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Gen Kanayama, Harrison G Pope, James I Hudson
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is known to be associated with other psychiatric disorders, such as body image disorders, conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other substance use disorders (SUD) - but the causal pathways among these conditions remain poorly delineated. METHODS: We created a directed acyclic graph to diagram hypothesized relationships among AAS use and dependence, body image disorder (BID), conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other SUD...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Andreas Mokros, Robert D Hare, Craig S Neumann, Pekka Santtila, Elmar Habermeyer, Joachim Nitschke
As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27)...
May 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
D F Thompson, C L Ramos, J K Willett
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by deficits in personality and behaviour. Personality deficits are marked by interpersonal and affective facets, including pathological lying, grandiose sense of self-worth, lack of remorse and callousness. Behavioural deficits are defined by lifestyle and antisocial deficits, including impulsivity, parasitic lifestyle and poor behavioural controls. The objective of this review is to provide clinicians with (i) an appreciation of the clinical features of psychopathy, (ii) an understanding of the structural and functional derangements and the genetic and environmental factors which serve as the basis for the development of psychopathy and (iii) a summary of published reports of pharmacological approaches to the management of this disorder...
October 2014: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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2013: Psychiatry
Bariş O Yildirim, Jan J L Derksen
Since its theoretical inception, psychopathy has been considered by philosophers, clinicians, theorists, and empirical researchers to be substantially and critically explained by genetic factors. In this systematic review and structural analysis, new hypotheses will be introduced regarding gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of psychopathy and sociopathy. Theory and research from neurobiological and behavioral sciences will be integrated in order to place this work in a broader conceptual framework and promote synergy across fields...
August 2013: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Alex B Neitzke
I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination...
December 2012: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Steve W C Chang, Jean-François Gariépy, Michael L Platt
Social decisions are crucial for the success of individuals and the groups that they comprise. Group members respond vicariously to benefits obtained by others, and impairments in this capacity contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and sociopathy. We examined the manner in which neurons in three frontal cortical areas encoded the outcomes of social decisions as monkeys performed a reward-allocation task. Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) predominantly encoded rewards that were delivered to oneself...
February 2013: Nature Neuroscience
Gabriele Cipriani, Gemma Borin, Marcella Vedovello, Andrea Di Fiorino, Angelo Nuti
The maintenance of appropriate social behavior is a very complex process with many contributing factors. Social and moral judgments rely on the proper functioning of neural circuits concerned with complex cognitive and emotional processes. Damage to these systems may lead to distinct social behavior abnormalities. When patients present with dysmoral behavior for the first time, as a change from a prior pervasive pattern of behavior, clinicians need to consider a possible, causative brain disorder. The aim is to explore sociopathy as a manifestation of dementia...
June 2013: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Michael H Rosenbloom, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Bruce H Price
Decision-making is a complex executive function that draws on past experience, present goals, and anticipation of outcome, and which is influenced by prevailing and predicted emotional tone and cultural context. Functional imaging investigations and focal lesion studies identify the orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as critical to decision-making. The authors review the connections of these prefrontal regions with the neocortex, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, highlight current ideas regarding the cognitive processes of decision-making that these networks subserve, and present a novel integrated neuroanatomical model for decision-making...
2012: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ch Tsopelas, M Armenaka
Mental health professionals seldom recognize psychopathy in their daily practice. Usually forensic psychiatrists and psychologists are involved because individuals with psychopathic personality are involved in serious criminal behavior and implicated with the law. Most of the times the profiles of children who evolve in adult psychopaths have components from other disorders, especially conduct disorder. The term psychopathy originates from the Greek words "psyche" (soul) and "pathos" (passion) and was used to identify initially every mental illness...
June 2012: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
John F Edens, Jennifer Cox
Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently...
May 2012: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
John D Corrigan, Jennifer Bogner, Christopher Holloman
OBJECTIVE: Determine (a) if there are sub-groups of individuals with substance use disorders distinguished by their pattern of sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) over the lifetime and (b) whether sub-group membership affects current functioning. DESIGN: Secondary analysis. SETTINGS: Outpatient substance abuse treatment programme and state prison. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and fifty-seven participants with lifetime histories of both TBI and substance used disorder drawn from two previous studies of (a) persons in substance abuse treatment and (b) prison inmates...
