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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077799/kras-and-tp53-mutations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#1
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Binrui Chen, Ning Dai
Although KRAS and TP53 mutations are common in both inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (S-CRC), molecular events leading to carcinogenesis may be different. Previous studies comparing the frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutations in IBD-CRC and S-CRC were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations among patients with IBD-CRC, S-CRC, and IBD without dysplasia. A total of 19 publications (482 patients with IBD-CRC, 4,222 with S-CRC, 281 with IBD without dysplasia) met the study inclusion criteria...
January 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075196/typhlitis-neutropenic-enterocolitis-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia-a-review
#2
Rodrigo Portugal, Marcio Nucci
Typhlitis is an abdominal complication of cancer chemotherapy, affecting mostly patients receiving intensive chemotherapeutic regimens with high potential to induce mucosal damage, such as patients with acute leukemia. Despite being relatively frequent, there are no randomized trials or high-quality cohort studies addressing important aspects of the diagnosis and management of the disease. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the gaps in the literature, acknowledging that the evidences for recommendations regarding the management of typhlitis are mostly expert opinion...
January 11, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071656/acg-clinical-guideline-preventive-care-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Francis A Farraye, Gil Y Melmed, Gary R Lichtenstein, Sunanda V Kane
Recent data suggest that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not receive preventive services at the same rate as general medical patients. Patients with IBD often consider their gastroenterologist to be the primary provider of care. To improve the care delivered to IBD patients, health maintenance issues need to be co-managed by both the gastroenterologist and primary care team. Gastroenterologists need to explicitly inform the primary care provider of the unique needs of the IBD patient, especially those on immunomodulators and biologics or being considered for such therapy...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070476/evaluating-screening-colonoscopy-quality-in-an-uninsured-urban-population-following-patient-navigation
#4
Keith Naylor, Cassandra Fritz, Blase Polite, Karen Kim
Patient navigation (PN) increases screening colonoscopy completion in minority and uninsured populations. However, colonoscopy quality is under-reported in the setting of PN and quality indicators have often failed to meet benchmark standards. This study investigated screening colonoscopy quality indicators after year-one of a PN initiative targeting the medically uninsured. This was a retrospective analysis of 296 outpatient screening colonoscopies. Patients were 45 to 75 years of age with no history of bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or colorectal surgery...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#5
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042992/are-rapidly-growing-cancers-more-lethal
#6
Hans-Olov Adami, Peter Csermely, Daniel V Veres, Louise Emilsson, Magnus Løberg, Michael Bretthauer, Mette Kalager
The view, that rapidly growing tumours are more likely than slow-growing tumours to metastasize and become lethal, has remained almost axiomatic for decades. Unaware of any solid evidence supporting this view, we undertook an exhaustive system-level analysis of intra- and intercellular signalling networks. This analysis indicated that rapid growth and metastasis are often different outcomes of complex integrated molecular events. Evidence from humans can be derived chiefly from screening interventions because interval cancers that surface clinically shortly after a negative screening test are, on average, more rapidly growing than cancers not detected by screening...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028930/an-update-on-cancer-risk-and-surveillance-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#7
Jennifer L Horsley-Silva, Eduardo A Rodriguez, Diana L Franco, Keith D Lindor
Malignancy represents substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This subset of patients has been proven to be at increased risk for developing cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and colorectal cancer in those with overlapping inflammatory bowel disease. Herein we review the prevalence of these malignancies and recommend screening tools and current knowledge to reduce the disease burden in this population. Cholangiocarcinoma is the most dominant malignancy affecting PSC patients, with a lifetime risk ranging from 5-20%...
