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Liver cirrhosis explained

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454902/syndecan-1-inhibits-early-stages-of-liver-fibrogenesis-by-interfering-with-tgf%C3%AE-1-action-and-upregulating-mmp14
#1
Eszter Regős, Hadeer Hesham Abdelfattah, Andrea Reszegi, László Szilák, Klára Werling, Gábor Szabó, András Kiss, Zsuzsa Schaff, Ilona Kovalszky, Kornélia Baghy
Increased expression of syndecan-1 is a characteristic feature of human liver cirrhosis. However, no data are available on the significance of this alteration. To address this question we designed a transgenic mouse strain that driven by albumin promoter, expresses human syndecan-1 in the hepatocytes. Liver cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide in wild type and hSDC1+/+ mice of the identical strain. The process of fibrogenesis, changes in signal transduction and proteoglycan expression were followed. In an in vitro experiment, the effect of syndecan-1 overexpression on the action of TGFβ1 was determined...
February 15, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427373/advanced-cirrhosis-drives-enhanced-b-cell-differentiation-resulting-in-hyperglobulinemia
#2
Hiroyoshi Doi, Eiichi Hayashi, Jun Arai, Masayuki Tojo, Kenichi Morikawa, Junichi Eguchi, Takayoshi Ito, Tatsuya Kanto, David E Kaplan, Hitoshi Yoshida
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The mechanism underlying hyperglobulinemia in cirrhosis, a long appreciated phenomenon, has never been clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the basis for changes in humoral immunity observed in cirrhosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our medical record to analyze serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with liver disease. We also prospectively analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and sera from liver disease patients...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359014/recent-trends-in-liver-transplantation-for-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-the-united-states
#3
Catherine E Kling, James D Perkins, Robert L Carithers, Dennis M Donovan, Lena Sibulesky
AIM: To examine temporal changes in the indications for liver transplantation (LT) and characteristics of patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of trends in the indication for LT using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database between 2002 and 2015. Patients were grouped by etiology of the liver disease and characteristics were compared using χ2 and t-tests. Time series analysis was used identifying any year with a significant change in the number of transplants per year for ALD, and before and after eras were modeled using a general linear model...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318378/mac-2-binding-protein-glycan-isomer-m2bpgi-is-a-new-serum-biomarker-for-assessing-liver-fibrosis-more-than-a-biomarker-of-liver-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Ken Shirabe, Yuki Bekki, Dolgormaa Gantumur, Kenichiro Araki, Norihiro Ishii, Atsushi Kuno, Hisashi Narimatsu, Masashi Mizokami
Assessing liver fibrosis is important for predicting the efficacy of antiviral therapy and patient prognosis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing liver fibrosis, despite its invasiveness and problematic diagnostic accuracy. Although noninvasive techniques to assess liver fibrosis are becoming important, reliable serum surrogate markers are not available. A glycoproteomics study aimed at identifying such markers discovered Mac 2-Binding Protein Gylcan Isomer (M2BPGi), which is a reliable marker for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis and other fibrotic liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis, biliary atresia, autoimmune hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309369/incidence-and-outcomes-for-patients-with-cirrhosis-admitted-to-the-united-kingdom-critical-care-units
#5
Mark J W McPhail, Francesca Parrott, Julia A Wendon, David A Harrison, Kathy A Rowan, William Bernal
OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiology and outcome of patients with cirrhosis following critical care unit admission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Critical care units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland participating in the U.K. Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre Case Mix Programme. PATIENTS: Thirty-one thousand three hundred sixty-three patients with cirrhosis identified of 1,168,650 total critical care unit admissions (2...
January 5, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163959/the-gut-microbiota-a-new-potential-driving-force-in-liver-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Marco Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Alba Rocco, Debora Compare, Gerardo Nardone
The gut microbiota has recently been recognized as a major environmental factor in the pathophysiology of many human diseases. The anatomical and function connection existing between gut and liver provides the theoretical basis to assume the liver is a major target for gut microbes. In the last decades, numerous studies reported an altered composition of gut microbiota in patients with liver cirrhosis and a progressively marked dysbiosis with worsening of the liver disease. The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, the deadliest complication of liver cirrhosis, is widely variable among cirrhotic patients, thus suggesting a complexity of genetic and environmental factors implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis...
