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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549320/light-emission-miracle-in-the-sea-and-preeminent-applications-of-bioluminescence-in-recent-new-biotechnology
#1
Sana Sharifian, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Khosro Khajeh
Bioluminescence is referred to the light emission by a living organism due to a specific biochemical reaction. This interesting feature of the organisms could highly influences behavioral and ecosystem dynamics. Luminescence, mostly observed in marine species, is generally higher in deep-living genera than in benthic or shallow organisms. However, among creatures living in land, fireflies, beetles, springtails and fungi have shown some bioluminescent activities. Classically, the emission of light is catalyzed by luciferase from a substrate...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548657/the-endobacterium-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-modulates-the-expression-of-its-toxin-antitoxin-systems-during-the-life-cycle-of-its-host
#2
Alessandra Salvioli di Fossalunga, Justine Lipuma, Francesco Venice, Laurence Dupont, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread root symbionts that perform important ecological services, such as improving plant nutrient and water acquisition. Some AMF from the Gigasporaceae family host a population of endobacteria, Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (Cagg). The analysis of the Cagg genome identified six putative toxin-antitoxin modules (TAs), consisting of pairs of stable toxins and unstable antitoxins that affect diverse physiological functions. Sequence analysis suggested that these TA modules were acquired by horizontal transfer...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548655/an-n-acetylglucosamine-transporter-required-for-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbioses-in-rice-and-maize
#3
Marina Nadal, Ruairidh Sawers, Shamoon Naseem, Barbara Bassin, Corinna Kulicke, Abigail Sharman, Gynheung An, Kyungsook An, Kevin R Ahern, Amanda Romag, Thomas P Brutnell, Caroline Gutjahr, Niko Geldner, Christophe Roux, Enrico Martinoia, James B Konopka, Uta Paszkowski
Most terrestrial plants, including crops, engage in beneficial interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Vital to the association is mutual recognition involving the release of diffusible signals into the rhizosphere. Previously, we identified the maize no perception 1 (nope1) mutant to be defective in early signalling. Here, we report cloning of ZmNope1 on the basis of synteny with rice. NOPE1 encodes a functional homologue of the Candida albicans N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transporter NGT1, and represents the first plasma membrane GlcNAc transporter identified from plants...
May 26, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548622/fungal-contamination-in-green-coffee-beans-samples-a-public-health-concern
#4
Carla Viegas, Cátia Pacífico, Tiago Faria, Ana Cebola de Oliveira, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal Gomes, Susana Viegas
Studies on the microbiology of coffee cherries and beans have shown that the predominant toxigenic fungal genera (Aspergillus and Penicillium) are natural coffee contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fungi in Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora L. var. robusta (Robusta coffee) green coffee samples obtained from different sources at the pre-roasting stage. Twenty-eight green coffee samples from different countries of origin (Brazil, Timor, Honduras, Angola, Vietnam, Costa Rica, Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, India, and Uganda) were evaluated...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548370/current-state-of-a-dual-behavior-of-antimicrobial-peptides-therapeutic-agents-and-promising-delivery-vectors
#5
REVIEW
Urszula Piotrowska, Marcin Sobczak, Ewa Oledzka
Microorganism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547990/fermentative-production-of-phenolic-glucosides-by-escherichia-coli-with-an-engineered-glucosyltransferase-from-rhodiola-sachalinensis
#6
Qinglin He, Hua Yin, Jingjie Jiang, Yanfen Bai, Ning Chen, Shaowei Liu, Yibin Zhuang, Tao Liu
Three rosmarinic acid analogs produced by recombinant Escherichia coli, two xanthones from fungi, and honokiol from plants, were explored as the substrates of E. coli harboring a glucosyltransferase mutant UGT73B6FS to generate phenolic glucosides. Six new and two known compounds were isolated from fermentation broth of the recombinant strain of the feeding experiments, and the compounds were identified by spectroscopy. The biotransformation of rosmarinic acid analogs and xanthones into corresponding glucosides was presented for the first time...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547568/biofertilizers-and-sustainable-agriculture-exploring-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#7
