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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938005/recombinant-vaccines-of-a-cd4-t-cell-epitope-promote-efficient-control-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-burden-by-restraining-primary-organ-infection
#1
Rodrigo Assunção Holanda, Julián Esteban Muñoz, Lucas Santos Dias, Leandro Buffoni Roque Silva, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Sthefany Pagliari, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Tatiane Alves Paixão, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, Daniel Assis Santos, Oscar Bruña-Romero
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infectious disease endemic to South America, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides. Currently, there is no effective human vaccine that can be used in prophylactic or therapeutic regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the immunogenicity of the immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitope (P10) of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 antigen might be significantly enhanced by using a hepatitis B virus-derived particle (VLP) as an antigen carrier. This chimera was administered to mice as a (His)6-purified protein (rPbT) or a replication-deficient human type 5 adenoviral vector (rAdPbT) in an immunoprophylaxis assay...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936955/-analysis-of-characteristics-of-bacteria-in-respiratory-tract-infection-in-2013-2016-in-heibei-3a-hospital-a-single-center-report-of-7-497-patients
#2
Lili Hou, Lili Liu, Ping Dang, Guannan Kang, Qinfeng Zhang, Dongling Li
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes and characteristics of respiratory tract bacteria in Hebei 3A Hospital, and to provide new rationale for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted. 7 497 patients with respiratory tract infection admitted to Hebei Chest Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. Deep sputum was collected, and the bacterial cultures and susceptibility analysis was conducted in sputum and upper respiratory secretions were collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936945/sources-of-fungal-genetic-variation-and-associating-it-with-phenotypic-diversity
#3
John W Taylor, Sara Branco, Cheng Gao, Chris Hann-Soden, Liliam Montoya, Iman Sylvain, Pierre Gladieux
The first eukaryotic genome to be sequenced was fungal, and there continue to be more sequenced genomes in the kingdom Fungi than in any other eukaryotic kingdom. Comparison of these genomes reveals many sources of genetic variation, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to horizontal gene transfer and on to changes in the arrangement and number of chromosomes, not to mention endofungal bacteria and viruses. Population genomics shows that all sources generate variation all the time and implicate natural selection as the force maintaining genome stability...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936944/bacterial-endosymbionts-master-modulators-of-fungal-phenotypes
#4
Sarah J Araldi-Brondolo, Joseph Spraker, Justin P Shaffer, Emma H Woytenko, David A Baltrus, Rachel E Gallery, A Elizabeth Arnold
The ecological modes of fungi are shaped not only by their intrinsic features and the environment in which they occur, but also by their interactions with diverse microbes. Here we explore the ecological and genomic features of diverse bacterial endosymbionts-endohyphal bacteria-that together are emerging as major determinants of fungal phenotypes and plant-fungi interactions. We first provide a historical perspective on the study of endohyphal bacteria. We then propose a functional classification of three main groups, providing an overview of their genomic, phylogenetic, and ecological traits...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936837/-influence-of-tobacco-chuanminshen-violaceum-rotation-on-microbe-community-in-soil
#5
Dong-Yan Zhang, Jian Zhao, Shui-Ping Yang, Jing-Jing Mo, Da-Min He, Jun Wang, Jian-Yu Gou, Xue Zhang, Wei Jiang, Ming-Xia Wen
Soil microbes are the important indicator of soil quality. For exploring Chuanminshen violaceum planting to microbial effects in tobacco soil, this paper adopted Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing to research the change of bacteria and fungi at the phylum and genus in the soil. The results showed that the Ch. violaceum planting increased the biodiversity of bacteria and fungi. The influence on fungi was greater than that on bacteria. It greatly increased the sequence of fungi, it obtained 32 978 16S rDNA and 32 229 18S rDNA sequence number...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936706/biodiversity-and-ecology-of-flower-associated-actinomycetes-in-different-flowering-stages-of-protea-repens
#6
Zander R Human, Casparus J Crous, Francois Roets, Stephanus N Venter, Michael J Wingfield, Z Wilhelm de Beer
Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees...
September 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936464/innate-immune-responses-to-cryptococcus
#7
Lena J Heung
Cryptococcus species are encapsulated fungi found in the environment that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised hosts after inhalation into the lungs. Even with contemporary antifungal regimens, patients with cryptococcosis continue to have high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of more effective therapies may depend on our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the host promotes sterilizing immunity against the fungus. This review will highlight our current knowledge of how Cryptococcus, primarily the species C...
