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Prenatal exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088127/cerebral-laterality-for-language-is-related-to-adult-salivary-testosterone-levels-but-not-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-men-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-study
#1
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin
The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D)...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081510/gestational-and-lactational-exposure-to-di-isobutyl-phthalate-via-diet-in-maternal-mice-decreases-testosterone-levels-in-male-offspring
#2
Xiaoyang Wang, Nan Sheng, Ruina Cui, Hongxia Zhang, Jianshe Wang, Jiayin Dai
Phthalates are a large family of ubiquitous environmental chemicals suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with exposure to these chemicals during prenatal and postnatal development possibly resulting in reproductive disorders. Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) is widely used in consumer and industrial products, and although its exposure in the general population has increased in recent years, the mechanisms behind DiBP-induced reproductive disorders in male offspring remain unclear. Here, pregnant mice were exposed to 0 or 450 mg/kg bw/day DiBP via diet from gestation day (GD) 0 to GD21...
January 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081369/randomized-controlled-ethanol-cookstove-intervention-and-blood-pressure-in-pregnant-nigerian-women
#3
Donee Alexander, Amanda Northcross, Nathaniel Wilson, Anindita Dutta, Rishi Pandya, Tope Ibigbami, Damilola Adu, John Olamijulo, Oludare Morhason-Bello, Theodore Karrison, Oladosu Ojengbede, Christopher O Olopade
RATIONALE: Hypertension during pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) elevates blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVES: Investigate ability of clean cookstove intervention to lower BP during pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in Nigeria. Pregnant women cooking with kerosene or firewood were randomly assigned to ethanol (n = 162) or control arms (n = 162). BP measurements were taken during 6 antenatal visits...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079927/developmental-programming-interaction-between-prenatal-bpa-and-postnatal-overfeeding-on-cardiac-tissue-gene-expression-in-female-sheep
#4
L A Koneva, A K Vyas, R C McEachin, M Puttabyatappa, H-S Wang, M A Sartor, V Padmanabhan
Epidemiologic studies and studies in rodents point to potential risks from developmental exposure to BPA on cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly evident that the manifestation and severity of adverse outcomes is the result of interaction between developmental insults and the prevailing environment. Consistent with this premise, recent studies in sheep found prenatal BPA treatment prevented the adverse effects of postnatal obesity in inducing hypertension. The gene networks underlying these complex interactions are not known...
January 12, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079560/prenatal-exposures-and-the-development-of-childhood-wheezing-illnesses
#5
Christian Rosas-Salazar, Tina V Hartert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically evaluate and summarize studies published between July 2015 and June 2016 linking prenatal exposures and the onset of childhood wheezing illnesses and to discuss future research directions in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: The aggregated evidence indicates a consistent detrimental effect of prenatal exposure to parental smoking, outdoor air pollution, and maternal stress on childhood wheezing illnesses. Less consistent evidence suggests an adverse impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy and prenatal exposure to antibiotics on these outcomes...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079559/strategies-to-alter-the-natural-history-of-childhood-asthma
#6
K A Lee-Sarwar, L B Bacharier, A A Litonjua
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma exhibits significant heterogeneity in occurrence and severity over the lifespan. Our goal is to discuss recent evidence regarding determinants of the natural history of asthma during childhood, and review the rationale behind and status of major efforts to alter its course. RECENT FINDINGS: Variations in microbial exposures are associated with risk of allergic disease, and the use of bacterial lysates may be a promising preventive strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078167/a-novel-strategy-for-attenuating-opioid-withdrawal-in-neonates
#7
Giovanni C Santoro, Samarth Shukla, Krishna Patel, Jakub Kaczmarzyk, Stergiani Agorastos, Sandra Scherrer, Yoon Young Choi, Christina Veith, Joseph Carrion, Rebecca Silverman, Danielle Mullin, Mohamed Ahmed, Wynne K Schiffer, Jonathan D Brodie, Stephen L Dewey
The rate of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) has drastically increased over the past decade. The average hospital expense per NAS patient has tripled, while the number of babies born to opioid-dependent mothers has increased to 5 in 1000 births. Current treatment options are limited to opioid replacement and tapering. Consequently, we examined the efficacy of prenatal, low-dose and short-term vigabatrin (γ-vinyl GABA, GVG) exposure for attenuating these symptoms as well as the metabolic changes observed in the brains of these animals upon reaching adolescence...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077626/low-dose-or-low-dose-rate-ionizing-radiation-induced-bioeffects-in-animal-models
#8
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Animal experimental studies indicate that acute or chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6 mSv/h) exposures may be harmful. It induces genetic and epigenetic changes and is associated with a range of physiological disturbances that includes altered immune system, abnormal brain development with resultant cognitive impairment, cataractogenesis, abnormal embryonic development, circulatory diseases, weight gain, premature menopause in female animals, tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077305/in-utero-exposure-to-fluoride-and-cognitive-development-delay-in-infants
#9
L Valdez Jiménez, O D López Guzmán, M Cervantes Flores, R Costilla-Salazar, J Calderón Hernández, Y Alcaraz Contreras, D O Rocha-Amador
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between in utero exposure to fluoride (F) and Mental and Psychomotor Development (MDI and PDI) evaluated through the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II (BSDI-II) in infants. The sample included 65 mother-infant pairs. Environmental exposure to F was quantified in tap and bottled water samples and F in maternal urine was the biological exposure indicator; samples were collected during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The mean values of F in tap water for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester were 2...
