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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936301/new-furanone-derivatives-and-alkaloids-from-the-co-culture-of-marine-derived-fungi-aspergillus-sclerotiorum-and-penicillium-citrinum
#1
Jie Bao, Jie Wang, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Xu-Hua Nong, Shu-Hua Qi
Six new compounds including two furanone derivatives sclerotiorumins A-B (1-2), one novel oxadiazin derivative sclerotiorumin C (3), one pyrrole derivative 1-(4-benzyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)ethanone (4), and two complexes of neoaspergillic acid aluminiumneohydroxyaspergillin (5) and ferrineohydroxyaspergillin (6) were isolated from the co-culture of marine-derived fungi Aspergillus sclerotiorum and Penicillium citrinum. Compound 3 was the first natural 1,2,4-oxadiazin-6-one. Compound 5 showed significant and selective cytotoxicity against human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line (IC50 = 4...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936070/attraction-oviposition-and-larval-survival-of-the-fungus-gnat-lycoriella-ingenua-on-fungal-species-isolated-from-adults-larvae-and-mushroom-compost
#2
Kevin R Cloonan, Stefanos S Andreadis, Haibin Chen, Nina E Jenkins, Thomas C Baker
We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936063/hydrophobins-in-the-life-cycle-of-the-ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete-tricholoma-vaccinum
#3
Dominik Sammer, Katrin Krause, Matthias Gube, Katharina Wagner, Erika Kothe
Hydrophobins-secreted small cysteine-rich, amphipathic proteins-foster interactions of fungal hyphae with hydrophobic surfaces, and are involved in the formation of aerial hyphae. Phylogenetic analyses of Tricholoma vaccinum hydrophobins showed a grouping with hydrophobins of other ectomycorrhizal fungi, which might be a result of co-evolution. Further analyses indicate angiosperms as likely host trees for the last common ancestor of the genus Tricholoma. The nine hydrophobin genes in the T. vaccinum genome were investigated to infer their individual roles in different stages of the life cycle, host interaction, asexual and sexual development, and with respect to different stresses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935844/cooperative-evolutionary-strategy-between-the-bacteriome-and-mycobiome
#4
Mahmoud Ghannoum
Nonhealing chronic wounds are all unique in origin and circumstance, and attempting to isolate a single etiology for the failure of a wound to heal is daunting. Wounds represent complex systems of multispecies fungal and bacterial biofilms. The survival strategies of interactive microbial communities have led to cooperative evolutionary strategies that culminate in biofilm formation. In microbial dysbiosis, biofilms are beneficial to both bacterial and fungal communities but detrimental to the host. Fungi benefit by a surge in their virulence factors, while bacteria become tolerant to antibacterials as a consequence of living under the protective umbrella of the biofilm matrix...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935835/robust-extracellular-ph-modulation-by-candida-albicans-during-growth-in-carboxylic-acids
#5
Heather A Danhof, Slavena Vylkova, Elisa M Vesely, Amy E Ford, Manuel Gonzalez-Garay, Michael C Lorenz
: The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans thrives within diverse niches in the mammalian host. Among the adaptations that underlie this fitness is an ability to utilize a wide array of nutrients, especially sources of carbon that are disfavored by many other fungi; this contributes to its ability to survive interactions with the phagocytes that serve as key barriers against disseminated infections. We have reported that C. albicans generates ammonia as a byproduct of amino acid catabolism to neutralize the acidic phagolysosome and promote hyphal morphogenesis in a manner dependent on the Stp2 transcription factor...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935254/application-of-solid-phase-microextraction-with-gas-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry-for-the-early-detection-of-active-moulds-on-historical-woollen-objects
#6
Tomasz Sawoszczuk, Justyna Syguła-Cholewińska, Julio M Del Hoyo-Meléndez
The goal of this work was to determine the microbial volatile organic compounds emitted by moulds growing on wool in search of particular volatiles mentioned in the literature as indicators of active mould growth. The keratinolytically active fungi were inoculated on two types of media: (1) samples of wool placed on broths, and (2) on broths containing amino acids that are elements of the structure of keratin. All samples were prepared inside 20 mL vials (closed system). In the first case (1) the broths did not contain any sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur i...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935053/effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-inoculation-on-carbon-and-nitrogen-distribution-and-grain-yield-and-nutritional-quality-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#7
Xue Zhang, Li Wang, Fang Ma, Jixian Yang, Meng Su
BACKGROUND: The importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for nutrient uptake and growth in rice has been widely recognized. However, little is known about the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in rice under AMF inoculation, which can affect grain yield and quality. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of C and N within rice plants under AMF inoculation and the effects on grain yield and quality. RESULTS: AMF inoculation significantly increased N accumulation and distribution in vegetative tissues at tillering, and N translocation into seeds from heading to maturity...
