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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778067/succession-of-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-within-biofilms-of-a-chlorinated-drinking-water-distribution-system
#1
I Douterelo, K E Fish, J B Boxall
Understanding the temporal dynamics of multi-species biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) is essential to ensure safe, high quality water reaches consumers after it passes through these high surface area reactors. This research studied the succession characteristics of fungal and bacterial communities under controlled environmental conditions fully representative of operational DWDS. Microbial communities were observed to increase in complexity after one month of biofilm development but they did not reach stability after three months...
May 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777997/rumen-fluid-fermentation-for-enhancement-of-hydrolysis-and-acidification-of-grass-clipping
#2
Siqi Wang, Guangming Zhang, Panyue Zhang, Xiaowen Ma, Fan Li, Haibo Zhang, Xue Tao, Junpei Ye, Mohammad Nabi
Rumen fluid, formed in rumen of ruminants, includes a complex microbial population of bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea, and has high ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, rumen fluid was used to ferment grass clipping for enhancing the hydrolysis and acidification of organic matters. Results showed that strict anaerobic condition, higher grass clipping content and smaller particle size of grass clipping were beneficial to the hydrolysis and acidification of organics. The increase of SCOD and total VFA concentration respectively reached 24...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777342/selective-predation-on-acorn-weevils-by-seed-caching-siberian-chipmunk-tamias-sibiricus-in-a-tripartite-interaction
#3
Yueqin Yang, Zhenyu Wang, Chuan Yan, Yihao Zhang, Dongyuan Zhang, Xianfeng Yi
Although food-hoarding animals benefit plant seeds by generating predation pressure on granivorous insects, we lack experimental evidence of whether the tripartite interactions maintain a mutualistic relationship between the third trophic level and primary producers. Relying on the behavior of shelling, Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) selectively consumed weevil larvae infested in acorns of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) but chose the non-infested acorns to scatter-hoard. Shelling not only reduced volatile emission from acorns but also decreased cache loss to pilferers, weevil larvae and fungi, allowing T...
May 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777193/on-spiking-behaviour-of-oyster-fungi-pleurotus-djamor
#4
Andrew Adamatzky
We recorded extra-cellular electrical potential of fruit bodies of oyster fungi Pleurotus djamor. We demonstrated that the fungi generate action potential like impulses of electrical potential. Trains of the spikes are observed. Two types of spiking activity are uncovered: high-frequency (period 2.6 min) and low-frequency (period 14 min); transitions between modes of spiking are illustrated. An electrical response of fruit bodies to short (5 sec) and long (60 sec) thermal stimulation with open flame is analysed in details...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777151/integrated-proteomics-genomics-metabolomics-approaches-reveal-oxalic-acid-as-pathogenicity-factor-in-tilletia-indica-inciting-karnal-bunt-disease-of-wheat
#5
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777126/discrete-taxa-of-saprotrophic-fungi-respire-different-ages-of-carbon-from-antarctic-soils
#6
Kevin K Newsham, Mark H Garnett, Clare H Robinson, Filipa Cox
Different organic compounds have distinct residence times in soil and are degraded by specific taxa of saprotrophic fungi. It hence follows that specific fungal taxa should respire carbon of different ages from these compounds to the atmosphere. Here, we test whether this is the case by radiocarbon (14 C) dating CO2 evolved from two gamma radiation-sterilised maritime Antarctic soils inoculated with pure single cultures of four fungi. We show that a member of the Helotiales, which accounted for 41-56% of all fungal sequences in the two soils, respired soil carbon that was aged up to 1,200 years BP and which was 350-400 years older than that respired by the other three taxa...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776722/flammulina-velutipes-treatment-of-non-sterile-tall-wheat-grass-for-enhancing-biodegradability-and-methane-production
#7
Agnieszka Kasprzycka, Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska, Jerzy Tys
In this study fungal pretreatment of non-sterile tall wheat grass via the white rot fungi Flammulina velutipes was studied and the effect on biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass and methane production, was evaluated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in non-sterile tall wheat grass during 28 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum ratio (0%-50%) and moisture content (MC) (45% MC, 65% MC, and 75% MC) were assessed via comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with F...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#8
