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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820977/a-newly-validated-and-characterized-spectrophotometric-method-for-determination-of-a-three-water-pollutants-metal-ions
#1
Marwa E Mohamed, Eman Y Z Frag, Mona A Mohamed
A simple, fast and accurate spectrophotometric method had been developed to determine lead (II), chromium (III) and barium (II) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples using thoron (THO) as a reagent forming colored complexes. It was found that the formed complexes absorbed maximally at 539, 540 and 538nm for Pb(II)-THO, Cr(III)-THO and Ba(II)-THO complexes, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions for these complexes had been studied carefully. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1-35, 1-70, and 1-45μgmL(-1) for Pb (II), Cr(III) and Ba(II) ions with THO reagent, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820494/immune-response-patterns-and-next-generation-sequencing-diagnostics-for-the-detection-of-mycoses-in-patients-with-septic-shock-results-of-a-combined-clinical-and-experimental-investigation
#2
Sebastian O Decker, Annette Sigl, Christian Grumaz, Philip Stevens, Yevhen Vainshtein, Stefan Zimmermann, Markus A Weigand, Stefan Hofer, Kai Sohn, Thorsten Brenner
Fungi are of increasing importance in sepsis. However, culture-based diagnostic procedures are associated with relevant weaknesses. Therefore, culture- and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based fungal findings as well as corresponding plasma levels of β-d-glucan, interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -6, -10, -17A, and mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were evaluated in 50 septic patients at six consecutive time points within 28 days after sepsis onset...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820236/regulatory-mechanism-of-mycotoxin-tenuazonic-acid-production-in-pyricularia-oryzae
#3
Choong-Soo Yun, Takayuki Motoyama, Hiroyuki Osada
Tenuazonic acid (TeA) is a mycotoxin produced by the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae and some plant pathogenic fungi. We previously demonstrated that TeA is biosynthesized in P. oryzae by TeA synthetase 1 (TAS1), and that its production is induced by osmo-sensory MAPK-encoding gene (OSM1) deletion or the addition of 1% DMSO to cultures; however, the regulatory mechanisms of TeA production were unknown. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2-Cys6-type transcription factor in the upstream region of TAS1, which is encoded by TAS2 and regulates TeA production...
August 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820151/a-literature-review-and-update-on-the-incidence-and-microbiology-spectrum-of-postcataract-surgery-endophthalmitis-over-past-two-decades-in-india
#4
REVIEW
Prajna Lalitha, Sabyasachi Sengupta, Ravilla D Ravindran, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Vikas Ambiya, Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the incidence and microbiology of acute postcataract surgery endophthalmitis in India. METHODS: Systematic review of English-language PubMed referenced articles on endophthalmitis in India published in the past 21 years (January 1992-December 2012), and retrospective chart review of 2 major eye care facilities in India in the past 5 years (January 2010-December 2014) were done. The incidence data were collected from articles that described "in-house" endophthalmitis and the microbiology data were collected from all articles...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820125/fungal-genomes-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-kingdom
#5
Jason E Stajich
The kingdom Fungi comprises species that inhabit nearly all ecosystems. Fungi exist as both free-living and symbiotic unicellular and multicellular organisms with diverse morphologies. The genomes of fungi encode genes that enable them to thrive in diverse environments, invade plant and animal cells, and participate in nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The continuously expanding databases of fungal genome sequences have been generated by individual and large-scale efforts such as Génolevures, Broad Institute's Fungal Genome Initiative, and the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project (http://1000...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#6
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819747/word-wide-meta-analysis-of-quercus-forests-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-reveals-southwestern-mexico-as-a-hotspot
#7
Olimpia Mariana García-Guzmán, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Edith Hernández, Elsa Arellano-Torres, Ken Oyama
Quercus is the most diverse genus of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host plants; it is distributed in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, from temperate to tropical regions. However, their ECM communities have been scarcely studied in comparison to those of conifers. The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of ECM fungi associated with oak forests in the Cuitzeo basin in southwestern Mexico; and to determine the level of richness, potential endemism and species similarity among ECM fungal communities associated with natural oak forests worldwide through a meta-analysis...
