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Bowel cancer screening

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217933/cytology-of-the-neovagina-in-transgender-women-and-individuals-with-congenital-or-acquired-absence-of-a-natural-vagina
#1
A Grosse, C Grosse, D Lenggenhager, B Bode, U Camenisch, P Bode
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to describe the cytological findings of bowel and (penile) skin-lined neovaginas in patients with gender dysphoria (GD) and individuals with a congenital or acquired absence of a natural vagina. The secondary objective was to correlate the cytological findings with clinical characteristics such as oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT). METHODS: A retrospective review of an institutional pathology archive over a 15-year-period was performed to identify cytological samples of neovaginal vaults...
February 20, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214970/optimal-bowel-cleansing-for-colonoscopy-in-the-elderly-patient
#2
Samuel B Ho, Rita Hovsepians, Samir Gupta
Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and screening tool for colorectal cancer detection and prevention, and adequate bowel preparation is critical for successful colonoscopy. Complications related to colonoscopy, either directly or indirectly related to the procedure, are increased in elderly patients, and the risks and benefits of colonoscopy procedures need to be carefully considered in these patients. Recent studies have shown that 4 L polyethylene glycol with a split preparation is safe and effective for elderly patients, and is the preferred preparation for patients with medical comorbidities...
February 18, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192146/autoimmune-and-inflammatory-manifestations-occur-frequently-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#3
Alain Fischer, Johan Provot, Jean-Philippe Jais, Alexandre Alcais, Nizar Mahlaoui
BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited diseases associated with a considerably increase in susceptibility to infections. It is known that PIDs can also predispose to cancer and immune diseases including allergy, autoimmunity and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining the incidence of autoimmunity and inflammation in PID patients. METHODS: We have retrospectively screen 2183 consecutive cases of PID in the French CEREDIH registry for the occurrence of autoimmunity and inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172838/p693-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-who-are-on-immunosuppressive-therapy-perform-regular-gynecologic-screening-for-uterine-cervical-cancer
#4
J M Vázquez-Morόn, A Cabello Fernández, H Pallarés-Manrique, M Ramos-Lora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160269/infections-in-cancer-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Kenneth V I Rolston
Solid tumors are much more common than hematologic malignancies. Although severe and prolonged neutropenia is uncommon, several factors increase the risk of infection in patients with solid tumors, and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is not uncommon. These include obstruction (most often caused by progression of the tumor), disruption of natural anatomic barriers such as the skin and mucosal surfaces, and treatment-related factors such as chemotherapy, radiation, diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures, and the increasing use of medical devices such as various catheters, stents, and prostheses...
February 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153937/beliefs-and-attitudes-to-bowel-cancer-screening-in-patients-with-ckd-a-semistructured-interview-study
#6
Laura J James, Germaine Wong, Jonathan C Craig, Angela Ju, Narelle Williams, Wai H Lim, Nicholas Cross, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bowel cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in people with CKD. Shared decision making regarding cancer screening is particularly complex in CKD and requires an understanding of patients' values and priorities, which remain largely unknown. Our study aimed to describe the beliefs and attitudes to bowel cancer screening in patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Face to face, semistructured interviews were conducted from April of 2014 to December of 2015 with 38 participants ages 39-78 years old with CKD stages 3-5, on dialysis, or transplant recipients from four renal units in Australia and New Zealand...
February 2, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138858/strategies-to-increase-adenoma-detection-rates
#7
REVIEW
Eelco C Brand, Michael B Wallace
The adenoma detection rate (ADR), i.e., the proportion of average risk patients with at least one adenoma detected during screening colonoscopy, is inversely associated with the development of interval colorectal cancer. Increasing the ADR is therefore an important proxy for increase in quality and efficacy of (screening) colonoscopy. Several potentially modifiable factors, such as, procedural and technological factors, and quality improvement programs, and their effect on the ADR will be reviewed. Procedural factors, such as, bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and position changes of the patient are associated with the ADR...
January 30, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125854/written-instructions-to-patients-to-confirm-pathology-results-is-this-effective-in-the-transmission-of-results
#8
Ashwin Patwardhan, Simon Wilkins, Margaret Staples, Paul J McMurrick
BACKGROUND: Bowel cancer is the second most common internal malignancy in Australia. Bowel cancer is suited to community screening methods such as faecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy. Typical reporting of histopathology results after colonoscopy takes 3-5 days. Patients were given written instructions to call the clinician within 3-5 days to discuss the histopathology results. The objective of the study was to perform an audit whether patients call the clinician to discuss their histopathology results after undergoing a colonoscopy, gastroscopy or both...
January 26, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111859/cancer-control-a-global-perspective
#9
I Olver
Disparities in cancer control exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many countries do not have cancer registries to record incidence, mortality and prevalence and are reliant on Globocan estimates of their cancer burden. Poorer cancer control within and between countries occurs in those living remotely from urban centres, those in a low socioeconomic group and some ethnic groups who have lifestyle and belief systems which impact on cancer control. High-income countries generally have population screening programmes for cervix, breast and bowel cancer...
January 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105351/experience-in-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-duodenal-tumors
#10
Zheng Wang, Zihai Ding, Shijie Huang, Shizhen Zhong
Small bowel tumors are rare tumors. Duodenal tumors occur more commonly compared with other small intestinal tumors. To summarize the clinicopathological features of duodenal tumors, in the present study 44 cases of duodenal tumors were collected, and the comparative clinicopathological characteristics between tumors of the ampulla and non-ampulla, the choice of treatment, and differences in the prognosis, were analyzed. The pathological type identified was predominantly adenocarcinoma; periampullary duodenal tumors were almost classifiable as adenocarcinoma in terms of their type...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077799/kras-and-tp53-mutations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#11
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Binrui Chen, Ning Dai
Although KRAS and TP53 mutations are common in both inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (S-CRC), molecular events leading to carcinogenesis may be different. Previous studies comparing the frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutations in IBD-CRC and S-CRC were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations among patients with IBD-CRC, S-CRC, and IBD without dysplasia. A total of 19 publications (482 patients with IBD-CRC, 4,222 with S-CRC, 281 with IBD without dysplasia) met the study inclusion criteria...