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774351/diversity-of-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-and-saprotrophic-fungi-of-the-ascomycete-order-xylariales
#9
REVIEW
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774204/non-canonical-activities-of-hog1-control-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-to-killer-toxins-from-debaryomyces-hansenii
#10
Ana Morales-Menchén, Federico Navarro-García, José P Guirao-Abad, Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ioana V Coman, Jesús Pla, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Certain yeasts secrete peptides known as killer toxins or mycocins with a deleterious effect on sensitive yeasts or filamentous fungi, a common phenomenon in environmental species. In a recent work, different Debaryomyces hansenii ( Dh ) strains isolated from a wide variety of cheeses were identified as producing killer toxins active against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis . We have analyzed the killer activity of these toxins in C. albicans mutants defective in MAPK signaling pathways and found that the lack of the MAPK Hog1 (but not Cek1 or Mkc1) renders cells hypersensitive to Dh mycocins while mutants lacking other upstream elements of the pathway behave as the wild type strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774013/dynamics-of-aspen-roots-colonization-by-pseudomonads-reveals-strain-specific-and-mycorrhizal-specific-patterns-of-biofilm-formation
#11
Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Shalaka Shinde, Peter E Larsen, Sarah Zerbs, Peter J Korajczyk, Kenneth M Kemner, Philippe H Noirot
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens are known plant growth promoting (PGP) and mycorrhizal helper bacteria (MHB) of many plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of colonization of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Aspen seedlings roots by the P. fluorescens strains SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1, and the P. protegens strain Pf-5. Seedlings were grown in laboratory vertical plates systems, inoculated with a fluorescently labeled Pseudomonas strain, and root colonization was monitored over a period of 5 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773926/comparative-analysis-of-airborne-bacteria-and-fungi-in-two-salt-mines-in-poland
#12
Elżbieta Gębarowska, Wojciech Pusz, Jolanta Kucińska, Włodzimierz Kita
The aim of this work was to determine the genera or species composition and the number of colony forming units of airborne bacteria and fungi, respectively, in two salt mines in Poland "Wieliczka" (Lesser Poland) and "Polkowice-Sieroszowice" (Lower Silesia). Both of them are working environments characterized by extreme conditions, and additionally "Wieliczka," officially placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites' list, plays a role of tourist attraction. There are also some curative chambers located in this mine...
2018: Aerobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773898/new-antioxidants-from-the-culture-broth-of-hericium-coralloides
#13
Ji-Yul Kim, E-Eum Woo, In-Kyoung Lee, Bong-Sik Yun
In our effort to find antioxidants from the higher fungi, we isolated three new compounds (1-3) with a known compound, spirobenzofuran (4), from the culture broth of Hericium coralloides. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of these compounds, and we determined the chemical structures through spectroscopic methods. These compounds exhibited antioxidant activity in the range of IC50 values of 29-66 μM in the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging assay...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773893/co-cultivation-of-fungal-microalgal-strains-in-biogas-slurry-and-biogas-purification-under-different-initial-co-2-concentrations
#14
Kai Zhou, Yuejin Zhang, Xiaobo Jia
The effects of five different microalgae-fungi on nutrient removal and CO2 removal were investigated under three different CO2 contents (35%, 45% and 55%). The results showed that the highest nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency were found at 55% CO2 by cocultivation of different microalgae and fungi. The effect of different initial CO2 concentration on the removal of CO2 from microalgae was significant, and the order of CO2 removal efficiency was 55% (v/v) >45% (v/v) >35% (v/v). The best nutrient removal and biogas purification could be achieved by co-cultivation of C...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773857/development-and-worldwide-use-of-non-lethal-and-minimal-population-level-impact-protocols-for-the-isolation-of-amphibian-chytrid-fungi
#15
Matthew C Fisher, Pria Ghosh, Jennifer M G Shelton, Kieran Bates, Lola Brookes, Claudia Wierzbicki, Gonçalo M Rosa, Rhys A Farrer, David M Aanensen, Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Arnaud Bataille, Lee Berger, Susanne Böll, Jaime Bosch, Frances C Clare, Elodie A Courtois, Angelica Crottini, Andrew A Cunningham, Thomas M Doherty-Bone, Fikirte Gebresenbet, David J Gower, Jacob Höglund, Timothy Y James, Thomas S Jenkinson, Tiffany A Kosch, Carolina Lambertini, Anssi Laurila, Chun-Fu Lin, Adeline Loyau, An Martel, Sara Meurling, Claude Miaud, Pete Minting, Serge Ndriantsoa, Simon J O'Hanlon, Frank Pasmans, Tsanta Rakotonanahary, Falitiana C E Rabemananjara, Luisa P Ribeiro, Dirk S Schmeller, Benedikt R Schmidt, Lee Skerratt, Freya Smith, Claudio Soto-Azat, Giulia Tessa, Luís Felipe Toledo, Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Ruhan Verster, Judit Vörös, Bruce Waldman, Rebecca J Webb, Che Weldon, Emma Wombwell, Kelly R Zamudio, Joyce E Longcore, Trenton W J Garner
