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Liver cirrhosis explained

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324773/haptoglobin-is-frequently-low-in-patients-with-myelofibrosis-clinical-relevance
#1
Paolo Strati, Lucia Masarova, Prithviraj Bose, Naval Daver, Naveen Pemmaraju, Srdan Verstovsek
A recent study, showing the absence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in myelofibrosis, has reopened the debate around the role of decreased haptoglobin in this disease. We present here a large prospective analysis of the clinical significance of low haptoglobin in 152 patients with myelofibrosis. Low haptoglobin (<32mg/dL) was observed in 50 patients (33%). Decreased haptoglobin did not associate with low hemoglobin levels, positive Coombs test or abnormal liver function tests, suggesting it is not result of autoimmune hemolytic anemia or liver cirrhosis...
March 8, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322544/graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-as-novel-nanozymes-for-alcohol-intoxication
#2
Anqi Sun, Li Mu, Xiangang Hu
Alcohol overconsumption as a worldwide issue results in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), such as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The treatment of ALD has been widely investigated but remains challenging. In this work, the protective effects of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) as novel nanozymes against alcohol overconsumption are discovered, and the specific mechanisms underlying these effects are elucidated via omics analysis. GOQDs dramatically alleviate the reduction of cell viability induced by ethanol and can act as nanozymes to accelerate ethanol metabolism and avoid the accumulation of toxic intermediates in cells...
March 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288507/anticoagulation-in-cirrhosis-a-new-paradigm
#3
Filippo Leonardi, Nicola De Maria, Erica Villa
The liver plays a crucial role in coagulation cascade. Global hemostatic process is profoundly influenced by the presence of liver disease and its complications. Patients with cirrhosis have impaired synthesis of most of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis process due to a reduced liver function and altered platelet count secondary to portal hypertension. Altered routine tests and thrombocytopenia were considered in the past as associated with increased risk of bleeding. These concepts explain both the routine use of plasma and/or platelets transfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially before invasive procedures, and why these patients were considered "auto-anticoagulated"...
March 14, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262630/-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-peginterferon-and-ribavirin-in-iceland-from-2002-2012
#4
Benedikt Fridriksson, Ottar Mar Bergmann, Sigurdur Olafsson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in Western countries. Its treatment aims at eradicating the virus and patients are considered cured if the virus is undetectable by PCR in blood 12-24 weeks after end of treatment (sustained virological response, SVR). The aim of this study is to investigate the results of treating hepatitis C in Iceland during the period 2002-2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study including all patients with hepatitis C receiving treatment with peginterferone and ribavirin at Landspitali University hospital during the period 2002-2012...
2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148795/hepatitis-b-virus-encoded-mirna-controls-viral-replication
#5
Xi Yang, Hongfeng Li, Huahui Sun, Hongxia Fan, Yaqi Hu, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded non-coding functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and northern blot. HBV-miR-3 is located at nts 373-393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5Kb, 2,4Kb and 2.1Kb HBV in classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer dependent) manner. HBV-miR-3 was highly expressed in hepatoma cell lines with an integrated HBV genome and HBV (+) hepatoma tumors...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869108/limonene-in-exhaled-breath-is-elevated-in-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
M E O'Hara, R Fernández Del Río, A Holt, P Pemberton, T Shah, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Breath samples were taken from 31 patients with liver disease and 30 controls in a clinical setting and proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-Quad-MS) used to measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All patients had cirrhosis of various etiologies, with some also suffering from hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and/or hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Breath limonene was higher in patients with No-HCC than with HCC, median (lower/upper quartile) 14.2 (7.2/60.1) versus 3.6 (2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836249/characteristics-of-liver-cirrhosis-in-italy-evidence-for-a-decreasing-role-of-hcv-aetiology
#7
Tommaso Stroffolini, Evangelista Sagnelli, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Caterina Sagnelli, Angelo Andriulli, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Mario Pirisi, Guido Colloredo, Filomena Morisco, Caterina Furlan, Piero Luigi Almasio
BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been the main agent associated with liver cirrhosis in Italy. AIM: To assess epidemiological, laboratory and clinical features of liver cirrhosis in Italy in 2014. PATIENTS: Out of the 2557 consecutive subjects evaluated in 16 hospitals located throughout Italy in 2014, 832 (32.6%) had liver cirrhosis and were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 60...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788713/-cholesterol-metabolism-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
Z Z Ma, L G Lu
The disease spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes non-alcoholic simple fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as well as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, with the most serious type being NASH. The morbidity of NAFLD is seeing an increase year by year in the world, and it is a common cause of chronic hepatic disease and lacks effective treatment. The pathogenesis of NASH is still unknown, and the "two-hit" hypothesis was used to explain the mechanism of NASH...
