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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168918/nano-biohybrids-in-vivo-synthesis-of-metal-organic-frameworks-inside-living-plants
#1
Joseph J Richardson, Kang Liang
Plants have a complex passive fluid transport system capable of internalizing small molecules from the environment, and this system offers an ideal route for augmenting plants with functional nanomaterials. Current plant augmentation techniques use pre-formed nanomaterials and permeabilizing agents or plant cuttings. A so far unexplored concept is the formation of the functional material, in situ, from precursors small enough to be passively internalized through the roots without harming the plants. Metal-organic frameworks are ideal for in situ synthesis as they are composed of metal ions coordinated with organic ligands and have recently been mineralized around single-celled organisms in mild aqueous conditions...
November 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168781/structural-diversity-and-biological-activities-of-the-cyclodipeptides-from-fungi
#2
REVIEW
Xiaohan Wang, Yuying Li, Xuping Zhang, Daowan Lai, Ligang Zhou
Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs), are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan-Xaa, proline-Xaa, non-tryptophan-non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed...
November 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168774/carotenoids-from-marine-organisms-biological-functions-and-industrial-applications
#3
REVIEW
Christian Galasso, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Clementina Sansone
As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene) that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein), which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen...
November 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168657/the-hidden-pathogenic-potential-of-environmental-fungi
#4
Glauber R de S Araújo, Wanderley de Souza, Susana Frases
Invasive fungal infections are a growing threat to immunocompromised patients, highlighting the importance of monitoring fungal pathogens. Global warming (including climatic oscillations) may select for environmental species that have acquired thermotolerance, a key step toward pathogenesis to humans. Also, important virulence factors have developed in environmental fungi, because they are essential for yeast survival in the environment. Thus, fungi traditionally regarded as nonpathogenic to humans have virulence factors similar to those of their pathogenic relatives...
November 23, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168197/mechanism-of-increased-microbial-autofluorescence-by-heat-treatment
#5
Taiga Tominaga, Kazushi Fujioka, Megumi Hijikuro, Takakiyo Tada, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
The total direct count (TDC) microbial enumeration method is rapid and suitable for analyzing environmental samples containing numerous un-culturable microorganisms. Conventional TDC methods require the addition of a fluorescent stain and are thus unsuitable for automatic monitoring. We unexpectedly found that heated microorganisms emit strong autofluorescence. This study was conducted to determine how heating enhances the autofluorescence of bacteria and fungi and to evaluate whether the phenomenon could be exploited to develop a new TDC method...
November 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168144/a-review-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#6
REVIEW
Danielle E Arnold, Jennifer R Heimall
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of the five subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex responsible for the respiratory burst in phagocytic leukocytes. Patients with CGD are at increased risk of life-threatening infections with catalase-positive bacteria and fungi and inflammatory complications such as CGD colitis. The implementation of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis and the advent of azole antifungals has considerably improved overall survival. Nevertheless, life expectancy remains decreased compared to the general population...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167801/breaking-the-bad-bacillus-blocks-fungal-virulence-factors
#7
COMMENT
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Fungal pathogens rely on the production of specific virulence factors during infection. Inhibiting such factors generally results in reduced fungal pathogenicity. Most studies in the past have focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of fungal virulence factor expression during mono-culture, or during interaction with the host. However, a potentially important, second type of interaction has been less well studied thus far - the interplay of fungal pathogens of humans with other microbes found in their natural habitat...
October 30, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167701/xylose-induces-cellulase-production-in-thermoascus-aurantiacus
#8
Timo Schuerg, Jan-Philip Prahl, Raphael Gabriel, Simon Harth, Firehiwot Tachea, Chyi-Shin Chen, Matthew Miller, Fabrice Masson, Qian He, Sarah Brown, Mona Mirshiaghi, Ling Liang, Lauren M Tom, Deepti Tanjore, Ning Sun, Todd R Pray, Steven W Singer
Background: Lignocellulosic biomass is an important resource for renewable production of biofuels and bioproducts. Enzymes that deconstruct this biomass are critical for the viability of biomass-based biofuel production processes. Current commercial enzyme mixtures have limited thermotolerance. Thermophilic fungi may provide enzyme mixtures with greater thermal stability leading to more robust processes. Understanding the induction of biomass-deconstructing enzymes in thermophilic fungi will provide the foundation for strategies to construct hyper-production strains...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167289/evaluation-of-copan-eswab-transport-system-for-viability-of-pathogenic-fungi-using-modification-of-clinical-and-laboratory-standards-institute-m40-a2-document
#9
Bharat Gandhi, Richard Summerbell, Tony Mazzulli
The Copan ESwab system was evaluated for its ability to maintain viability of pathogenic fungi. Tests followed the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M40 -A2 roll plate method at both room and refrigerator temperatures. A system was devised for standardizing homogeneous inoculum suspensions of variously sized conidia and sporangiospores of filamentous fungi. A total of 19 clinical and reference strains were standardized to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard with a simple photometer. Corresponding optical densities were measured with a spectrophotometer...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167257/draft-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-strain-tr3-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-against-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Xue Zhang, Jin-Rong Xu, Cindy H Nakatsu
We present the draft genome sequence of the potential biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens TR3, which was isolated from rice leaves infected with Magnaporthe oryzae in a greenhouse. The genome of TR3 was assembled into 26 scaffolds (~6 Mbp) and includes genes potentially involved in bacterial interactions with fungi.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166834/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii-communicates-with-the-insect-host-galleria-mellonella-during-infection
#11
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitic fungi are the only pathogens that can infect insect hosts directly through their proteinaceous exoskeleton. Penetration of the cuticle requires the release of fungal enzymes, including proteinases, which act as virulence factors. Insects can sense fungal infections and activate innate immune responses, including the synthesis of antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors that neutralize the incoming proteinases. This well-studied host response is epigenetically regulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation...
