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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919123/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-facilitates-osteogenic-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-mc3t3-e1-cells-through-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-pi3k-protein-kinase-b-akt-extracellular-signal-related-kinase-erk-1-2-and-camp-protein-kinase
#1
Xuelun Wu, Shilun Li, Peng Xue, Yukun Li
Previous studies have proven that Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor agonist exert favorable anabolic effects on skeletal metabolism. However, whether GLP-1could directly impact osteoblast-mediated bone forming is still controversial, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Thus in this paper, we investigated the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts proliferation and differentiation and explored the potential cellular basis...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918901/mtor-inhibition-restores-amino-acid-balance-in-cells-dependent-on-catabolism-of-extracellular-protein
#2
Michel Nofal, Kevin Zhang, Seunghun Han, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Scavenging of extracellular protein via macropinocytosis is an alternative to monomeric amino acid uptake. In pancreatic cancer, macropinocytosis is driven by oncogenic Ras signaling and contributes substantially to amino acid supply. While Ras signaling promotes scavenging, mTOR signaling suppresses it. Here, we present an integrated experimental-computational method that enables quantitative comparison of protein scavenging rates across cell lines and conditions. Using it, we find that, independently of mTORC1, amino acid scarcity induces protein scavenging and that under such conditions the impact of mTOR signaling on protein scavenging rate is minimal...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915389/choline-prevents-fetal-overgrowth-and-normalizes-placental-fatty-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-obesity
#3
Juha Nam, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts, Tamara T Ajeeb, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Kathleen Axen, Anjana Saxena, Ekaterina Semernina, Khatia Nanobashvili, Xinyin Jiang
Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913567/two-cell-embryos-are-more-sensitive-than-blastocysts-to-ampk-dependent-suppression-of-anabolism-and-stemness-by-commonly-used-fertility-drugs-a-diet-supplement-and-stress
#4
Alan Bolnick, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Brian Kilburn, Yufen Xie, Mindie Howard, Paul Andresen, Alexandra M Shamir, Jing Dai, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Eric Secor, Daniel A Rappolee
PURPOSE: This study tests whether metformin or diet supplement BR-DIM-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects on development are more pronounced in blastocysts or 2-cell mouse embryos. METHODS: Culture mouse zygotes to two-cell embryos and test effects after 0.5-1 h AMPK agonists' (e.g., Met, BR-DIM) exposure on AMPK-dependent ACCser79P phosphorylation and/or Oct4 by immunofluorescence. Culture morulae to blastocysts and test for increased ACCser79P, decreased Oct4 and for AMPK dependence by coculture with AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911778/applications-of-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-in-sports-drug-testing-accounting-for-isotope-fractionation-in-analysis-of-biological-samples
#6
Thomas Piper, Mario Thevis
The misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in sports aiming at enhancing athletic performance has been a challenging matter for doping control laboratories for decades. While the presence of a xenobiotic AAS or its metabolite(s) in human urine immediately represents an antidoping rule violation, the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone necessitates comparably complex procedures. Concentration thresholds and diagnostic analyte ratios computed from urinary steroid concentrations of, e...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911148/age-related-anabolic-resistance-of-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-is-exacerbated-in-obese-inactive-individuals
#7
Benoit Smeuninx, James Mckendry, Daisy Wilson, Una Martin, Leigh Breen
Context: A diminished muscle anabolic response to protein nutrition may underpin age-associated muscle loss. Objective: To determine how chronological and biological aging influence myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS). Design: Cross-sectional comparison. Setting: Clinical research facility. Participants: Ten older lean [OL: 71.7 ± 6 years; body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg ⋅ m-2], 7 older obese (OO: 69...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911136/protein-rich-food-ingestion-stimulates-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-in-sedentary-young-adults-of-different-bmis
#8
Joseph W Beals, Richard W A Mackenzie, Stephan van Vliet, Sarah K Skinner, Brandon A Pagni, Grace M Niemiro, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Anna C Dilger, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
Context: Excess fat mass may diminish the anabolic potency of protein-rich food ingestion to stimulate muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses. However, the impact of adiposity on mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS) rates after protein-rich food ingestion has not been thoroughly examined in vivo in humans. Objective: We compared basal and postprandial MPS and markers of muscle inflammation [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein content] in young adults with different body mass indices (BMIs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903836/reconsidering-a-lower-level-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-as-abnormal-in-sub-fertile-males-of-pakistan
#9