REVIEW
Nicholas O Igiehon, Olubukola O Babalola
Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546842/opportunities-and-challenges-for-the-sustainable-production-of-structurally-complex-diterpenoids-in-recombinant-microbial-systems
#8
REVIEW
Katarina Kemper, Max Hirte, Markus Reinbold, Monika Fuchs, Thomas Brück
With over 50.000 identified compounds terpenes are the largest and most structurally diverse group of natural products. They are ubiquitous in bacteria, plants, animals and fungi, conducting several biological functions such as cell wall components or defense mechanisms. Industrial applications entail among others pharmaceuticals, food additives, vitamins, fragrances, fuels and fuel additives. Central building blocks of all terpenes are the isoprenoid compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546688/collagen-cross-linking-for-microbial-keratitis
#9
Prashant Garg, Sujata Das, Aravind Roy
Collagen cross-linking is gaining popularity not only for arresting the progression of keratoconus but also other indications including management of corneal infections. In this review article, we analyzed the published literature to understand the level of evidence for its use in corneal ulcer. Photoactivated riboflavin and ultraviolet A light are known to possess antimicrobial properties. The treatment also induces formation of inter- and intra-fibrillar bonds, thereby making the corneal collagen resistant to the action of proteases arresting stromal melt...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546576/adenine-n6-methylation-in-diverse-fungi
#10
Michael F Seidl
A DNA modification-methylation of cytosines and adenines-has important roles in diverse processes such as regulation of gene expression and genome stability, yet until recently adenine methylation had been considered to be only a hallmark of prokaryotes. A new study identifies abundant adenine methylation of transcriptionally active genes in early-diverging fungi that, together with recent other work, emphasizes the importance of adenine methylation in eukaryotes.
May 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546495/complete-genome-sequence-of-streptomyces-sp-sge12-which-produces-antibacterial-and-fungicidal-activities
#11
Jianguo Xu, Min Xu, Kai Liu, Qinyin Peng, Meifeng Tao
Streptomyces sp. Sge12 was isolated from forest soil and exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activities against selected fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which contains 37 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546156/ancestral-alliances-plant-mutualistic-symbioses-with-fungi-and-bacteria
#12
REVIEW
Francis M Martin, Stéphane Uroz, David G Barker
Within the plant microbiota, mutualistic fungal and bacterial symbionts are striking examples of microorganisms playing crucial roles in nutrient acquisition. They have coevolved with their hosts since initial plant adaptation to land. Despite the evolutionary distances that separate mycorrhizal and nitrogen-fixing symbioses, these associations share a number of highly conserved features, including specific plant symbiotic signaling pathways, root colonization strategies that circumvent plant immune responses, functional host-microbe interface formation, and the central role of phytohormones in symbiosis-associated root developmental pathways...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545993/the-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungal-culture-filtrate-on-the-immune-response-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#13
Louise Mc Namara, James C Carolan, Christine T Griffin, David Fitzpatrick, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3 fold and 3...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545968/molecular-cloning-expression-and-insulin-reduction-activity-of-a-thioredoxin-1-homologue-trx1-from-the-pathogenic-fungus-paracoccidioides-lutzii
#14
Lorena C Cintra, Fernanda C Domingos, Yanna A R Lima, Mônica S Barbosa, Rodrigo S Santos, Fabrícia P Faria, Rosália S A Jesuíno
The dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The Paracoccidioides lutzii response to oxidative stress is largely unexplored. Thioredoxins (TRX) are involved in the regulation of the redox environment in the cell, responding to oxidative stress in several organisms. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a thioredoxin 1 from yeast cells from P. lutzii. The cDNA codes for a 12kDa protein containing the characteristic thioredoxin active site...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545447/filamentous-ascomycete-genomes-provide-insights-into-copia-retrotransposon-diversity-in-fungi
#15
Tifenn Donnart, Mathieu Piednoël, Dominique Higuet, Éric Bonnivard