January 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075196/typhlitis-neutropenic-enterocolitis-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia-a-review
#12
Rodrigo Portugal, Marcio Nucci
Typhlitis is an abdominal complication of cancer chemotherapy, affecting mostly patients receiving intensive chemotherapeutic regimens with high potential to induce mucosal damage, such as patients with acute leukemia. Despite being relatively frequent, there are no randomized trials or high-quality cohort studies addressing important aspects of the diagnosis and management of the disease. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the gaps in the literature, acknowledging that the evidences for recommendations regarding the management of typhlitis are mostly expert opinion...
February 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071656/acg-clinical-guideline-preventive-care-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Francis A Farraye, Gil Y Melmed, Gary R Lichtenstein, Sunanda V Kane
Recent data suggest that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not receive preventive services at the same rate as general medical patients. Patients with IBD often consider their gastroenterologist to be the primary provider of care. To improve the care delivered to IBD patients, health maintenance issues need to be co-managed by both the gastroenterologist and primary care team. Gastroenterologists need to explicitly inform the primary care provider of the unique needs of the IBD patient, especially those on immunomodulators and biologics or being considered for such therapy...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070476/evaluating-screening-colonoscopy-quality-in-an-uninsured-urban-population-following-patient-navigation
#14
Keith Naylor, Cassandra Fritz, Blase Polite, Karen Kim
Patient navigation (PN) increases screening colonoscopy completion in minority and uninsured populations. However, colonoscopy quality is under-reported in the setting of PN and quality indicators have often failed to meet benchmark standards. This study investigated screening colonoscopy quality indicators after year-one of a PN initiative targeting the medically uninsured. This was a retrospective analysis of 296 outpatient screening colonoscopies. Patients were 45 to 75 years of age with no history of bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or colorectal surgery...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#15
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042992/are-rapidly-growing-cancers-more-lethal
#16
Hans-Olov Adami, Peter Csermely, Daniel V Veres, Louise Emilsson, Magnus Løberg, Michael Bretthauer, Mette Kalager
The view, that rapidly growing tumours are more likely than slow-growing tumours to metastasize and become lethal, has remained almost axiomatic for decades. Unaware of any solid evidence supporting this view, we undertook an exhaustive system-level analysis of intra- and intercellular signalling networks. This analysis indicated that rapid growth and metastasis are often different outcomes of complex integrated molecular events. Evidence from humans can be derived chiefly from screening interventions because interval cancers that surface clinically shortly after a negative screening test are, on average, more rapidly growing than cancers not detected by screening...
February 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028930/an-update-on-cancer-risk-and-surveillance-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer L Horsley-Silva, Eduardo A Rodriguez, Diana L Franco, Keith D Lindor
Malignancy represents substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This subset of patients has been proven to be at increased risk for developing cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma and colorectal cancer in those with overlapping inflammatory bowel disease. Herein, we review the prevalence of these malignancies and recommend screening tools and current knowledge to reduce the disease burden in this population. Cholangiocarcinoma is the most dominant malignancy affecting PSC patients, with a lifetime risk ranging from 5% to 20%...
December 27, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028368/nodular-lymphoid-hyperplasia-a-marker-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Anna Chiara Piscaglia, Lucrezia Laterza, Valentina Cesario, Viviana Gerardi, Rosario Landi, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Giovanni Calò, Giovanna Fabbretti, Massimo Brisigotti, Maria Loredana Stefanelli, Antonio Gasbarrini
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and its association with known diseases. METHODS: We selected all cases showing NLH at colonoscopy in a three-year timeframe, and stratified them into symptomatic patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asymptomatic individuals undergoing endoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Data collection included medical history and final diagnosis...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986818/mrna-levels-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptors-are-overexpressed-in-the-foci-of-deep-bowel-endometriosis
#19
Luciano Gibran, Raul C Maranhão, Elaine R Tavares, Priscila O Carvalho, Maurício S Abrão, Sergio Podgaec
STUDY QUESTION: Is mRNA expression of LDL receptors altered in deep bowel endometriotic foci? SUMMARY ANSWER: mRNA expression of LDL receptors is up-regulated in deep bowel endometriotic foci of patients with endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies have demonstrated the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in various tumour cell lines and endometriosis has similar aspects to cancer, mainly concerning the pathogenesis of both diseases...
December 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968906/tailoring-choice-between-colonoscopy-versus-sigmoidoscopy-for-population-based-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-chinese-patients-a-prospective-colonoscopy-study
#20
Jason L W Huang, Ping Chen, Xiaoqin Yuan, Yunlin Wu, Harry H X Wang, Johnny Y Jiang, Martin C S Wong
BACKGROUND: The rising incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China highlights the pressing need for population-based screening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is becoming increasingly popular as a primary screening tool; and in many regions of China, colonoscopy capacity is limited. However, FS is preferred for patients with a low risk of advanced proximal neoplasia (APN; ie, higher numbers needed to screen [NNS], since the test predominantly examines the distal colon. Tailoring endoscopic screening based on the risk of APN is necessary, especially in resource-deprived regions...
October 2016: Lancet
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