November 23, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166776/the-polysaccharide-extracts-from-the-fungi-coprinus-comatus-and-coprinellus-truncorum-do-exhibit-ache-inhibitory-activity
#12
Boris Pejin, Kristina Tešanović, Dragica Jakovljević, Sonja Kaišarević, Filip Šibul, Milena Rašeta, Maja Karaman
The polysaccharide (PSH) extracts from the edible mushroom species Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum were screened in liquid for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChE) activity. Both extracts were found to display inhibition of the aforementioned enzyme reaching similar IC50 values of 0.62 ± 0.07 and 0.61 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. According to the means of FTIR spectroscopy, these PSH extracts mostly contained β-glucans. However, the presence of some proteins and polyphenolics as minor ingredients were also detected...
November 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166531/a-polysaccharide-fraction-extracted-from-pleurotus-ostreatus-mycelial-biomass-inhibit-sarcoma-180-tumor
#13
Elisabeth Wisbeck, Jean M Facchini, Endi P Alves, Marcia L L Silveira, Regina M M Gern, Jorge L Ninow, Sandra A Furlan
Fungi of Pleurotus genus have attracted a great interest due to their medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor. These properties are attributed mainly to polysaccharides synthesized by Pleurotus. This work aimed to study the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus in submerged culture, evaluating the influence of the initial concentration of substrate (20 and 40 g/L of glucose) and the pH (4 and 6) on kinetic parameters of production of biomass. The effectiveness of different doses (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) of a mycelium polysaccharide fraction extracted from P...
2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166284/pulmonary-adiaspiromycosis-in-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-inhabiting-poland
#14
I Dolka, A Giżejewska, Z Giżejewski, J Kołodziejska-Lesisz, W Kluciński
Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166278/interactions-between-plant-derived-oestrogenic-substances-and-the-mycoestrogen-zearalenone-in-a-bioassay-with-mcf-7-cells
#15
Sabine Hessenberger, K Botzi, C Degrassi, P Kovalsky, C Schwab, D Schatzmayr, G Schatzmayr, J Fink-Gremmels
Human and animal diets may contain several non-steroidal oestrogenic compounds which originate either from plants (phytoestrogens) or from fungi that infect plants (mycoestrogens such as zearalenone (ZEN)). Phytoestrogens may compete with ZEN in binding to the oestrogen receptor β and thereby may counteract the oestrogenic activity of ZEN. Using a modified version of the E-screen assay, plant-derived oestrogenic substances were tested for their proliferative or anti-proliferative effect on oestrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165821/glomeromycotina-what-is-a-species-and-why-should-we-care
#16
Thomas D Bruns, Nicolas Corradi, Dirk Redecker, John W Taylor, Maarja Öpik
A workshop at the recent International Conference on Mycorrhiza was focused on species recognition in Glomeromycotina and parts of their basic biology that define species. The workshop was motivated by the paradigm-shifting evidence derived from genomic data for sex and for the lack of heterokaryosis, and by published exchanges in Science that were based on different species concepts and have led to differing views of dispersal and endemism in these fungi. Although a lively discussion ensued, there was general agreement that species recognition in the group is in need of more attention, and that many basic assumptions about the biology of these important fungi including sexual or clonal reproduction, similarity or dissimilarity of nuclei within an individual, and species boundaries need to be re-examined and scrutinized with current techniques...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165806/host-preference-and-network-properties-in-biotrophic-plant-fungal-associations
#17
Sergei Põlme, Mohammad Bahram, Hans Jacquemyn, Peter Kennedy, Petr Kohout, Mari Moora, Jane Oja, Maarja Öpik, Lorenzo Pecoraro, Leho Tedersoo
Analytical methods can offer insights into the structure of biological networks, but mechanisms that determine the structure of these networks remain unclear. We conducted a synthesis based on 111 previously published datasets to assess a range of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that may influence the plant-associated fungal interaction networks. We calculated the relative host effect on fungal community composition and compared nestedness and modularity among different mycorrhizal types and endophytic fungal guilds...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165730/what-else-is-in-salviae-officinalis-folium-comprehensive-species-identification-of-plant-raw-material-by-dna-metabarcoding
#18
Corinna Schmiderer, Brigitte Lukas, Joana Ruzicka, Johannes Novak
Quality control of drugs consists of identifying the raw material to avoid unwanted admixtures or exchange of material as well as looking for abiotic and biotic contaminations. So far, identity and microbial contamination are analyzed by separate processes and separate methods. Species identification by their DNA ("DNA barcoding") has the potential to supplement existing methods of identification. The introduction of next-generation sequencing methods offers completely new approaches like the identification of whole communities in one analysis, termed "DNA metabarcoding"...
November 17, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165457/the-chemical-composition-nutritional-value-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-abelmoschus-esculentus-seeds
#19
Spyridon Petropoulos, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Ana Ciric, Marina Sokovic, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Okra is a vegetable crop usually used for its immature pods. The harvest stage (fruit size) depends on consumers' preferences and the fruit that does not meet market requirements is being disposed of. Considering the short time interval from the setting of the fruit to the harvest stage, the present study evaluates the nutritional value, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of okra seeds from genotypes cultivated under Mediterranean conditions, as an alternative end-use product...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165363/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-the-effectors-of-an-anther-smut-fungus-and-potential-host-target-proteins
#20
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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