2012: Brain Injury: [BI]
Mario F Mendez, Jill S Shapira, Ronald E Saul
Although well-known from head trauma and acute strokes, sociopathic behavior from dementia is less known and understood. This study reviewed 33 dementia patients who had been in trouble with the law. They were divided into two groups: 22 who committed impulsive sociopathic acts and 11 who committed non-impulsive acts. The impulsive patients demonstrated nonviolent acts, such as disinhibited sexual behavior or pathological stealing, and had disproportionate frontal-caudate atrophy on neuroimaging. The majority of non-impulsive patients demonstrated agitation-paranoia, sometimes with reactive aggression, delusional beliefs, or aphasic paranoia, and had advanced memory and other cognitive impairment...
2011: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Morten Hesse
Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings...
2010: BMC Medicine
Tija Zarković Palijan, Sanja Radeljak, Marina Kovac, Drazen Kovacević
Violence is an important social problem. Violence in the community has important social relevance for the political, criminal justice, and health care systems. Studies of homicide offenders have suggested a high prevalence of neurologic dysfunction due to organic brain damage such as traumatic brain injury, epilepsy and dementia have been observed to exhibit excessive violence. Moreover, violence in the mentally ill can be viewed as an important medical and mental health problem with significant implications for forensic psychiatry and the community...
June 2010: Psychiatria Danubina
Aryeh I Herman, Tamlin S Conner, Raymond F Anton, Joel Gelernter, Henry R Kranzler, Jonathan Covault
The present study examined the association between a measure of sociopathy and 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sample of individuals from Project MATCH, a multi-center alcohol treatment trial. 5-HTTLPR, an insertion-deletion polymorphism in SLC6A4, the gene encoding the serotonin transporter protein, results in functionally distinct long (L) and short (S) alleles. The S allele has been associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders and symptoms including alcohol dependence, but it is unknown whether 5-HTTLPR increases the risk for co-morbid sociopathy among those with alcohol dependence...
January 2011: Addiction Biology
J Narvid, M L Gorno-Tempini, A Slavotinek, S J Dearmond, Y H Cha, B L Miller, K Rankin
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive decline in social conduct and a focal pattern of frontal and temporal lobe damage. Its biological basis is still poorly understood but the focality of the brain degeneration provides a powerful model to study the cognitive and anatomical basis of social cognition. Here, we present Dr. A, a patient with a rare hereditary bone disease (hereditary multiple exostoses) and FTD (pathologically characterized as Pick's disease), who presented with a profound behavioral disturbance characterized by acquired sociopathy...
June 2009: Neurocase
Mario F Mendez
Morality may be innate to the human brain. This review examines the neurobiological evidence from research involving functional magnetic resonance imaging of normal subjects, developmental sociopathy, acquired sociopathy from brain lesions, and frontotemporal dementia. These studies indicate a "neuromoral" network for responding to moral dilemmas centered in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and its connections, particularly on the right. The neurobiological evidence indicates the existence of automatic "prosocial" mechanisms for identification with others that are part of the moral brain...
November 2009: CNS Spectrums
Jitendra K Trivedi, Himanshu Sareen, Mohan Dhyani
Rapid increase in urban population as a proportion of total population is resulting in rapid urbanization of the world. By the end of 2008, a majority of the world's population will be living in the cities. This paradigm shift in the dynamics of human population is attracting attention of demographers, sociologists, scientists, and politicians alike. Urbanization brings with it a unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Though it is driving the economies of most of the nations of the world, a serious concern regarding the impact of urbanization on mental health is warranted...
July 2008: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Eve Caligor, Barry L Stern, Margaret Hamilton, Verna Maccornack, Lionel Wininger, Joel Sneed, Steven P Roose
One hundred consecutive patients applying for analysis completed a comprehensive battery of structured interviews and self-report questionnaires assessing dimensions of psychopathology and psychological functions that analysts consider important when evaluating patients for analysis. Patients were evaluated for analysis by a candidate supervised by a training analyst. Fifty patients were accepted for analysis and fifty rejected. In both groups, psychiatric morbidity and psychosocial impairment were high, with a 50% current and 74% lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder, 56% current and 61% lifetime history of anxiety disorder...
June 2009: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
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