November 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155718/the-murine-choline-deficient-ethionine-supplemented-cde-diet-model-of-chronic-liver-injury
#7
Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Julia Köhn-Gaone, Corey Giles, Dirk Schmidt-Arras, Francis D Gratte, Caryn L Elsegood, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Grant A Ramm, John K Olynyk, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
Chronic liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are characterized by continual inflammation, progressive destruction and regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma, liver progenitor cell proliferation, and fibrosis. The end-stage of every chronic liver disease is cirrhosis, a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. To study processes regulating disease initiation, establishment, and progression, several animal models are used in laboratories...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155355/molecular-ellipticity-of-circulating-albumin-bilirubin-complex-associates-with-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#8
Sukanta Das, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Rakhi Maiwall, S M Shasthry, Md Shabir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, S Sukriti, T P Singh, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperbilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia are features of hepatic dysfunction that associate with disease severity. This is because hepatic insufficiency causes hypoalbuminemia, which indirectly increases the circulating levels of free bilirubin. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy can be used to quantify the molecular ellipticity (ME) of the albumin-bilirubin complex, and might associate with the severity or outcome of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 265 patients with SAH admitted in the Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences in New Delhi, India from January 2014 through January 2016...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135986/splenomegaly-diagnostic-validity-work-up-and-underlying-causes
#9
Emelie Curovic Rotbain, Dennis Lund Hansen, Ove Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Flemming Wibrand, Allan Meldgaard Lund, Henrik Frederiksen
PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess the validity of the ICD-10 code for splenomegaly in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP), as well as to investigate which underlying diseases explained the observed splenomegaly. BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is a common finding in patients referred to an internal medical department and can be caused by a large spectrum of diseases, including haematological diseases and liver cirrhosis. However, some patients remain without a causal diagnosis, despite extensive medical work-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963470/toll-like-receptor7-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-disease-susceptibility-and-progression-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection
#10
Junping Zhu, Tong Zhang, Lina Cao, Aixin Li, Kai Zheng, Nan Zhang, Bin Su, Zhiyun Chen, Ning Chen, Hao Wu, Qiushui He
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity, protecting the host from viral pathogens. We studied the effect of TLR7 polymorphisms on disease susceptibility and progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in Chinese adults. Blood samples were taken from 612 patients with confirmed CHB, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 293 controls. TLR7 polymorphisms (rs179010-C > T, rs2074109-T > C, and rs179009-A > G) were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954926/rnai-based-treatment-of-chronically-infected-patients-and-chimpanzees-reveals-that-integrated-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-is-a-source-of-hbsag
#11
Christine I Wooddell, Man-Fung Yuen, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Robert G Gish, Stephen A Locarnini, Deborah Chavez, Carlo Ferrari, Bruce D Given, James Hamilton, Steven B Kanner, Ching-Lung Lai, Johnson Y N Lau, Thomas Schluep, Zhao Xu, Robert E Lanford, David L Lewis
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern worldwide, frequently leading to liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence suggests that high viral antigen load may play a role in chronicity. Production of viral proteins is thought to depend on transcription of viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). In a human clinical trial with an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic targeting HBV transcripts, ARC-520, HBV S antigen (HBsAg) was strongly reduced in treatment-naïve patients positive for HBV e antigen (HBeAg) but was reduced significantly less in patients who were HBeAg-negative or had received long-term therapy with nucleos(t)ide viral replication inhibitors (NUCs)...
September 27, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877220/attenuated-lipotoxicity-and-apoptosis-is-linked-to-exogenous-and-endogenous-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-by-different-pathways
#12
Thomas S Weiss, Madeleine Lupke, Sara Ibrahim, Christa Buechler, Julia Lorenz, Petra Ruemmele, Ute Hofmann, Michael Melter, Rania Dayoub
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum) -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa) or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG), mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738321/serum-phospholipid-fatty-acid-composition-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-and-without-liver-cirrhosis
#13
Sławomira Drzymała-Czyż, Mariusz Szczepanik, Patrycja Krzyżanowska, Monika Duś-Żuchowska, Andrzej Pogorzelski, Ewa Sapiejka, Paweł Juszczak, Aleksandra Lisowska, Berthold Koletzko, Jarosław Walkowiak
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cystic fibrosis (CF) liver disease is the third most frequent cause of death in CF patients. Although it alters fatty acid (FA) metabolism, data concerning the profile of FA in CF patients with liver cirrhosis is lacking. This study aimed to assess the FA composition of serum phospholipids in CF patients with and without liver cirrhosis. METHODS: The study comprised 25 CF patients with liver cirrhosis and 25 without it. We assessed Z-scores for body height and weight, lung function, exocrine pancreatic sufficiency and colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704077/the-assessment-and-care-of-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
Palle Bager
This article provides an overview of the metabolic brain dysfunction hepatic encephalopathy (HE). HE is caused by severe liver cirrhosis and patients will often be treated in a liver unit, but patients with symptoms of HE may require nursing care anywhere in the healthcare system. Therefore it is beneficial for all nurses to have a basic knowledge of HE and this article explains the symptoms and treatment. Possible differential diagnoses are presented, as well as factors that can trigger episodes of HE. Both patients' and relatives' experiences are examined...