Shehla Arif, Ayesha Khan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and semen parameters in order to evaluate whether the current laboratory reference for abnormal FSH levels should be readjusted. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Infertility Clinic of Gynecology Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from May 2015 to April 2016. METHODOLOGY: The study included 100 sub-fertile males inducted from the clinic...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902623/chronic-endurance-exercise-antagonizes-the-cardiac-ucp2-and-ucp3-protein-up-regulation-induced-by-nandrolone-decanoate
#10
Gholamreza Bayat, Mohammad Javan, Azadeh Khalili, Fatemeh Safari, Saeed Shokri, Sohrab Hajizadeh
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence revealed that chronic treatment of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) is accompanied with some cardiovascular side effects and in addition they also negatively mask the beneficial effects of exercise training on cardiac performance. METHODS: The present study examined whether the nandrolone decanoate (ND)-induced cardiac effects were mediated by changing the cardiac uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and 3 (UCP3) expression. Five groups of male wistar-albino rats including sedentary control (SC), sedentary vehicle (SV), sedentary nandrolone decanoate (SND), exercise control (EC), and exercise nandrolone decanoate (END) were used...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899863/a-unified-approach-to-targeting-the-lysosome-s-degradative-and-growth-signaling-roles
#11
Vito W Rebecca, Michael C Nicastri, Noel McLaughlin, Colin Fennelly, Quentin McAfee, Amruta Ronghe, Michel Nofal, Chun-Yan Lim, Eric Witze, Cynthia I Chude, Gao Zhang, Gretchen M Alicea, Shengfu Piao, Sengottuvelan Murugan, Rani Ojha, Samuel M Levi, Zhi Wei, Julie S Barber-Rotenberg, Maureen E Murphy, Gordon B Mills, Yiling Lu, Joshua Rabinowitz, Ronen Marmorstein, Qin Liu, Shujing Liu, Xiaowei Xu, Meenhard Herlyn, Roberto Zoncu, Donita C Brady, David W Speicher, Jeffrey D Winkler, Ravi K Amaravadi
Lysosomes serve dual roles in cancer metabolism, executing catabolic programs (i.e. autophagy and macropinocytosis), while promoting mTORC1-dependent anabolism. Antimalarial compounds such as chloroquine or quinacrine have been used as lysosomal inhibitors, but fail to inhibit mTOR signaling. Further, the molecular target of these agents has not been identified. We report a screen of novel dimeric antimalarials that identifies dimeric quinacrines (DQs) as potent anticancer compounds, which concurrently inhibit mTOR and autophagy...
September 12, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899208/the-regulation-of-nrf2-by-nutrient-responsive-signaling-and-its-role-in-anabolic-cancer-metabolism
#12
Sae Bom Lee, Brianna Sellers, Gina DeNicola
SIGNIFICANCE: The stress-responsive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2, or NRF2, regulates the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes to mitigate oxidative stress under physiological conditions. NRF2 is activated in response to oxidative stress, growth factor signaling, and changes in nutrient status. In addition, somatic mutations that disrupt the interaction between NRF2 and its negative regulator Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology (ECH)- associated 1 (KEAP1) commonly occur in cancer and are thought to promote tumorigenesis...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898781/thymus-atrophy-is-an-efficient-marker-of-illicit-treatment-with-dexamethasone-in-veal-calves-results-from-a-triennial-experimental-study
#13
Guia Benedetta Richelmi, Cristiana Maurella, Marzia Pezzolato, Mario Botta, Katia Varello, Danilo Pitardi, Elisa Baioni, Claudio Bellino, Antonio D'Angelo, Maria Caramelli, Elena Bozzetta
Glucocorticoids, used in a wide range of pathologies thank to their therapeutical properties, are also illegally used as growth-promoters in animal breeding even if the European Union regulates their use to protect consumers' health from the adverse effects of residues in food. The first aim of the study was to establish the applicability of two histological parameters - atrophy and cortex-medulla ratio - to detect glucocorticoids misuse in calves. The second aim was to concurrently test the potentiality of both parameters to discriminate between treated and untreated animals...
September 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898700/muc1-and-hif-1alpha-signaling-crosstalk-induces-anabolic-glucose-metabolism-to-impart-gemcitabine-resistance-to-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Surendra K Shukla, Vinee Purohit, Kamiya Mehla, Venugopal Gunda, Nina V Chaika, Enza Vernucci, Ryan J King, Jaime Abrego, Gennifer D Goode, Aneesha Dasgupta, Alysha L Illies, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Bingbing Dai, Jithesh J Augustine, Divya Murthy, Kuldeep S Attri, Oksana Mashadova, Paul M Grandgenett, Robert Powers, Quan P Ly, Audrey J Lazenby, Jean L Grem, Fang Yu, José M Matés, John M Asara, Jung-Whan Kim, Jordan H Hankins, Colin Weekes, Michael A Hollingsworth, Natalie J Serkova, Aaron R Sasson, Jason B Fleming, Jennifer M Oliveto, Costas A Lyssiotis, Lewis C Cantley, Lyudmyla Berim, Pankaj K Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891676/pornography-use-in-sexual-minority-males-associations-with-body-dissatisfaction-eating-disorder-symptoms-thoughts-about-using-anabolic-steroids-and-quality-of-life
#15
Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B Murray, Jonathan M Mond
OBJECTIVE: We examined two hypotheses regarding the potential association of pornography use with body image-related and eating disorder-related psychopathology among sexual minority males (i.e. non-heterosexual males). Our primary hypothesis was that pornography use would be associated with males' body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life impairment; our secondary hypothesis was that the type of pornography, namely, professional versus amateur pornography, which contains idealised and non-idealised (i...