BACKGROUND: The relative scarcity of Copia retrotransposons has been recently characterized in metazoans in comparison with the other superfamilies of LTR elements. Furthermore, Copia retrotransposons have often a particular dynamics that results in a highly predominant single clade of elements within a large host taxon, such as the GalEa-like retrotransposons in crustaceans. Taking advantage of the skyrocketing amount of genomic data available for fungi, we carried out the first large-scale comparative genomic analysis of the Copia clades in filamentous ascomycetes...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545387/impact-of-e-publication-changes-in-the-international-code-of-nomenclature-for-algae-fungi-and-plants-melbourne-code-2012-did-we-need-to-run-for-our-lives
#16
Nicky Nicolson, Katherine Challis, Allan Tucker, Sandra Knapp
BACKGROUND: At the Nomenclature Section of the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (IBC), the botanical community voted to allow electronic publication of nomenclatural acts for algae, fungi and plants, and to abolish the rule requiring Latin descriptions or diagnoses for new taxa. Since the 1st January 2012, botanists have been able to publish new names in electronic journals and may use Latin or English as the language of description or diagnosis. RESULTS: Using data on vascular plants from the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) spanning the time period in which these changes occurred, we analysed trajectories in publication trends and assessed the impact of these new rules for descriptions of new species and nomenclatural acts...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545372/lectin-carbohydrate-interactions-implications-for-the-development-of-new-anticancer-agents
#17
Evellyne de Oliveira Figueirôa, Cassia Regina Albuquerque da Cunha, Priscilla B S Albuquerque, Raiana Apolinário de Paula, Mary Ângela Aranda-Souza, Matheus Alves da Silva, Adrielle Zagmignan, Maria G Carneiro-da-Cunha, Luís Cláudio Nascimento da Silva, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia
Lectins are a large group of proteins found in animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria that recognize specific carbohydrate targets and play an important role in cell recognition and communication, host-pathogen interactions, embryogenesis, and tissue development. Recently, lectins have emerged as important biomedical tools that have been used in the development of immunomodulatory, antipathogenic, and anticancer agents. Several lectins have been shown to have the ability to discriminate between normal cells and tumor cells as a result of their different glycosylation patterns...
May 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545130/responses-of-absolute-and-specific-enzyme-activity-to-consecutive-application-of-composted-sewage-sludge-in-a-fluventic-ustochrept
#18
Xiao Liu, Kangli Guo, Lin Huang, Zhengyu Ji, Huimin Jiang, Hu Li, Jianfeng Zhang
Composted sewage sludge (CS) is considered a rich source of soil nutrients and significantly affects the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil, but its effect on specific enzyme activity in soil is disregarded. The present experiment examined the absolute and specific enzyme activity of the enzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, the diversity of soil microbial functions, and soil community composition in a Fluventic Ustochrept under a maize-wheat rotation system in North China during 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544681/tenebrio-molitor-gram-negative-binding-protein-3-tmgnbp3-is-essential-for-inducing-downstream-antifungal-tenecin-1-gene-expression-against-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana-jef-007
#19
Yi-Ting Yang, Mi Rong Lee, Se Jin Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Yu-Shin Nai, Jae Su Kim
The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543666/high-resolution-melting-analysis-assay-for-identification-of-fonsecaea-species
#20
Minglan Shi, Xiqing Li, Jiao Feng, Shulin Jia, Xing Xiao, Chunmei Chen, Cindy Fransisca, Liyan Xi, Junmin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic fungal disease. In China, the principle etiologic agent was a group of dematiaceous fungi, including Fonsecaea monophora, Fonsecaea nubica, and Cladophialophora carrionii. Although the Fonsecaea species have similar morphology, their pathogenicity is quite different. This study aims to establish a new solution for early identification of Fonsecaea species because of their distinctive potential infection risk. METHODS: Five reference strains and 35 clinical isolates from patients with CBM, preserved in our laboratory, were used in this study...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
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