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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782843/role-of-nutritional-vitamin-d-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Yi-Chou Hou, Chia-Chao Wu, Min-Tser Liao, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Chi-Feng Hung, Tzung-Hai Yen, Chien-Lin Lu, Kuo-Cheng Lu
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by a decrease in bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The World Health Organization has defined osteoporosis as a decrease in bone mass (50%) and bony quality (50%). Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, is crucial for skeletal health and in mineral metabolism. Its direct action on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and interaction with nonskeletal tissues help in maintaining a balance between bone turnover and bone growth. Vitamin D affects the activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, suggesting that it affects bone formation, bone resorption, and bone quality...
May 18, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780359/the-mitotic-and-metabolic-effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-in-the-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#2
Tingting Wang, Xuan Wang, Huihui Zhou, Haowen Jiang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin , was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779585/translational-studies-provide-insights-for-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-cortical-bone-osteoporosis
#3
REVIEW
Robert Brommage, Claes Ohlsson
Increasing attention is being focused on the important contributions of cortical bone to bone strength, fractures and osteoporosis therapies. Recent progress in human genome wide association studies in combination with high-throughput mouse gene knockout phenotyping efforts of multiple genes and advanced conditional gene inactivation in mouse models have successfully identified genes with crucial roles in cortical bone homeostasis. Particular attention in this review is given to genes, such as WNT16, POSTN and SFRP4, that differentially affect cortical and trabecular bone architecture...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779014/current-insights-on-use-of-growth-factors-as-therapy-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#4
Justin C Kennon, Mohamed E Awad, Norman Chutkan, John DeVine, Sadanand Fulzele
Chronic low back pain is a critical health problem and a leading cause of disability in aging populations. A major cause of low back pain is considered to be the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Recent advances in therapeutics, particularly cell and tissue engineering, offer potential methods for inhibiting or reversing IVD degeneration, which have previously been impossible. The use of growth factors is under serious consideration as a potential therapy to enhance IVD tissue regeneration. We reviewed the role of chosen prototypical growth factors and growth factor combinations that have the capacity to improve IVD restoration...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778908/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-2-signaling-in-obese-women-changes-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Natalia Yumi Noronha, Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Wilson Salgado, Wilson Araujo da Silva, Doroteia Rossi Silva Souza, Julio Sergio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
OBJECTIVES: After bariatric surgery, modifications to signaling pathway networks including those of the metabolic regulator called mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to molecular alterations related to energy source availability, systemic nutrients, and catabolic and anabolic cellular processes. This study aimed to identify gene expression changes with regard to the mTOR complex 2 subunit signaling pathway in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery...
March 21, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#7
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773679/comparative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-regulatory-network-of-the-vea-gene-during-asexual-and-sexual-spore-development-of-aspergillus-cristatus
#8
Hui Liu, Shilei Sang, Hui Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yumei Tan, Wei Chen, Zuoyi Liu, Yongxiang Liu
Aspergillus cristatus belongs to the homothallic fungal group that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation under hypotonic conditions, while hypertonic medium induces initiation of the asexual stage and completely blocks sexual development. However, the veA deletion mutant only produces conidia in hypotonic medium after a 24 h culture, but both asexual and sexual spores are observed after 72 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , two dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type A...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771332/mechanisms-of-skeletal-muscle-wasting-in-a-mouse-model-for-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#9
Ginny R Morriss, Kimal Rajapakshe, Shixia Huang, Cristian Coarfa, Thomas A Cooper
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease resulting in severe muscle weakening and wasting. DM1 is caused by expansion of CTG repeats in the 3'-UTR of the DMPK gene. We have developed an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific mouse model of DM1 (CUG960) that expresses 960 CUG repeats in the context of human DMPK exons 11-15. CUG960 RNA-expressing mice induced at PN1, as well as adult-onset animals, show clear, measurable muscle wasting accompanied by severe histological defects including central myonuclei, reduced fiber cross sectional area, increased percentage of oxidative myofibers, and the presence of nuclear RNA foci that colocalize with Mbnl1 protein...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770602/full-title-cultures-of-a-human-synovial-cell-line-to-evaluate-platelet-rich-plasma-and-hyaluronic-acid-effects
#10
E Olivotto, G Merli, E Assirelli, C Cavallo, E Belluzzi, R Ramonda, M Favero, G Filardo, A Roffi, E Kon, B Grigolo
Synovial inflammation plays an important role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Different biological compounds have been tested mainly on chondrocytes, to treat early stages of OA. However, since OA has been recently defined as "an organ" pathology, investigation on synoviocytes is also needed. Therefore the aim of the present study was to validate a human fibroblast-like synoviocytes cell line (K4IM) to test the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronan (HA) on anabolic and catabolic gene expression and on HA secretion from cell cultures...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770581/effect-of-static-compression-loads-on-intervertebral-disc-an-in-vivo-bent-rat-tail-model
#11
Wei Xia, Lin-Lin Zhang, Jun Mo, Wen Zhang, Hai-Tao Li, Zong-Ping Luo, Hui-Lin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how well different magnitudes of compression-induced degenerative changes using a bent rat tail model simulated human lumbar lordosis. It has been shown that compression plays an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 25) were instrumented with a special compressive apparatus that was used to bend the intervertebral disc between the 8th and the 10th caudal vertebral bodies using two Kirschner wires inserted percutaneously into the middle of two tail vertebrae...
May 16, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766657/drug-drug-interaction-and-doping-effect-of-non-prohibited-drugs-on-the-urinary-excretion-profile-of-methandienone
#12
Monica Mazzarino, Franziska L Khevenhüller-Metsch, Ilaria Fiacco, Maria Kristina Parr, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interactions on the excretion profile of the anabolic androgenic steroid methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) are discussed here. More specifically, we have evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments the effects of seven non-prohibited drugs (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, fluoxetine, paroxetine and nefazodone) on the main metabolic pathways of methandienone. These are selected among those most commonly used by the athletes...