September 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936215/omics-approaches-for-understanding-grapevine-berry-development-regulatory-networks-associated-with-endogenous-processes-and-environmental-responses
#8
REVIEW
Alejandra Serrano, Carmen Espinoza, Grace Armijo, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Evelyn Poblete, Carlos Meyer-Regueiro, Anibal Arce, Francisca Parada, Claudia Santibáñez, Patricio Arce-Johnson
Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I), lag (II), and ripening (III), in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936201/trichoderma-asperelloides-spores-downregulate-dectin1-2-and-tlr2-receptors-of-mice-macrophages-and-decrease-candida-parapsilosis-phagocytosis-independent-of-the-m1-m2-polarization
#9
Andréa G Dos Santos, Érica A Mendes, Rafael P de Oliveira, Ana M C Faria, Aurizangela O de Sousa, Carlos P Pirovani, Fernanda F de Araújo, Andréa T de Carvalho, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Daniel Assis Santos, Quimi V Montoya, Andre Rodrigues, Jane L Dos Santos
The intensive use of pesticides to control pests in agriculture has promoted several issues relating to environment. As chemical pesticides remain controversial, biocontrol agents originating from fungi could be an alternative. Among them, we highlight biocontrol agents derived from the fungi genus Trichoderma, which have been documented in limiting the growth of other phytopathogenic fungus in the roots and leaves of several plant species. An important member of this genus is Trichoderma asperelloides, whose biocontrol agents have been used to promote plant growth while also treating soil diseases caused by microorganisms in both greenhouses and outdoor crops...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935612/use-of-aflp-for-the-study-of-eukaryotic-pathogens-affecting-humans
#10
REVIEW
Carlos M Restrepo, Alejandro Llanes, Ricardo Lleonart
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a genotyping technique based on PCR amplification of specific restriction fragments from a particular genome. The methodology has been extensively used in plant biology to solve a variety of scientific questions, including taxonomy, molecular epidemiology, systematics, population genetics, among many others. The AFLP share advantages and disadvantages with other types of molecular markers, being particularly useful in organisms with no previous DNA sequence knowledge...
September 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935008/coccidioidomycosis-in-an-indoor-housed-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#11
Mila C Kundu, Michael A Ringenberg, Denise L d'Epagnier, Heather L Haag, Sean Maguire
Coccidioides spp. are saprophytic, dimorphic fungi that are endemic to arid climates, are capable of infecting many species, and result in diverse clinical presentations. An indoor-housed laboratory rhesus macaque presented with weight loss and decreased activity and appetite. During the diagnostic evaluation, a bronchiolar-alveolar pattern in the cranial lung lobes, consistent with bronchopneumonia, was noted on radiographs. Given the poor prognosis, the macaque was euthanized. Confirming the radiographic assessment, gross necropsy findings included multifocal to coalescing areas of consolidation in the right and left cranial lung lobes...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934947/-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-based-metabolomics-analysis-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-e-coli-associated-urinary-tract-infection-uti
#12
Milena Lussu, Tania Camboni, Cristina Piras, Corrado Serra, Francesco Del Carratore, Julian Griffin, Luigi Atzori, Aldo Manzin
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diagnoses in girls and women, and to a lesser extent in boys and men younger than 50 years. Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp., cause 75-90% of all infections. Infection of the urinary tract is identified by growth of a significant number of a single species in the urine, in the presence of symptoms. Urinary culture is an accurate diagnostic method but takes several hours or days to be carried out...
September 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934938/shifting-trends-in-bacteriology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gastrointestinal-fistula-patients-in-china-an-eight-year-review-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Qinjie Liu, Jianan Ren, Xiuwen Wu, Gefei Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Jie Wu, Jinjian Huang, Tianyu Lu, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the shifting trends in bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance of infectious specimens isolated from gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients over eight years in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the microbial records of intra-abdominal specimens at a teaching hospital from 2008 to 2015. Study period was divided into the first half (2008-2011) and the second half (2012-2015). All isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing by the micro dilution method...