September 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888905/selective-interference-of-mtorc1-raptor-protects-against-human-disc-cellular-apoptosis-senescence-and-extracellular-matrix-catabolism-with-akt-and-autophagy-induction
#16
Masaaki Ito, Takashi Yurube, Kenichiro Kakutani, Koichiro Maeno, Toru Takada, Yoshiki Terashima, Yuji Kakiuchi, Yoshiki Takeoka, Shingo Miyazaki, Ryosuke Kuroda, Kotaro Nishida
OBJECTIVE: The mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that integrates nutrients to execute cell growth and protein synthesis. We hypothesized that mTOR is essential for the intervertebral disc, the largest avascular, low-nutrient organ. Our objective was to elucidate roles of mTOR signaling in human disc cells. DESIGN: The mTOR exists in two complexes: mTORC1 containing RAPTOR and mTORC2 containing RICTOR. To analyze their functions in human disc nucleus pulposus cells, RNA interference (RNAi) of mTOR targeting mTORC1 and mTORC2, RAPTOR targeting mTORC1, or RICTOR targeting mTORC2 or rapamycin, a pharmacological mTORC1 inhibitor, was applied...
September 6, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888055/evaluation-of-loading-parameters-for-murine-axial-tibial-loading-stimulating-cortical-bone-formation-while-reducing-loading-duration
#17
David Sun, Michael D Brodt, Heather M Zannit, Nilsson Holguin, Matthew J Silva
Classic studies in bone mechanobiology have established the importance of loading parameters on the anabolic response. Most of these early studies were done using loading methods not currently in favor, and using non-murine species. Our objective was to re-examine the effects of several loading parameters on the response of cortical bone using the contemporary murine axial tibial compression model. We subjected tibias of 5-month old, female C57Bl/6 mice to cyclic (4 Hz) mechanical loading and examined bone formation responses using dynamic and static histomorphometry...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887147/both-ligand-and-vdr-expression-levels-critically-determine-the-effect-of-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-osteoblast-differentiation
#18
Dongqing Yang, Paul H Anderson, Asiri R Wijenayaka, Kate R Barratt, Rahma Triliana, Catherine J M Stapledon, Hong Zhou, David M Findlay, Howard A Morris, Gerald J Atkins
Previous studies have shown that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) through vitamin D receptor (VDR) signalling has both catabolic and anabolic effects on osteoblast differentiation. However, the mechanism of these differential effects by 1,25D is not fully understood. In this study, mice with three different genetic backgrounds, representing a normal VDR level (wild-type, WT), VDR over-expression specifically in mature osteoblasts (ObVDR-B6) and global VDR knockout (VDRKO), were utilised to generate primary osteoblast-like cultures to further elucidate the effects of 1,25D on osteoblast differentiation...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886722/tridax-procumbens-flavonoids-a-prospective-bioactive-compound-increased-osteoblast-differentiation-and-trabecular-bone-formation
#19
Md Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohammad Jakir Hosen, Amina Khatun, M Masihul Alam, Md Abdul Alim Al-Bari
BACKGROUND: The Tridax procumbens extracts (TPE) are known for their ethno-medicinal properties to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, we found that the T. procumbens flavonoids (TPF) significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced osteoclasts differentiation and bone resorption. The TPF also promoted osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation demonstrated by increasing bone formation markers in cultured mouse primary osteoblasts. However, the effects of the TPF on in vivo bone formation remain unclear...
September 8, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886518/capillary-electrophoresis-study-on-the-base-catalyzed-formation-of-bioactive-oxidized-metabolites-of-20-hydroxyecdysone
#20
Halima Meriem Issaadi, Attila Hunyadi, Krisztina Németh
A novel capillary electrophoretic method was developed for the analysis and monitoring of the base-catalyzed autoxidation of 20-hydroxyecdysone, a worldwide used non-hormonal anabolic food supplement. An effective separation of the starting material and its bioactive oxidized derivatives was achieved by using sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin as selector at pH 11 and by fixing the separation voltage at +30kV. Only a dilution step was inserted before injecting the sample, taken from the crude reaction mixture, to the capillary electrophoresis instrument...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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