August 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784437/-environmental-factors-and-primary-biliary-cirrhosis
#9
L P Chen, H Zhao, B Lyu, J L Cheng
The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761438/treatment-for-hepatitis-b-in-patients-with-drug-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711945/-laboratory-requirements-to-diagnose-viral-hepatitis-under-the%C3%A2-development-of-guidelines
#11
Hans Becker, Jona Theodor Stahmeyer, Michael P Manns, Christian Krauth, Markus Cornberg
Infections with hepatitis B-, C- and D- viruses have a significant health burden. In Germany, the seroprevalence of HBs-Ag is calculated with 0.6 % and of HCV-antibodies with 0.3 %. However, most patients are not diagnosed. Sequelae are liver-cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several S3-guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis have been established. However, implementation of guidelines is not easy to evaluate. To estimate the changes of medical knowledge and diagnostic procedures about viral hepatitis, 7 parameters of liver-diagnostics were elected to analyze the requirements profile in the years 2005 - 2011 in 4 German federal states...
January 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706460/alteration-of-taste-buds-in-experimental-cirrhosis-is-there-correlation-with-human-hypogeusia
#12
Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Silvia Bona, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt Cerski, Norma Possa Marroni, Claudio Augusto Marroni
Background: The inherent complications of cirrhosis include protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.Changes in taste are detrimental to the nutritional status, and the mechanism to explain these changes is not well documented in the cirrhotic patients. Objective: To evaluate the taste buds of cirrhotic rats. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats were evaluated. After 16 weeks, the liver was removed to histologically diagnose cirrhosis, and blood was collected to perform liver integrity tests...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593544/randomised-clinical-trial-the-effects-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-vs-placebo-on-innate-immune-function-bacterial-translocation-and-gut-permeability-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#13
A Horvath, B Leber, B Schmerboeck, M Tawdrous, G Zettel, A Hartl, T Madl, S Stryeck, D Fuchs, S Lemesch, P Douschan, E Krones, W Spindelboeck, F Durchschein, F Rainer, G Zollner, R E Stauber, P Fickert, P Stiegler, V Stadlbauer
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may correct intestinal dysbiosis and proinflammatory conditions in patients with liver cirrhosis. AIM: To test the effects of a multispecies probiotic on innate immune function, bacterial translocation and gut permeability. METHODS: In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study, stable cirrhotic out-patients either received a daily dose of a probiotic powder containing eight different bacterial strains (Ecologic Barrier, Winclove, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) (n = 44) or a placebo (n = 36) for 6 months and were followed up for another 6 months...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575312/the-genetics-of-alcohol-dependence-and-alcohol-related-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Felix Stickel, Christophe Moreno, Jochen Hampe, Marsha Y Morgan
The susceptibility to developing alcohol dependence and significant alcohol-related liver injury is determined by a number of constitutional, environmental and genetic factors, although the nature and level of interplay between them remains unclear. The familiality and heritability of alcohol dependence is well-documented but, to date, no strong candidate genes conferring increased risk have emerged, although variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase have been shown to confer protection, predominantly in individuals of East Asian ancestry...