Parasitic chytrid fungi have emerged as a significant threat to amphibian species worldwide, necessitating the development of techniques to isolate these pathogens into culture for research purposes. However, early methods of isolating chytrids from their hosts relied on killing amphibians. We modified a pre-existing protocol for isolating chytrids from infected animals to use toe clips and biopsies from toe webbing rather than euthanizing hosts, and distributed the protocol to researchers as part of the BiodivERsA project RACE; here called the RML protocol...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773744/worldwide-emergence-of-resistance-to-antifungal-drugs-challenges-human-health-and-food-security
#16
REVIEW
Matthew C Fisher, Nichola J Hawkins, Dominique Sanglard, Sarah J Gurr
The recent rate of emergence of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to the limited number of commonly used antifungal agents is unprecedented. The azoles, for example, are used not only for human and animal health care and crop protection but also in antifouling coatings and timber preservation. The ubiquity and multiple uses of azoles have hastened the independent evolution of resistance in many environments. One consequence is an increasing risk in human health care from naturally occurring opportunistic fungal pathogens that have acquired resistance to this broad class of chemicals...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773435/epidemiology-of-antifungal-susceptibility-review-of-literature
#17
REVIEW
I Hadrich, A Ayadi
Fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite the latest developments of diagnostic tools and therapeutic options. Early initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy has been demonstrated to have a direct impact on the patient's outcome. Antifungal susceptibility testing methods are available to detect antifungal resistance and to determine the best treatment for a specific fungus. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems, which are more appropriate for clinical laboratories...
May 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773074/enhanced-cellulase-production-in-trichoderma-reesei-rut-c30-via-constitution-of-minimal-transcriptional-activators
#18
Jiajia Zhang, Guoxiu Zhang, Wei Wang, Wei Wang, Dongzhi Wei
BACKGROUND: Cellulase can convert lignocellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars, which can be used for the industrial production of biofuels and chemicals. The high cost of cellulase production remains a challenge for lignocellulose breakdown. Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 serves as a well-known industrial workhorse for cellulase production. Therefore, the enhancement of cellulase production by T. reesei RUT C30 is of great importance. RESULTS: Two sets of novel minimal transcriptional activators (DBDace2 -VP16 and DBDcre1 -VP16) were designed and expressed in T...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773010/mycelial-growth-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-pleurotus-species-agaricomycetes
#19
Teresa A Castillo, Renata A Lemos, José Raimundo G Pereira, José Maria A Alves, Maria Francisca S Teixeira
The objective of this study was to analyze mycelial growth under different culture conditions and antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. (DPUA 1533) and P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. cv. Florida (DPUA 1534) against fungi and bacteria of medical importance. The growth of Pleurotus species was evaluated in natural and complex media, with and without light, at 25°C and 28°C for 8, 15, and 30 days. Candida albicans (DPUA 1336), Cryptococcus laurentii (DPUA 1501), Aspergillus flavus (DPUA 1836), Escherichia coli (DAUPE 224), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC 607) were used to test antibiosis...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773008/antimicrobial-cytotoxic-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activity-of-culinary-processed-shiitake-medicinal-mushroom-lentinus-edodes-agaricomycetes-and-its-major-sulfur-sensory-active-compound-lenthionine
#20
Kristyna Kupcova, Iveta Stefanova, Zuzana Plavcova, Jan Hosek, Pavel Hrouzek, Roman Kubec
The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of raw and culinary processed shiitake mushrooms were evaluated and compared with those of lenthionine (1,2,3,5,6-penta-thiepane), the principal aroma-bearing substance of the shiitake medicinal mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Antimicrobial activity was tested using a panel of 4 strains of bacteria, 2 yeasts, and 2 fungi. Cytotoxic properties were evaluated against 3 cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, PaTu), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of tested samples was assayed based on their ability to attenuate the secretion of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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