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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611273/racial-disparities-in-hepatitis-c-treatment-eligibility
#1
Omar Sims, David Pollio, Barry Hong, Carol North
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is more prevalent in African Americans than in any other racial group in the United States. However, African Americans are more likely to be deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than non-African Americans. There has been limited research into the origins of racial disparities in HCV treatment eligibility. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare medical and non-medical characteristics commonly assessed in clinical practice that could potentially contribute to HCV treatment ineligibility disparities between African American and non-African American patients...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590037/epigenetic-effects-of-an-adenosine-derivative-in-a-wistar-rat-model-of-liver-cirrhosis
#2
Jesús Rafael Rodríguez-Aguilera, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Rosario Pérez-Molina, Carla Elizabeth Cadena-Del-Castillo, Rebeca Pérez-Cabeza de Vaca, Nuria Guerrero-Celis, Mariana Domínguez-López, Adrián Rafael Murillo-de-Ozores, Rodrigo Arzate-Mejía, Félix Recillas-Targa, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The pathological characteristic of cirrhosis is scarring which results in a structurally distorted and dysfunctional liver. Previously, we demonstrated that Col1a1 and Pparg genes are deregulated in CCl4 -induced cirrhosis but their normal expression levels are recovered upon treatment with IFC-305, an adenosine derivative. We observed that adenosine was able to modulate S-adenosylmethionine-dependent trans-methylation reactions, and recently, we found that IFC-305 modulates HDAC3 expression. Here, we investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms, involving DNA methylation processes and histone acetylation, could explain the re-establishment of gene expression mediated by IFC-305 in cirrhosis...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551668/occupational-risk-for-oral-cancer-in-nordic-countries
#3
Laura Tarvainen, Juho Suojanen, Pentti Kyyronen, Christian Lindqvist, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Kristina Kjaerheim, Elsebeth Lynge, Par Sparen, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Elisabete Weiderpass, Eero Pukkala
AIM: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472132/decreased-prothrombin-conversion-and-reduced-thrombin-inactivation-explain-rebalanced-thrombin-generation-in-liver-cirrhosis
#4
Romy M W Kremers, Marie-Claire Kleinegris, Marisa Ninivaggi, Bas de Laat, Hugo Ten Cate, Ger H Koek, Rob J Wagenvoord, H Coenraad Hemker
Impaired coagulation factor synthesis in cirrhosis causes a reduction of most pro- and anticoagulant factors. Cirrhosis patients show no clear bleeding or thrombotic phenotype, although they are at risk for both types of hemostatic event. Thrombin generation (TG) is a global coagulation test and its outcome depends on underlying pro- and anticoagulant processes (prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation). We quantified the prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation during TG in 30 healthy subjects and 52 Child-Pugh (CP-) A, 15 CP-B and 6 CP-C cirrhosis patients to test the hypothesis that coagulation is rebalanced in liver cirrhosis patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465090/factors-associated-with-fatal-liver-failure-after-extended-hepatectomy
#5
Stéphanie Truant, Mehdi El Amrani, Cécile Skrzypczyk, Emmanuel Boleslawski, Géraldine Sergent, Mohamed Hebbar, Sébastien Dharancy, François-René Pruvot
BACKGROUND: Posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is the leading cause of posthepatectomy mortality. This study aimed to revisit the etiology and pattern of PHLF and its role in posthepatectomy morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The pattern and etiology of PHLF and subsequent morbidity and mortality were analysed in the subgroup of patients without cirrhosis undergoing an extended hepatectomy (≥4 segments) over a 5 year period. PHLF was defined using ISGLS criteria and/or 50-50 and/or peak serum bilirubin >7 mg/dl...
April 29, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398025/hepatocarcinoma-genetic-and-epigenetic-features
#7
Angela Lombardi, Anna Grimaldi, Silvia Zappavigna, Gabriella Misso, Michele Caraglia
HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, accounting for about 1 million deaths annually. The incidence of HCC is highest in Asia and Africa, where the endemic high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C strongly predisposes to the development of chronic liver disease and subsequent development of HCC. Patients with HCC generally present at an advanced stage due to compensated cirrhosis defined by the absence of pathognomonic symptoms, resulting in death within 6 to 20 months, suggesting an urgent need in treatment modalities that will dramatically decrease the mortality rate of HCC...
April 11, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387899/a-correlation-study-between-gene-polymorphism-of-th-cell-expressed-chemokine-receptor-cxcr3-and-its-ligand-levels-with-hcv-infection-prognosis
#8
Y Lu, L-Y Lin, J-G Tan, H-P Deng, X-H Li, Z Zhang, Y Li, Z Zhou, X Xu, X Xie, S-J Mei
OBJECTIVE: Chemokine receptor and its ligand participate in viral immunity and HCV infection, which are important inflammatory mediators. The current study showed the different roles of Th cell secreted chemokines CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR6 in chronic liver inflammation after HCV infection. As one important chemokine receptor, the role of polypeptide property and ligand level in HCV prognosis is still unclear. This study aims to investigate gene polymorphism of chemokine genes and ligand level, and their correlation with patient liver function, to provide evidence for HCV prognosis and chronic transition mechanism...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324773/haptoglobin-is-frequently-low-in-patients-with-myelofibrosis-clinical-relevance
#9
Paolo Strati, Lucia Masarova, Prithviraj Bose, Naval Daver, Naveen Pemmaraju, Srdan Verstovsek
A recent study, showing the absence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in myelofibrosis, has reopened the debate around the role of decreased haptoglobin in this disease. We present here a large prospective analysis of the clinical significance of low haptoglobin in 152 patients with myelofibrosis. Low haptoglobin (<32mg/dL) was observed in 50 patients (33%). Decreased haptoglobin did not associate with low hemoglobin levels, positive Coombs test or abnormal liver function tests, suggesting it is not result of autoimmune hemolytic anemia or liver cirrhosis...
