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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341396/pediatrics-and-donor-derived-disease-transmission-the-us-optn-experience
#1
Michael Green, Shandie Covington, Sarah Taranto, Marian G Michaels, Cameron Wolfe, Daniel R Kaul
PDDTE are tracked by the OPTN Ad Hoc DTAC. Specific evaluation of potential transmissions from pediatric deceased donors or the impact of donor-derived disease transmissions to pediatric organ recipients has not been previously undertaken. PDDTE reported to the DTAC between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed, characterized as proven, probable, possible, IWDT, unlikely, or excluded for both the whole event and each individual recipient. Pediatric donors and recipients were defined as being 0-17 years of age. Analysis was undertaken to characterize potential disease transmission from pediatric donors to adult or pediatric recipients and also to evaluate potential transmission from all donors to pediatric recipients...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341371/electrochemical-monitoring-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-milk-samples-using-silver-nanoparticles-dispersed-on-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-gqds-nanocomposite
#2
Rana Shadjou, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Mohammad Heidar-Poor, Nasrin Shadjou
Aflatoxins are potential food pollutants produced by fungi. One of important toxins is aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). A great deal of concern is associated with AFM1 toxicity. In the present study, an innovative electrochemical interface for quantitation of AFM1 based on ternary signal amplification strategy was fabricated. In this work, silver nanoparticles was electrodeposited onto green and biocompatible nanocomposite containing α-cyclodextrin as conductive matrix and graphene quantum dots as amplification element...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340841/an-efficient-gene-disruption-method-using-a-positive-negative-split-selection-marker-and-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation-for-nomuraea-rileyi
#3
Yu Su, Zhongkang Wang, Changwen Shao, Yuanli Luo, Li Wang, Youping Yin
Targeted gene disruption via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) and homologous recombination is the most common method used to identify and investigate the functions of genes in fungi. However, the gene disruption efficiency of this method is low due to ectopic integration. In this study, a high-efficiency gene disruption strategy based on ATMT and the split-marker method was developed for use in Nomuraea rileyi. The β-glucuronidase (gus) gene was used as a negative selection marker to facilitate the screening of putative transformants...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339600/scaling-up-and-kinetic-model-validation-of-direct-black-22-degradation-by-immobilized-penicillium-chrysogenum
#4
Ignacio Durruty, Jorge Froilán González, Erika Alejandra Wolski
This research was undertaken to develop tools that facilitate the industrial application of an immobilized loofah-fungi system to degrade Direct Black 22 (DB22) azo dye. In laboratory-scale tests, the DB22, and loofah as support, were used. Assays without loofah were used as a free-cells control. The use of natural carriers to facilitate adhesion and growth of the fungi has shown favorable results. The degradation rate of immobilized cells increased twice as compared to free-cells control. At day 5 the decolorization was almost complete, while without loofah the total decolorization took more than 10 days...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339423/immune-protection-against-lethal-fungal-bacterial-intra-abdominal-infections
#5
Elizabeth A Lilly, Melanie Ikeh, Evelyn E Nash, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339279/green-synthesis-of-antimicrobial-and-antitumor-n-n-n-trimethyl-chitosan-chloride-poly-acrylic-acid-silver-nanocomposites
#6
Mahmoud H Abu Elella, Riham R Mohamed, Marwa M Abdel-Aziz, Magdy W Sabaa
The present study is imported to solve two critical problems we face in our daily life which are microbial pollution and colon cancer. One pot green synthesis of a water soluble polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) between cationic polysaccharide as N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and anionic polymer as poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) in presence of silver nanoparticles to yield (TMC/PAA/Ag) nanocomposites with different Ag weight ratios. Structure of TMC, PAA and TMC/PAA (PEC) were proved via different analysis tools...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339267/effects-of-exotic-plantation-forests-on-soil-edaphon-and-organic-matter-fractions
#7
Gang Xu, Yao Liu, Zhijian Long, Shanglian Hu, Yuanbin Zhang, Hao Jiang
There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339191/current-status-and-perspectives-of-fungal-entomopathogens-used-for-microbial-control-of-arthropod-pests-in-brazil
#8
REVIEW
Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes, Ítalo Delalibera, Éverton Kort Kamp Fernandes, Christian Luz, Marcos Faria
Entomopathogenic fungi play a central role in Brazil's biopesticide market. Approximately 50% of registered microbial biopesticides comprise mycoinsecticides consisting of hypocrealean fungi, with most based on Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.str.) and Beauveria bassiana (s.str.). These fungi are used to control spittlebugs in sugarcane fields and whiteflies in row crops, respectively, with annual applications surpassing three million hectares. Research in Brazil also emphasizes the potential of fungal entomopathogens to manage arthropod vectors of human diseases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338764/cropping-practices-manipulate-abundance-patterns-of-root-and-soil-microbiome-members-paving-the-way-to-smart-farming
#9
Kyle Hartman, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Raphaël A Wittwer, Samiran Banerjee, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Harnessing beneficial microbes presents a promising strategy to optimize plant growth and agricultural sustainability. Little is known to which extent and how specifically soil and plant microbiomes can be manipulated through different cropping practices. Here, we investigated soil and wheat root microbial communities in a cropping system experiment consisting of conventional and organic managements, both with different tillage intensities. RESULTS: While microbial richness was marginally affected, we found pronounced cropping effects on community composition, which were specific for the respective microbiomes...