August 17, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818662/organic-matter-quality-structures-benthic-fatty-acid-patterns-and-the-abundance-of-fungi-and-bacteria-in-temperate-lakes
#8
Robert Taube, Lars Ganzert, Hans-Peter Grossart, Gerd Gleixner, Katrin Premke
Benthic microbial communities (BMCs) play important roles in the carbon cycle of lakes, and benthic littoral zones in particular have been previously highlighted as biogeochemical hotspots. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) presents the major carbon pool in lakes, and although the effect of DOM composition on the pelagic microbial community composition is widely accepted, little is known about its effect on BMCs, particularly aquatic fungi. Therefore, we investigated the composition of benthic littoral microbial communities in twenty highly diverse lakes in northeast Germany...
August 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818589/elimination-of-fungicides-in-biopurification-systems-effect-of-fungal-bioaugmentation-on-removal-performance-and-microbial-community-structure
#9
Sergio Murillo-Zamora, Víctor Castro-Gutiérrez, Mario Masís-Mora, Verónica Lizano-Fallas, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez
Bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a potential way to improve the performance of biomixtures used in biopurification systems for the treatment of pesticide-containing agricultural wastewater. The fungus Trametes versicolor was employed in the bioaugmentation of a biomixture to be used in the simultaneous removal of seven fungicides. Liquid cultures of the fungus were able to remove tebuconazole, while no evidence of carbendazim, metalaxyl and triadimenol depletion was found. When applied in the biomixture, the bioaugmented matrix failed to remove all the triazole fungicides (including tebuconazole) under the assayed conditions, but was efficient to eliminate carbendazim, edifenphos and metalaxyl (the latter only after a second pesticide application)...
August 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818345/mobile-group-ii-introns-as-ancestral-eukaryotic-elements
#10
REVIEW
Olga Novikova, Marlene Belfort
The duality of group II introns, capable of carrying out both self-splicing and retromobility reactions, is hypothesized to have played a profound role in the evolution of eukaryotes. These introns likely provided the framework for the emergence of eukaryotic retroelements, spliceosomal introns and other key components of the spliceosome. Group II introns are found in all three domains of life and are therefore considered to be exceptionally successful mobile genetic elements. Initially identified in organellar genomes, group II introns are found in bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of plants and fungi, but not in nuclear genomes...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818332/antimicrobial-activity-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-by-extracts-from-chromatin-modulated-fungi
#11
Matheus Thomaz Nogueira Silva Lima, Larissa Batista Dos Santos, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Jacques Robert Nicoli, Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi
Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid)...
August 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818044/effects-of-the-vertically-transmitted-microsporidian-facilispora-margolisi-and-the-parasiticide-emamectin-benzoate-on-salmon-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#12
Jordan D Poley, Ben J G Sutherland, Mark D Fast, Ben F Koop, Simon R M Jones
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. RESULTS: Vertical transmission of F...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818040/in-silico-prediction-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#13
Timothy Cairns, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogens of plants produce diverse repertoires of secondary metabolites, which have functions ranging from iron acquisition, defense against immune perturbation, to toxic assaults on the host. The wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch, a foliar disease which is a significant threat to global food security. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the secondary metabolite arsenal produced by Z. tritici, which significantly restricts mechanistic understanding of infection...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816085/dynamics-of-a-vertical-flow-windrow-vermicomposting-system
#14
Ales Hanc, Tereza Castkova, Stanislav Kuzel, Tomas Cajthaml
Large-scale vermicomposting under outdoor conditions may differ from small-scale procedures in the laboratory. The present study evaluated changes in selected properties of a large-scale vertical-flow windrow vermicomposting system with continuous feeding with household biowaste. The windrow profile was divided into five layers of differing thickness and age after more than 12 months of vermicomposting. The top layer (0-30 cm, age <3 months) was characterised by partially decomposed organic matter with a high pH value and an elevated carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815601/antimicrobial-synergism-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-citrus-limon-l-piper-nigrum-l-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-maiden-and-betche-cheel-essential-oils