May 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766147/the-non-preventive-effects-of-human-menopausal-gonadotropins-on-ovarian-tissues-in-nandrolone-decanoate-treated-female-rats-a-histochemical-and-ultra-structural-study
#13
Fakhroddin Mesbah, Hossein Bordbar, Tahereh Talaei Khozani, Farzaneh Dehghani, Hossein Mirkhani
Background: The follicular growth and development may be affected by abused drugs. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an anabolic androgenic steroid can damage the morphological and functional features of the ovary and may lead to reproductive failure. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of synchronized and non-synchronized administration of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins (hMG) with ND on ovarian tissue and level of sex hormones in the adult female rat...
March 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765419/low-magnitude-of-compression-enhances-biosynthesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-the-trpv4-dependent-pathway
#14
Yibo Gan, Bing Tu, Pei Li, Jixing Ye, Chen Zhao, Lei Luo, Chengmin Zhang, Zetong Zhang, Linyong Zhu, Qiang Zhou
Mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) based therapy is regarded as a promising tissue engineering strategy to achieve nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, it is still a challenge to promote the biosynthesis of MSC to meet the requirement of NP regeneration. The purpose of this study was to optimize the compressive magnitude to enhance the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition towards discogenesis of MSCs. Thus, we constructed a 3D culture model for MSCs to bear different magnitudes of compression for 7 days (5%, 10%, and 20% at the frequency of 1...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764991/a-dgk%C3%AE-foxo-ubiquitin-proteolytic-axis-controls-fiber-size-during-skeletal-muscle-remodeling
#15
Jae-Sung You, Matthew S Dooley, Chan-Ran Kim, Eui-Jun Kim, Wei Xu, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger
Skeletal muscle rapidly remodels in response to various stresses, and the resulting changes in muscle mass profoundly influence our health and quality of life. We identified a diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ)-mediated pathway that regulated muscle mass during remodeling. During mechanical overload, DGKζ abundance was increased and required for effective hypertrophy. DGKζ not only augmented anabolic responses but also suppressed ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis. We found that DGKζ inhibited the transcription factor FoxO that promotes the induction of the UPS...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764859/activation-of-nrf2-is-required-for-normal-and-chrebp%C3%AE-augmented-glucose-stimulated-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#16
Anil Kumar, Liora S Katz, Anna M Schulz, Misung Kim, Lee B Honig, Lucy Li, Bennett Davenport, Dirk Homann, Adolfo Garcia-Ocaña, Mark A Herman, Cole M Haynes, Jerry E Chipuk, Donald K Scott
Patients with both major forms of diabetes would benefit from therapies that increase β-cell mass. Glucose is a natural mitogen that drives adaptive β-cell mass expansion by promoting β-cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBPα) is required for glucose-stimulated β-cell proliferation, and that overexpression of ChREBPα amplifies the proliferative effect of glucose. Here we found that ChREBPα reprogrammed anabolic metabolism to promote proliferation...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764464/daytime-and-nighttime-casein-supplements-similarly-increase-muscle-size-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-training-earlier-in-the-day-a-preliminary-investigation
#17
Jordan M Joy, Roxanne M Vogel, K Shane Broughton, Urszula Kudla, Nathaniel Y Kerr, Jason M Davison, Robert E C Wildman, Nancy M DiMarco
BACKGROUND: Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762778/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-nutrient-utilization-and-blood-parameters-in-chicks-fed-diets-containing-soybean-meal-and-guar-gum
#18
Justina V Caldas, Karen Vignale, Nirun Boonsinchai, Jinrong Wang, Monticha Putsakum, Judith A England, Craig N Coon
The present study was conducted to determine whether the addition of β-mannanase in broiler feed changes hormonal profiles in the blood and broiler performance and nutrient availability. Five hundred and four Cobb male chickens were studied during d 7 to 21. Three corn-soybean meal (SBM) based diets 1) Low SBM (18% SBM); 2) High SBM (31% SBM); and 3) High SBM+GG (31% SBM + Guar Gum (GG) 0.5%) with 3 levels of β-mannanase (0, 200, and 400 ppm) were mixed to produce 9 diets. A factorial design 3 × 3 was performed with JMP pro 13 (SAS, 2017)...
May 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759662/nandrolone-decanoate-and-physical-activity-affect-quadriceps-in-peripubertal-rats
#19
Jasmina Sretenovic, Vladimir Ajdzanovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Ivan Srejovic, Milena Corbic, Verica Milosevic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Zoran Milosavljevic
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic analogs of testosterone often used by athletes to increase the skeletal muscle mass. Our goal was to examine the effects of physical activity and physical activity combined with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone on functional morphology of the quadriceps muscle. The study included 32 peripubertal Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-), nandrolone (T-N+), physical activity (T+N-) and physical activity plus nandrolone (T+N+) groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week...
May 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757501/important-considerations-for-the-utilisation-of-methanolysis-in-steroid-analysis
#20
Marjaana Viljanto, Catarina Horro Pita, James Scarth, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman, Mark C Parkin
The effective analysis of anabolic-androgenic steroids in urine usually requires a suitable deconjugation method for the analysis of phase II metabolites such as sulfates and glucuronides. Acid hydrolysis using methanolysis is one adopted method of deconjugation that efficiently and rapidly cleaves both sulfates and glucuronides contemporaneously. The formation of artefactual by-products is a known disadvantage of this harsh method. However, the possible promotion of deuterium-hydrogen exchange of isotopically labelled internal standards has received little attention in the literature...
May 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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