July 13, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695316/interobserver-variability-in-target-volume-delineation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-the-working-group-stereotactic-radiotherapy-of-the-german-society-for-radiation-oncology-degro
#15
E Gkika, S Tanadini-Lang, S Kirste, P A Holzner, H P Neeff, H C Rischke, T Reese, F Lohaus, M N Duma, K Dieckmann, R Semrau, M Stockinger, D Imhoff, N Kremers, M F Häfner, N Andratschke, U Nestle, A L Grosu, M Guckenberger, T B Brunner
BACKGROUND: Definition of gross tumor volume (GTV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires dedicated imaging in multiple contrast medium phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interobserver agreement (IOA) in gross tumor delineation of HCC in a multicenter panel. METHODS: The analysis was performed within the "Stereotactic Radiotherapy" working group of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). The GTVs of three anonymized HCC cases were delineated by 16 physicians from nine centers using multiphasic CT scans...
October 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691103/role-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-risk-factor-for-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#16
Julie Massart, Karima Begriche, Caroline Moreau, Bernard Fromenty
BACKGROUND: Obesity is often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which refers to a large spectrum of hepatic lesions including fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Different investigations showed or suggested that obesity and NAFLD are able to increase the risk of hepatotoxicity of different drugs. Some of these drugs could induce more frequently an acute hepatitis in obese individuals whereas others could worsen pre-existing NAFLD. AIM: The main objective of the present review was to collect the available information regarding the role of NAFLD as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676024/nafld-nash-an-under-recognized-epidemic
#17
Joseph Jennings, Charles Faselis, Michael D Yao
First described in 1980, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become more common although the exact incidence and prevalence is unknown. While the exact prevalence varies from region to region, the overall trend shows an increased number of patients with NAFLD. Risk factors for the development of NAFLD includes advanced age, male gender, obesity, and having elements of the metabolic syndrome. There is also an association between the presence of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerosis. Persons of Hispanic descent tend to have higher rates of NAFLD when compared with other populations...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611273/racial-disparities-in-hepatitis-c-treatment-eligibility
#18
Omar Sims, David Pollio, Barry Hong, Carol North
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is more prevalent in African Americans than in any other racial group in the United States. However, African Americans are more likely to be deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than non-African Americans. There has been limited research into the origins of racial disparities in HCV treatment eligibility. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare medical and non-medical characteristics commonly assessed in clinical practice that could potentially contribute to HCV treatment ineligibility disparities between African American and non-African American patients...
July 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590037/epigenetic-effects-of-an-adenosine-derivative-in-a-wistar-rat-model-of-liver-cirrhosis
#19
Jesús Rafael Rodríguez-Aguilera, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Rosario Pérez-Molina, Carla Elizabeth Cadena-Del-Castillo, Rebeca Pérez-Cabeza de Vaca, Nuria Guerrero-Celis, Mariana Domínguez-López, Adrián Rafael Murillo-de-Ozores, Rodrigo Arzate-Mejía, Félix Recillas-Targa, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The pathological characteristic of cirrhosis is scarring which results in a structurally distorted and dysfunctional liver. Previously, we demonstrated that Col1a1 and Pparg genes are deregulated in CCl4 -induced cirrhosis but their normal expression levels are recovered upon treatment with IFC-305, an adenosine derivative. We observed that adenosine was able to modulate S-adenosylmethionine-dependent trans-methylation reactions, and recently, we found that IFC-305 modulates HDAC3 expression. Here, we investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms, involving DNA methylation processes and histone acetylation, could explain the re-establishment of gene expression mediated by IFC-305 in cirrhosis...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551668/occupational-risk-for-oral-cancer-in-nordic-countries
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Laura Tarvainen, Juho Suojanen, Pentti Kyyronen, Christian Lindqvist, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Kristina Kjaerheim, Elsebeth Lynge, Par Sparen, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Elisabete Weiderpass, Eero Pukkala
AIM: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
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