#15
Miloš M Nikolić, Katarina K Jovanović, Tatjana Lj Marković, Dejan Lj Marković, Nevenka N Gligorijević, Siniša S Radulović, Marina Kostić, Jasmina M Glamočlija, Marina D Soković
OBJECTIVES: The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. METHODS: Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815506/preparing-fosmid-mate-paired-libraries-using-cre-loxp-recombination
#16
Ze Peng, Jeff L Froula, Jan-Fang Cheng
Fosmid end sequencing has been widely utilized in genome sequence assemblies and genome structural variation studies. We have developed a new approach to construct fosmid paired-end libraries that is suitable for Illumina sequencing platform. This approach employs a newly modified fosmid vector (pFosClip) which contains two loxP sites with identical orientation and two inverse Illumina adaptor priming sites flanking the cloning site. DNA prepared from the fosmid library constructed with pFosClip can be treated with the Cre recombinase to remove most of the vector DNA, leaving only 107 bp of the vector sequence with insert DNA...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815474/influence-of-bio-fertilizer-containing-beneficial-fungi-and-rhizospheric-bacteria-on-health-promoting-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-of-spinacia-oleracea-l
#17
Muhammad Khalid, Danial Hassani, Muhammad Bilal, Fayaz Asad, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the influences of bio fertilizers containing mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus mosseae) individually or in combination with N-fixer (Azotobacter chroococcum), K solubilizer (Bacillus mucilaginous) and P solubilizer (Bacillus megaterium) on soil fertility and phytochemical levels of spinach. RESULTS: Root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi was increased in the presence of bacterial inoculation in comparison to individual inoculation treatments...
August 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815004/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-among-wind-musicians-an-overlooked-disease
#18
Janne Møller, Charlotte Hyldgaard, Sissel Brix Kronborg-White, Finn Rasmussen, Elisabeth Bendstrup
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a complex pulmonary disorder mediated by the immune system and caused by various inhaled antigens against which the subject has previously been sensitized. In about 50% of the cases, the antigen is not identified. Identification and removal of the eliciting antigen is important for the prognosis. We report two cases of HP caused by molds and atypical mycobacteria isolated from wind instruments. We present the first case of HP caused by bassoon playing and another case of HP caused by molds in a trombone...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814777/the-microbial-ecosystem-distinguishes-chronically-diseased-tissue-from-adjacent-tissue-in-the-sigmoid-colon-of-chronic-recurrent-diverticulitis-patients
#19
Kathleen M Schieffer, Kate Sabey, Justin R Wright, David R Toole, Rebecca Drucker, Vasily Tokarev, Leonard R Harris, Sue Deiling, Melanie A Eshelman, John P Hegarty, Gregory S Yochum, Walter A Koltun, Regina Lamendella, David B Stewart
Diverticular disease is commonly associated with the older population in the United States. As individual's age, diverticulae, or herniation of the mucosa through the colonic wall, develop. In 10-25% of individuals, the diverticulae become inflamed, resulting in diverticulitis. The gut ecosystem relies on the interaction of bacteria and fungi to maintain homeostasis. Although bacterial dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverticulitis, associations between the microbial ecosystem and diverticulitis remain largely unstudied...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814586/molecular-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-and-detection-of-azole-resistance-by-a-newly-commercialized-pcr-kit
#20
Eric Dannaoui, Frédéric Gabriel, Manuel Gaboyard, Gaëlle Lagardere, Lucile Audebert, Gilles Quesne, Sandrine Godichaud, Paul E Verweij, Isabelle Accoceberry, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
Aspergillus fumigatus is the main species responsible for aspergillosis in humans. The diagnosis of aspergillosis remains difficult, and the rapid emergence of azole resistance in A. fumigatus, is worrisome. The aim of this study was to validate the new MycoGENIE® A. fumigatus real-time PCR kit and to evaluate its performance in clinical samples for the detection of A. fumigatus and its azole resistance. This multiplex assay detects DNA from the A. fumigatus species complex by targeting the 28S-rRNA multicopy gene and specific TR34 and L98H mutations in the cyp51A single copy gene of A...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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