January 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541820/-wine-consumption-and-prevention-of-coronary-artery-disease
#15
M Flesch, S Morbach, E Erdmann, D Bulut
There is a J-shaped correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed per day and overall mortality risk and an inverse correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed per day and cardiovascular mortality. The evidence is stronger for men than for women. The correlations are independent of the type of alcoholic beverage predominantly consumed. Possible mechanisms explaining the cardioprotective, antiatherosclerotic effects of moderate alcohol consumption are inhibition of platelet aggregation, increase in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and prevention of diabetes mellitus...
September 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515958/gut-microbiota-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#16
Emidio Scarpellini, Mariana Forlino, Marinella Lupo, Carlo Rasetti, Giammarco Fava, Ludovico Abenavoli, Adriano De Santis
The gut-liver axis model has often explained liver disease physiopathology. Among the latter we can mention Non-Alcoholic Liver Steatosis (NAFLD), Liver Steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis. In this frame an altered Intestinal Permeability (IP) is the gate for antigenic/toxic substances from gut lumen until target organs such as liver in NAFLD. Altered intestinal permeability was discovered almost forty years ago as consequence of acute and chronic alcohol ingestion. Alcohol Liver Disease (ALD) is a systemic pathology whose beginning and end belong to the intestine...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515817/novel-rna-binding-activity-of-nqo1-promotes-serpina1-mrna-translation
#17
Andrea Di Francesco, Clara Di Germanio, Amaresh C Panda, Phu Huynh, Robert Peaden, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Paul Bastian, Elin Lehrmann, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, David Ross, David Siegel, Jennifer L Martindale, Michel Bernier, Myriam Gorospe, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Rafael de Cabo
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is essential for cell defense against reactive oxidative species, cancer, and metabolic stress. Recently, NQO1 was found in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, but NQO1-interacting mRNAs and the functional impact of such interactions are not known. Here, we used ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) and microarray analysis to identify comprehensively the subset of NQO1 target mRNAs in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. One of its main targets, SERPINA1 mRNA, encodes the serine protease inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin, A1AT, which is associated with disorders including obesity-related metabolic inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
October 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468569/serum-sialic-acid-concentration-and-content-in-apob-containing-lipoproteins-in-liver-diseases
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Monika Gudowska, Ewa Gruszewska, Bogdan Cylwik, Anatol Panasiuk, Robert Filisiak, Maciej Szmitkowski, Lech Chrostek
BACKGROUND: The great significance for the metabolism of lipoproteins is the composition of carbohydrate chain of apolipoproteins, where sialic acid (SA) is located. In VILDL and LDL sialic acid is attached to apolipoprotein B. The sialylation of serum proteins including apolipoprotein B can be affected in the course of liver diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of liver diseases on the concentration and content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins. METHODS: The tested group consisted of 165 patients (118 males, 47 females) with liver diseases: alcoholic cirrhosis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis, and liver cancer...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414787/-effect-of-hepatitis-c-virus-proteins-on-the-production-of-proinflammatory-and-profibrotic-cytokines-in-huh7-5-human-hepatoma-cells
#19
O V Masalova, E I Lesnova, K Yu Permyakova, E I Samokhvalov, A V Ivanov, S N Kochetkov, A A Kushch
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a widespread dangerous human pathogen. Up to 80% of HCV-infected individuals develop chronic infection, which is often accompanied by liver inflammation and fibrosis and, at terminal stages, liver cirrhosis and cancer. Treatment of patients with end-stage liver disease is often ineffective, and even patients with suppressed HCV replication have higher risk of death as compared with noninfected subjects. Therefore, investigating the mechanisms that underlie HCV pathogenesis and developing treatments for virus-associated liver dysfunction remain an important goal...
May 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399349/impaired-follistatin-secretion-in-cirrhosis
#20
Anders Rasmussen Rinnov, Peter Plomgaard, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Lise Lotte Gluud
CONTEXT: Follistatin is a liver-derived inhibitor of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin. Reduction in acute follistatin release may help explain muscle loss in liver cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the capacity of acute follistatin release in patients with liver cirrhosis compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis patients with eight healthy control participants...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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