December 27, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028368/nodular-lymphoid-hyperplasia-a-marker-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Anna Chiara Piscaglia, Lucrezia Laterza, Valentina Cesario, Viviana Gerardi, Rosario Landi, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Giovanni Calò, Giovanna Fabbretti, Massimo Brisigotti, Maria Loredana Stefanelli, Antonio Gasbarrini
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and its association with known diseases. METHODS: We selected all cases showing NLH at colonoscopy in a three-year timeframe, and stratified them into symptomatic patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asymptomatic individuals undergoing endoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Data collection included medical history and final diagnosis...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986818/mrna-levels-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptors-are-overexpressed-in-the-foci-of-deep-bowel-endometriosis
#9
Luciano Gibran, Raul C Maranhão, Elaine R Tavares, Priscila O Carvalho, Maurício S Abrão, Sergio Podgaec
STUDY QUESTION: Is mRNA expression of LDL receptors altered in deep bowel endometriotic foci? SUMMARY ANSWER: mRNA expression of LDL receptors is up-regulated in deep bowel endometriotic foci of patients with endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies have demonstrated the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in various tumour cell lines and endometriosis has similar aspects to cancer, mainly concerning the pathogenesis of both diseases...
December 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968906/tailoring-choice-between-colonoscopy-versus-sigmoidoscopy-for-population-based-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-chinese-patients-a-prospective-colonoscopy-study
#10
Jason L W Huang, Ping Chen, Xiaoqin Yuan, Yunlin Wu, Harry H X Wang, Johnny Y Jiang, Martin C S Wong
BACKGROUND: The rising incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China highlights the pressing need for population-based screening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is becoming increasingly popular as a primary screening tool; and in many regions of China, colonoscopy capacity is limited. However, FS is preferred for patients with a low risk of advanced proximal neoplasia (APN; ie, higher numbers needed to screen [NNS], since the test predominantly examines the distal colon. Tailoring endoscopic screening based on the risk of APN is necessary, especially in resource-deprived regions...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965871/using-specialist-screening-practitioners-ssps-to-increase-uptake-of-the-bowel-scope-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-screening-programme-a-study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-single-stage-phase-ii-trial
#11
Lesley M McGregor, Hanna Skrobanski, Hayley Miller, Mary Ritchie, Lindy Berkman, Stephen Morris, Colin Rees, Christian von Wagner
BACKGROUND: The NHS Bowel Scope Screening (BSS) programme offers men and women aged 55 years a once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), a test that can help reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, the benefits of BSS are contingent on uptake. This National Institute for Health Research-funded single-stage phase II trial will test the feasibility of using patient navigation (PN), an intervention that offers support to patients to overcome barriers to healthcare, to increase BSS uptake within a socially deprived area of England...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965868/the-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-trial-procedures-for-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-structured-physical-activity-intervention-for-people-diagnosed-with-colorectal-cancer-findings-from-a-pilot-trial-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-versus-usual-care
#12
Gill Hubbard, Ronan O'Carroll, Julie Munro, Nanette Mutrie, Sally Haw, Helen Mason, Shaun Treweek
BACKGROUND: Pilot and feasibility work is conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and acceptability of the intervention itself and the feasibility and acceptability of a trials' protocol design. The Cardiac Rehabilitation In Bowel cancer (CRIB) study was a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care (no rehabilitation) for post-surgical colorectal cancer patients. A key aim of the pilot trial was to test the feasibility and acceptability of the protocol design...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943017/carcinoembryonic-antigen-level-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-not-influenced-by-dominant-strictures-or-bacterial-cholangitis
#13
Andreas Wannhoff, Christian Rupp, Kilian Friedrich, Johannes Knierim, Christa Flechtenmacher, Karl Heinz Weiss, Wolfgang Stremmel, Daniel N Gotthardt
BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) can be used to screen for biliary tract cancer in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). AIM: To study the influence of benign dominant strictures (DS), superimposed bacterial cholangitis (SBC), smoking status, and inflammatory bowel disease on CEA serum levels. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of CEA values in cancer-free PSC patients was performed. We included the maximal CEA value obtained during follow-up and information on the presence of DS and SBC at that time, and we analyzed the CEA values in the presence and absence of DS and SBC...