January 16, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338637/selected-plant-essential-oils-and-their-main-active-components-a-promising-approach-to-inhibit-aflatoxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-production-in-food
#10
José Vicente Gómez, Andrea Tarazona, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Recent research has showed that Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are aflatoxigenic species that can become very competitive in the framework of climate change. Aflatoxins show carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects on human and animals. Effective and sustainable measures to inhibit these species and aflatoxins in food are required. Origanum vulgare and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils (EOs) and their major active constituents, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively, were assayed for inhibiting these species and aflatoxin production in maize extract medium under different environmental conditions...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338603/emerging-roles-of-inositol-pyrophosphates-as-key-modulators-of-fungal-pathogenicity
#11
Hyun Ah Kang
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) are energy-rich small molecules that are omnipresent in eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, playing central roles in overall cellular homeostasis as a diverse and multifaceted class of intracellular messengers. Recent studies of the metabolic pathways and physiological roles of PP-IPs in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans have revealed that the PP-IP5 (IP7) is a key metabolite essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity...
January 17, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338057/rna-sequencing-analysis-of-fungi-induced-transcripts-from-the-bamboo-wireworm-melanotus-cribricollis-coleoptera-elateridae-larvae
#12
Bi-Huan Ye, Ya-Bo Zhang, Jin-Ping Shu, Hong Wu, Hao-Jie Wang
Larvae of Melanotus cribricollis, feed on bamboo shoots and roots, causing serious damage to bamboo in Southern China. However, there is currently no effective control measure to limit the population of this underground pest. Previously, a new entomopathogenic fungal strain isolated from M. cribricollis larvae cadavers named Metarhizium pingshaense WP08 showed high pathogenic efficacy indoors, indicated that the fungus could be used as a bio-control measure. So far, the genetic backgrounds of both M. cribricollis and M...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337927/the-plant-growth-promoting-fungus-pgpf-alternaria-sp-a13-markedly-enhances-salvia-miltiorrhiza-root-growth-and-active-ingredient-accumulation-under-greenhouse-and-field-conditions
#13
Li Si Zhou, Kun Tang, Shun Xing Guo
Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) have attracted considerable interest as bio-fertilisers due to their multiple beneficial effects on plant quantity and quality and their positive relationship with the ecological environment. Advancements in the development of PGPF for crops and economic plant cultivation applications have been achieved, but such improvements for the use of PGPF with popular medicinal herbs, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, are rare. In this study, we collected S. miltiorrhiza specimens inhabiting wild, semi-wild, farmland and pot-cultured areas in the Henan province of China and isolated endophytes from the roots, shoots and leaves of these samples...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337674/a-study-on-blocking-store-operated-ca2-entry-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells-with-xyloketals-from-marine-fungi
#14
Jie-Bin Zhou, Ying-Ying Sun, Ying-Lin Zheng, Chu-Qin Yu, Hua-Qing Lin, Ji-Yan Pang
In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337658/versicolorin-a-is-a-potential-indicator-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-the-granary-stored-corn
#15
Daling Liu, Shuyao Zhang, Hao Wang, Min Yang, Dongsheng Yao, Chunfang Xie
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the predictive monitoring of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) under granary conditions, since mycotoxin contamination of the stored grain represents an important issue. Using the storage test, we investigated the relationship between versicolorin A (Ver A, an intermediate in AFB1 biosynthesis) levels and the levels of aflatoxigenic fungi, and their relationship with aflatoxin production. All samples, except for one, were found to be contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi using PCR analyses, while their AFB1 levels were not detectable before the storage test using an ELISA method with an LOD of 2 μg/kg...