September 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934824/acid-fastness-of-histoplasma-in-surgical-pathology-practice
#14
Madhu Rajeshwari, Immaculata Xess, Mehar Chand Sharma, Deepali Jain
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis (HP) is diagnosed by visualizing intracellular microorganisms in biopsy and/or culture. Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) staining methods are routinely used for identification. The acid-fast property of Histoplasma was identified decades ago, but acid-fast staining has not been practiced in current surgical pathology. Awareness of the acid-fast property of Histoplasma, which is due to mycolic acid in the cell wall, is important in distinguishing Histoplasma from other infective microorganisms...
September 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934593/big-lessons-from-little-yeast-budding-and-fission-yeast-centrosome-structure-duplication-and-function
#15
Ann M Cavanaugh, Sue L Jaspersen
Centrosomes are a functionally conserved feature of eukaryotic cells that play an important role in cell division. The conserved γ-tubulin complex organizes spindle and astral microtubules, which, in turn, separate replicated chromosomes accurately into daughter cells. Like DNA, centrosomes are duplicated once each cell cycle. Although in some cell types it is possible for cell division to occur in the absence of centrosomes, these divisions typically result in defects in chromosome number and stability. In singlecelled organisms such as fungi, centrosomes [known as spindle pole bodies (SPBs)] are essential for cell division...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934343/disparate-gain-and-loss-of-parasitic-abilities-among-nematode-lineages
#16
Martijn Holterman, Akbar Karegar, Paul Mooijman, Hanny van Megen, Sven van den Elsen, Mariette T W Vervoort, Casper W Quist, Gerrit Karssen, Wilfrida Decraemer, Charles H Opperman, David M Bird, Jan Kammenga, Aska Goverse, Geert Smant, Johannes Helder
Plant parasitism has arisen time and again in multiple phyla, including bacteria, fungi, insects and nematodes. In most of these organismal groups, the overwhelming diversity hampers a robust reconstruction of the origins and diversification patterns of this trophic lifestyle. Being a moderately diversified phylum with ≈ 4,100 plant parasites (15% of total biodiversity) subdivided over four independent lineages, nematodes constitute a major organismal group for which the genesis of plant parasitism could be mapped...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933323/on-names-of-genera-of-prokaryotes-that-are-later-homonyms-of-generic-names-with-standing-in-the-zoological-or-the-botanical-nomenclature-proposal-of-neomegalonema-gen-nov-and-neomegalonema-perideroedes-comb-nov-as-replacements-for-the-prokaryotic-generic-name
#17
Aharon Oren
I here present a survey of generic names with standing in the prokaryotic nomenclature that have homonyms with standing under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and/or the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. I especially discuss such names added after Principle 2 of the Bacteriological Code/Prokaryotic Code was changed in 1999 to make the prokaryote nomenclature not independent of botanical and zoological nomenclature. Cases include the genera Micromonas, Quadrococcus, Yania, Sinococcus, and Meganema...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933200/infrared-extinction-performance-of-randomly-oriented-microbial-clustered-agglomerate-materials
#18
Le Li, Yihua Hu, Youlin Gu, Xinying Zhao, Shilong Xu, Lei Yu, Zhi Ming Zheng, Peng Wang
In this study, the spatial structure of randomly distributed clusters of fungi An0429 spores was simulated using a cluster aggregation (CCA) model, and the single scattering parameters of fungi An0429 spores were calculated using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The transmittance of 10.6 µm infrared (IR) light in the aggregated fungi An0429 spores swarm is simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. Several parameters that affect the transmittance of 10.6 µm IR light, such as the number and radius of original fungi An0429 spores, porosity of aggregated fungi An0429 spores, and density of aggregated fungi An0429 spores of the formation aerosol area were discussed...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932216/mycoviruses-in-aspergilli-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Robert H A Coutts
Fungi, similar to all species, are susceptible to viral infection. Aspergillus is arguably the most well studied fungal genus because of its medical, ecological and economical significance. Mycoviruses were initially detected in Aspergillus species almost 50 years ago and the field continues to be active today with ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present review is to cover the scientific progress in all aspects of mycovirology as exemplified by Aspergillus-focused research. Initially an overview of the population studies illustrating the presence of mycoviruses in numerous important Aspergillus species, such as A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932199/bacillus-a-biological-tool-for-crop-improvement-through-bio-molecular-changes-in-adverse-environments
#20
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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