March 8, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322544/graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-as-novel-nanozymes-for-alcohol-intoxication
#10
Anqi Sun, Li Mu, Xiangang Hu
Alcohol overconsumption as a worldwide issue results in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), such as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. The treatment of ALD has been widely investigated but remains challenging. In this work, the protective effects of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) as novel nanozymes against alcohol overconsumption are discovered, and the specific mechanisms underlying these effects are elucidated via omics analysis. GOQDs dramatically alleviate the reduction of cell viability induced by ethanol and can act as nanozymes to accelerate ethanol metabolism and avoid the accumulation of toxic intermediates in cells...
March 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288507/anticoagulation-in-cirrhosis-a-new-paradigm
#11
REVIEW
Filippo Leonardi, Nicola De Maria, Erica Villa
The liver plays a crucial role in coagulation cascade. Global hemostatic process is profoundly influenced by the presence of liver disease and its complications. Patients with cirrhosis have impaired synthesis of most of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis process due to a reduced liver function and altered platelet count secondary to portal hypertension. Altered routine tests and thrombocytopenia were considered in the past as associated with increased risk of bleeding. These concepts explain both the routine use of plasma and/or platelets transfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially before invasive procedures, and why these patients were considered "auto-anticoagulated"...
March 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262630/-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-peginterferon-and-ribavirin-in-iceland-from-2002-2012
#12
Benedikt Fridriksson, Ottar Mar Bergmann, Sigurdur Olafsson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in Western countries. Its treatment aims at eradicating the virus and patients are considered cured if the virus is undetectable by PCR in blood 12-24 weeks after end of treatment (sustained virological response, SVR). The aim of this study is to investigate the results of treating hepatitis C in Iceland during the period 2002-2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study including all patients with hepatitis C receiving treatment with peginterferone and ribavirin at Landspitali University hospital during the period 2002-2012...
2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148795/hepatitis-b-virus-encoded-microrna-controls-viral-replication
#13
Xi Yang, Hongfeng Li, Huahui Sun, Hongxia Fan, Yaqi Hu, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, single-stranded, noncoding, functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and Northern blotting. HBV-miR-3 is located at nucleotides (nt) 373 to 393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5-kb, 2.4-kb, and 2.1-kb HBV in a classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer-dependent) manner...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869108/limonene-in-exhaled-breath-is-elevated-in-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
M E O'Hara, R Fernández Del Río, A Holt, P Pemberton, T Shah, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Breath samples were taken from 31 patients with liver disease and 30 controls in a clinical setting and proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-Quad-MS) used to measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All patients had cirrhosis of various etiologies, with some also suffering from hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and/or hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Breath limonene was higher in patients with No-HCC than with HCC, median (lower/upper quartile) 14.2 (7.2/60.1) versus 3.6 (2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836249/characteristics-of-liver-cirrhosis-in-italy-evidence-for-a-decreasing-role-of-hcv-aetiology
#15
Tommaso Stroffolini, Evangelista Sagnelli, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Caterina Sagnelli, Angelo Andriulli, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Mario Pirisi, Guido Colloredo, Filomena Morisco, Caterina Furlan, Piero Luigi Almasio
BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been the main agent associated with liver cirrhosis in Italy. AIM: To assess epidemiological, laboratory and clinical features of liver cirrhosis in Italy in 2014. PATIENTS: Out of the 2557 consecutive subjects evaluated in 16 hospitals located throughout Italy in 2014, 832 (32.6%) had liver cirrhosis and were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 60...
March 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788713/-cholesterol-metabolism-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
Z Z Ma, L G Lu
The disease spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes non-alcoholic simple fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as well as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, with the most serious type being NASH. The morbidity of NAFLD is seeing an increase year by year in the world, and it is a common cause of chronic hepatic disease and lacks effective treatment. The pathogenesis of NASH is still unknown, and the "two-hit" hypothesis was used to explain the mechanism of NASH...
August 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784437/-environmental-factors-and-primary-biliary-cirrhosis
#17
L P Chen, H Zhao, B Lyu, J L Cheng
The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761438/treatment-for-hepatitis-b-in-patients-with-drug-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711945/-laboratory-requirements-to-diagnose-viral-hepatitis-under-the%C3%A2-development-of-guidelines
#19
Hans Becker, Jona Theodor Stahmeyer, Michael P Manns, Christian Krauth, Markus Cornberg
Infections with hepatitis B-, C- and D- viruses have a significant health burden. In Germany, the seroprevalence of HBs-Ag is calculated with 0.6 % and of HCV-antibodies with 0.3 %. However, most patients are not diagnosed. Sequelae are liver-cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several S3-guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis have been established. However, implementation of guidelines is not easy to evaluate. To estimate the changes of medical knowledge and diagnostic procedures about viral hepatitis, 7 parameters of liver-diagnostics were elected to analyze the requirements profile in the years 2005 - 2011 in 4 German federal states...
January 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706460/alteration-of-taste-buds-in-experimental-cirrhosis-is-there-correlation-with-human-hypogeusia
#20
Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Silvia Bona, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt Cerski, Norma Possa Marroni, Claudio Augusto Marroni
Background: The inherent complications of cirrhosis include protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.Changes in taste are detrimental to the nutritional status, and the mechanism to explain these changes is not well documented in the cirrhotic patients. Objective: To evaluate the taste buds of cirrhotic rats. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats were evaluated. After 16 weeks, the liver was removed to histologically diagnose cirrhosis, and blood was collected to perform liver integrity tests...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
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