December 9, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936028/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-colonoscopy-depends-on-adequate-bowel-preparation-rates-a-modeling-study
#14
James Kingsley, Siddharth Karanth, Frances Lee Revere, Deepak Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20-60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920469/role-of-ultrasound-in-colorectal-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Renáta Bor, Anna Fábián, Zoltán Szepes
Ultrasound is an undervalued non-invasive examination in the diagnosis of colonic diseases. It has been replaced by the considerably more expensive magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, despite the fact that, as first examination, it can usefully supplement the diagnostic process. Transabdominal ultrasound can provide quick information about bowel status and help in the choice of adequate further examinations and treatment. Ultrasonography, as a screening imaging modality in asymptomatic patients can identify several colonic diseases such as diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease or cancer...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878855/the-personal-cancer-screening-behaviours-of-nurses-and-midwives
#16
Rachel Nicholls, Lin Perry, Robyn Gallagher, Christine Duffield, David Sibbritt, Xiaoyue Xu
AIM: To identify the personal cancer screening behaviours of nurses and midwives in New South Wales, Australia, and identify factors predictive of cancer screening uptake. BACKGROUND: The nursing workforce may have a higher risk for some cancers and is ageing. In Australia, more than 40 percent are over 50 years - an age where cancer incidence rises rapidly, but when screening may reduce cancer mortality. Nurses and midwives are important health role models for the population, but their engagement in cancer screening is unknown...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875518/a-national-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-effect-of-enhanced-reminders-on-the-socioeconomic-gradient-in-uptake-in-bowel-cancer-screening
#17
Rosalind Raine, Sue M Moss, Christian von Wagner, Wendy Atkin, Ines Kralj Hans, Rosemary Howe, Francesca Solmi, Stephen Morris, Nicholas Counsell, Allan Hackshaw, Stephen Halloran, Graham Handley, Richard F Logan, Sandra Rainbow, Steve Smith, Julia Snowball, Helen Seaman, Mary Thomas, Samuel G Smith, Lesley M McGregor, Gemma Vart, Jane Wardle, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England offers biennial guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBt). There is a socioeconomic gradient in participation and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups have worse colorectal cancer survival than more advantaged groups. We compared the effectiveness and cost of an enhanced reminder letter with the usual reminder letter on overall uptake of gFOBt and the socioeconomic gradient in uptake. METHODS: We enhanced the usual reminder by including a heading 'A reminder to you' and a short paragraph restating the offer of screening in simple language...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867950/review-capsule-colonoscopy-a-concise-clinical-overview-of-current-status
#18
REVIEW
Diana E Yung, Emanuele Rondonotti, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
The colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) was first introduced in 2007. Currently, the main clinical indications for CCE are completion of incomplete colonoscopy, polyp detection and investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although conventional colonoscopy is the gold standard in bowel cancer screening, incomplete colonoscopy remains a problem as lesions are missed. CCE compares favourably to computer tomography colonography (CTC) in adenoma detection and has therefore been proposed as a method for completing colonoscopy...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836872/concerns-perceived-need-and-competing-priorities-a-qualitative-exploration-of-decision-making-and-non-participation-in-a-population-based-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-screening-programme-to-prevent-colorectal-cancer
#19
N Hall, L Birt, C J Rees, F M Walter, S Elliot, M Ritchie, D Weller, G Rubin
OBJECTIVE: Optimising uptake of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is important to achieve projected health outcomes. Population-based screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) was introduced in England in 2013 (NHS Bowel scope screening). Little is known about reactions to the invitation to participate in FS screening, as offered within the context of the Bowel scope programme. We aimed to investigate responses to the screening invitation to inform understanding of decision-making, particularly in relation to non-participation in screening...
November 11, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821670/identification-of-patients-with-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-primary-care-a-case-control-study
#20
Marcela Ewing, Peter Naredi, Chenyang Zhang, Jörgen Månsson
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and second most common in Europe. Despite screening, it is often diagnosed at an unfavourable stage. AIM: To identify and quantify features of non-metastatic colorectal cancer in primary care to enable earlier diagnosis by GPs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study was conducted using diagnostic codes from national and regional healthcare databases in Sweden. METHOD: A total of 542 patients diagnosed with non-metastatic colorectal cancer in 2011 and 2139 matched controls were selected from the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR) and a regional healthcare database respectively...
December 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
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