January 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076672/prenatal-psychostimulant-and-antidepressant-exposure-and-risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#10
D Jeffrey Newport, Amy L Hostetter, Sarah H Juul, Sunny M Porterfield, Bettina T Knight, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association, if any, of prenatal mental illness and psychotropic exposure with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A case-cohort analysis was conducted of 686 pregnant women participating in prospective, longitudinal observational studies in a tertiary referral center between January 1998 and May 2012. Risk estimates were produced using multivariate logistic regression modeling. Medication- and diagnosis-specific data were utilized to conduct post hoc confirmatory analyses of the risk estimates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#11
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075368/critical-windows-of-prenatal-exposure-to-cadmium-and-size-at-birth
#12
Lu Cheng, Bin Zhang, Tongzhang Zheng, Jie Hu, Aifen Zhou, Bryan A Bassig, Wei Xia, David A Savitz, Stephen Buka, Chao Xiong, Joseph M Braun, Yaqi Zhang, Yanqiu Zhou, Xinyun Pan, Chuansha Wu, Youjie Wang, Zhengmin Qian, Aimin Yang, Megan E Romano, Kunchong Shi, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li
Prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We measured Cd concentrations in urine samples at or near 13, 24, and 35 gestational weeks from 282 women in Wuhan, China. We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the associations between maternal creatinine adjusted urinary Cd concentrations at each trimester and birth size. A significant inverse association was observed between higher maternal Cd levels measured during the 1st trimester and birth size in girls...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#13
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
January 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074555/pediatric-stress-from-neuroendocrinology-to-contemporary-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Stavroula Stavrou, Nicolas C Nicolaides, Elena Critselis, Christina Darviri, Evangelia Charmandari, George P Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called "stressors", activates a highly conserved system, the "stress system", which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069620/prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs-and-use-of-primary-healthcare-during-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-denmark
#15
Anne Mette Würtz, Dorte Rytter, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Jakob Christensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring such as congenital malformations and neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to AEDs is also associated with more frequent use of primary healthcare during childhood. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide national registers in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997-2012 identified in the Danish National Patient Register and followed until 31 December 2013 (n=963 010)...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068465/one-year-developmental-outcomes-for-infants-of-mothers-with-bipolar-disorder
#17
Aimee K Santucci, Lynn T Singer, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Heather F Eng, Dorothy K Sit, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Few data about the development of infants born to women with bipolar disorder have been published. We hypothesized that infants of women with bipolar disorder (by DSM-IV criteria) treated with psychotropics (BD+) or untreated with psychotropics (BD-) would demonstrate poorer cognitive and behavioral development than infants of controls. On the basis of previous studies, we expected that psychotropic-exposed infants of women in the BD+ group would have poorer neuromotor performance during infancy...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067781/gestational-zearalenone-exposure-causes-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-in-pregnant-rats-and-female-offspring
#18
Xin Gao, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Chong Li, Jiacai Zhang, Zhuohui Xiao, Desheng Qi
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067779/environmental-factors-affecting-growth-and-occurrence-of-testicular-cancer-in-childhood-an-overview-of-the-current-epidemiological-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Fabrizio Giannandrea, Stefania Fargnoli
Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15-34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation...
January 5, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067756/alcohol-use-disorders-in-argentinian-girls-and-women-12-months-before-delivery-comparison-of-dsm-iv-dsm-5-and-icd-10-diagnostic-criteria
#20
Mariana Beatriz López, Karina Conde, Mariana Cremonte
BACKGROUND: The evidence of important problems related to prenatal alcohol exposure has faced researchers with the problem of understanding and screening alcohol use in this population. Although any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying alcohol-drinking problems (ADPs) could be especially important because women with ADPs could not benefit from a simple advice of abstinence and because their offsprings are subjected to a higher risk of problems related with prenatal alcohol exposure...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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