November 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934952/effect-of-arginine-on-oligomerization-and-stability-of-n-acetylglutamate-synthase
#8
N Haskins, A Mumo, P H Brown, M Tuchman, H Morizono, L Caldovic
N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; E.C.2.3.1.1) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl coenzyme A and glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, NAG is the first intermediate of the L-arginine biosynthesis; in animals, NAG is an allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I and III. In some bacteria bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase-kinase (NAGS-K) catalyzes the first two steps of L-arginine biosynthesis. L-arginine inhibits NAGS in bacteria, fungi, and plants and activates NAGS in mammals...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934837/high-fungal-spore-burden-with-predominance-of-aspergillus-in-hospital-air-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-chandigarh
#9
S M Rudramurthy, G Singh, V Hallur, S Verma, A Chakrabarti
The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital-acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs) used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non-AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non-AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934831/synergism-between-fluconazole-and-methylene-blue-photodynamic-therapy-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-strains
#10
J P Lyon, C R Carvalho, R R Rezende, C J Lima, F V Santos, L M Moreira
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proved to be effective against fungi and it may be employed as a coadjutant to conventional antifungal agents, leading to a more effective microbial control minimising side effects. This work evaluates the combined effect of PDT and fluconazole against resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. The yeasts were submitted to methylene blue-PDT (MB-PDT) in sub-inhibitory concentrations. In the present work, MB-PDT combined with fluconazole was more efficient in the inhibition of the C...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934823/banana-peel-culture-as-an-indigenous-medium-for-easy-identification-of-late-sporulation-human-fungal-pathogens
#11
A J Kindo, A Tupaki-Sreepurna, M Yuvaraj
AIM: Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934361/labeling-studies-clarify-the-committed-step-in-bacterial-gibberellin-biosynthesis
#12
Ryan S Nett, Jeroen S Dickschat, Reuben J Peters
Bacteria have evolved gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis independently of plants and fungi. Through (13)C-labeling and NMR analysis, the mechanistically unusual "B" ring contraction catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP114), which is the committed step in gibberellin biosynthesis, was shown to occur via oxidative extrusion of carbon-7 from ent-kaurenoic acid in bacteria. This is identical to the convergently evolved chemical transformation in plants and fungi, suggesting a common semipinacol rearrangement mechanism potentially guided by carbon-4α carboxylate proximity...
