiya, Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt
Brittle Nails Syndrome is characterized by fragility of the nail plate, affecting 27% of women. We evaluated dermatology patients in a cross-sectional study about perception of nail fragility. One hundred and thirty eight women were included, with median age of 36.5 years. Nail examination showed changes in 57% and 49% reported nail fragility. The first three fingernails were the most affected. Onychoschizia was related to onychophagia (OR = 3.29), housework (OR = 2.95) and water contact (OR = 2.44). Onychorrhexis had the strongest association with nail fragility perception (OR = 17...
November 2013: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Sushma Reddy, Karpagaselvi Sanjai, Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, Lokesh Papaiah, Mb Jeevan
CONTEXT: Onychophagia or habitual nail-biting is widespread among children and adolescents, between 10 and 18 years. Prevalence estimates range from 30% during childhood to 45% in adolescence. Nail-biting habit can result in autoinoculation of pathogens and transmission of infection between body parts. AIMS: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the differences in prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli and Enterobacter spp) in saliva samples from subjects with and without chronic nail-biting habit...
May 2013: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Celia Linares-Vieyra, Julieta Del Carmen Meza-Sánchez, Martha Beatriz González-Guevara, José Francisco Murrieta-Pruneda, Sandra Jessica Salgado-Rodríguez, Rosalba Morales-Jaimes
BACKGROUND: there are few systematic studies reporting the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in children. The reported prevalence is ranging from 4.1 % to 52.6 %, probably due to differences in methodology and population. The aim was to identify the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in children population. METHODS: a cross, descriptive, retrospective study in children who attended the dental clinic San Lorenzo Atemoaya was done (January 2006-July 2009); the data was obtained from medical records...
May 2013: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Przemysław Pacan, Magdalena Grzesiak, Adam Reich, Monika Kantorska-Janiec, Jacek C Szepietowski
Onychophagia is defined as chronic nail biting behaviour, which usually starts during childhood. Onychotillomania results from recurrent picking and manicuring of the fingernails and/or toenails, leading to visual shortening and/or estraction of nails. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of onychophagia and onychotillomania in young adults, and the comorbidity of these conditions with anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), as well as to determine factors related to these behaviours...
January 2014: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Gustavo Nino, Ravi Singareddy
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to important neurobehavioral consequences including cognitive deficits, hyperactivity/inattention, daytime sleepiness, and mood disturbances. Interestingly, the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of impulse-control disorders such as nail biting (onychophagia) is currently unknown. We present a case of a man with severe onychophagia and biting-induced finger mutilation that was completely resolved after diagnosis and treatment of severe OSA. Accordingly, this report represents an important clinical observation that suggests a connection between sleep physiology and the neurobiological circuits implicated in the regulation of impulse-control behaviors...
April 15, 2013: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Matthew L Iorio, John R Barbour
Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare sensory neuropathy that manifests with multiple and recurrent injuries secondary to a lack of negative pain stimuli. When present with compulsive onychophagia, prompt recognition and behavioral management to prevent chronic digital infection or amputation is imperative. We present the case of two 7 year-old monozygotic twins that presented with congenital insensitivity to pain and compulsive onychophagia without directed parental counseling or behavioral modification strategies...
July 2014: Journal of Child Neurology
Avesh Sachan, T P Chaturvedi
Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity...
September 2012: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
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