January 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337410/transcriptomic-insight-into-pathogenicity-associated-factors-of-conidiobolus-obscurus-an-obligate-aphid-pathogenic-fungus-from-entomopthoromycota
#16
Jianghong Wang, Xiang Zhou, Kai Guo, Xinqi Zhang, Haipin Lin, Cristian Montalva
BACKGROUND: Conidiobolus obscurus is a wide spread fungal entomopathogen holding aphid biocontrol potential. This study focuses on a de novo transcriptomic analysis of C. obscurus. RESULTS: A number of pathogenicity-associated factors were annotated for the first time from the assembled 17,231 fungal unigenes, including those encoding subtilisin-like proteolytic enzymes (Pr1s), trypsin-like proteases, metalloproteases, carboxypeptidases and endochitinases. Many of these genes were transcriptionally up-regulated by at least twofold in mycotized cadavers compared to the in vitro fungal cultures...
January 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337209/the-role-of-d-allo-isoleucine-in-the-deposition-of-the-anti-leishmania-peptide-bombinin-h4-as-revealed-by-31p-solid-state-nmr-vcd-spectroscopy-and-md-simulation
#17
Batsaikhan Mijiddorj, Shiho Kaneda, Hisako Sato, Yuki Kitahashi, Namsrai Javkhlantugs, Akira Naito, Kazuyoshi Ueda, Izuru Kawamura
Bombinin H4 is an antimicrobial peptide that was isolated from the toad Bombina variegata. Bombinin H family peptides are active against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi as well as the parasite Leishmania. Among them, bombinin H4 (H4), which contains d-allo-isoleucine (d-allo-Ile) as the second residue in its sequence, is the most active, and its l-isomer is bombinin H2 (H2). H4 has a significantly lower LC50 than H2 against Leishmania. However, the atomic-level mechanism of the membrane interaction and higher activity of H4 has not been clarified...
January 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336678/phylogeny-and-diversity-of-the-morphologically-similar-polypore-genera-rigidoporus-physisporinus-oxyporus-and-leucophellinus
#18
Fang Wu, Jia-Jia Chen, Xiao-Hong Ji, Josef Vlasák, Yu-Cheng Dai
Rigidoporus and its morphologically similar genera Physisporinus, Oxyporus, and Leucophellinus, which include some forest pathogens and medicinal species, are very important groups of wood-decaying fungi. Species of these genera have not only ecological functions, but also economic importance. Phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on taxa in these genera were carried out. Inferred from phylogenies based on DNA sequences of the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) and D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA, 36 species sampled that traditionally belong to Physisporinus, Rigidoporus, Leucophellinus, and Oxyporus are nested mostly in eight lineages...
November 20, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336227/extracts-from-lupinus-albescens-antioxidant-power-and-antifungal-activity-in-vitro-against-phytopathogenic-fungi
#19
Tássia C Confortin, Izelmar Todero, Juliana F Soares, Luciana Luft, Thiarles Brun, Jéssica E Rabuske, Cicero U Nogueira, Marcio A Mazutti, Giovani L Zabot, Marcus V Tres
Fungi are considered the most damaging microorganisms in agriculture. The indiscriminate use of chemical treatments in agricultural products causes the development of pest resistance and affects human health. An alternative to synthetic fungicides is the use of natural products such as plant extracts for the management of fungal diseases in plants. Extracts from different parts of Lupinus albescens (roots, stalks, leaves, and flowers) were obtained by extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336199/the-rust-fungus-melampsora-larici-populina-expresses-a-conserved-genetic-program-and-distinct-sets-of-secreted-protein-genes-during-infection-of-its-two-host-plants-larch-and-poplar
#20
Cécile Lorrain, Clémence Marchal, Stéphane Hacquard, Christine Delaruelle, Jérémy Pétrowski, Benjamin Petre, Arnaud Hecker, Pascal Frey, Sebastien Duplessis
Mechanisms required for broad spectrum or specific host colonization of plant parasites are poorly understood. As a perfect illustration, heteroecious rust fungi require two alternate host plants to complete their life cycles. Melampsora larici populina infects two taxonomically unrelated plants, larch on which sexual reproduction is achieved and poplar on which clonal multiplication occurs leading to severe epidemics in plantations. We applied deep RNA sequencing to three key developmental stages of M. larici-populina infection on larch: basidia, pycnia and aecia; and we performed comparative transcriptomics of infection on poplar and larch hosts using available expression data...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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