December 2, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933985/discovery-of-topsentin-alkaloids-and-their-derivatives-as-novel-antiviral-and-anti-phytopathogenic-fungus-agents
#13
Xiaofei Ji, Ziwen Wang, Ji Dong, Yuxiu Liu, Aidang Lu, Qingmin Wang
Topsentin alkaloids and their derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopy. The antiviral activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and anti-phytopathogenic fungus activities of these alkaloids were evaluated for the first time. Alkaloids 1c, 1e, 2b, and 2d displayed significantly higher antiviral activities against TMV than Ribavirin, emerging as new lead compounds for anti-TMV research. Further fungicidal activity tests against 14 kinds of phytopathogenic fungi revealed that these alkaloids displayed broad-spectrum fungicidal activities...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933578/inhibitory-activity-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-trichoderma-spp-on-the-insect-pests-xylotrechus-arvicola-coleoptera-cerambycidae-and-acanthoscelides-obtectus-coleoptera-chrisomelidae-bruchinae
#14
Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Sara Mayo, Óscar González-López, Bonifacio Reinoso, Santiago Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio Casquero
Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933244/a-study-on-biological-activity-of-marine-fungi-from-different-habitats-in-coastal-regions
#15
Songlin Zhou, Min Wang, Qi Feng, Yingying Lin, Huange Zhao
In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933036/functional-analysis-of-the-nitrogen-metabolite-repression-regulator-gene-nmra-in-aspergillus-flavus
#16
Xiaoyun Han, Mengguang Qiu, Bin Wang, Wen-Bing Yin, Xinyi Nie, Qiuping Qin, Silin Ren, Kunlong Yang, Feng Zhang, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
In Aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (NMR) regulator NmrA plays a major role in regulating the activity of the GATA transcription factor AreA during nitrogen metabolism. However, the function of nmrA in A. flavus has not been previously studied. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmrA in A. flavus. Our work showed that the amino acid sequences of NmrA are highly conserved among Aspergillus species and that A. flavus NmrA protein contains a canonical Rossmann fold motif...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932256/a-panorama-of-bacterial-inulinases-production-purification-characterization-and-industrial-applications
#17
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Kanika Chauhan, John F Kennedy
Inulinases are important hydrolysing enzymes which specifically act on β-2, 1 linkages of inulin to produce fructose or fructooligosaccharides. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria are the potent microbial sources of inulinases. The data on bacterial inulinases is scarce as compared to other microbial sources. Inulinases yield from bacteria is very less as compared to fungal and yeast sources of inulinases. Submerged fermentation (SmF) is the method of choice for the production of inulinases from bacterial sources. Moreover, inulin is a potent substrate for the production of inulinases in SmF...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931714/host-plant-growth-promotion-and-cadmium-detoxification-in-solanum-nigrum-mediated-by-endophytic-fungi
#18
Abdur Rahim Khan, Ihsan Ullah, Muhammad Waqas, Gun-Seok Park, Abdul Latif Khan, Sung-Jun Hong, Rehman Ullah, Byung Kwon Jung, Chang Eon Park, Shafiq Ur-Rehman, In-Jung Lee, Jae-Ho Shin
Current investigation conducted to evaluate the associated fungal endophyte interactions of a Cd hyper-accumulator Solanum nigrum Korean ecotype under varying concentrations of Cd. Two indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing fungal strains, RSF-4L and RSF-6L, isolated from the leaves of S. nigrum, were initially screened for Cd tolerance and accumulation potential. In terms of dry biomass production, the strain RSF-6L showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for Cd toxicity in comparison to RSF-4L. Therefore, RSF-6L was applied in vivo to S...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931683/in-silico-pass-analysis-and-determination-of-antimycobacterial-antifungal-and-antioxidant-efficacies-of-maslinic-acid-in-an-extract-rich-in-pentacyclic-triterpenoids
#19
Prasad G Jamkhande, Shahbaz K Pathan, Shailesh J Wadher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Microbial infections such as tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Plant-derived phytochemicals have a long history of providing much-needed novel therapeutics. Triterpenoids are among the prominent phytochemicals that possess numerous biological activities. Among them is maslinic acid (MA), a biologically active olean-type pentacyclic triterpenoid. In search of a novel antimicrobial agent, we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of MA. METHODS: Antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated through the agar well diffusion method...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930840/evidence-of-gushing-induction-by-penicillium-oxalicum-proteins
#20
Elisabeth I Vogt, Veronika M Kupfer, Rudi F Vogel, Ludwig Niessen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate whether grape-associated fungi exert an influence on gushing by their production of surface-active compounds. METHODS AND RESULTS: In preliminary experiments 58 grape-associated isolates of species within Penicillium and Aspergillus genera were tested for their ability to modify the surface activity of culture supernatants. As the genus Penicillium had a higher potential to change surface activity, further research focused on that genus...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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