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Rally driver

Sok Ying Liaw, Guiller Augustin C Carpio, Ying Lau, Seng Chee Tan, Wee Shiong Lim, Poh Sun Goh
BACKGROUND: The use of multiuser virtual worlds (MUVWs) for collaborative learning has generated interest among healthcare educators. Published evidence to support its use is growing, but none has synthesized the evidence to guide future work. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to provide a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of MUVWs in healthcare education. DESIGN: A systematic review METHODS: A systematic search of five databases including CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, PubMed, and Scopus, was conducted from inception up to January 2017...
February 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Om Prasad Gautam, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Sandy Cairncross, Sue Cavill, Valerie Curtis
AbstractIn this study, we report on the results of a trial of an intervention to improve five food hygiene behaviors among mothers of young children in rural Nepal. This novel intervention targeted five behaviors; cleanliness of serving utensils, handwashing with soap before feeding, proper storage of cooked food, and thorough reheating and water treatment. Based on formative research and a creative process using the Behavior-Centered Design approach, an innovative intervention package was designed and delivered over a period of 3 months...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
M D Hellmann, B T Li, J E Chaft, M G Kris
Molecularly targeted and immunotherapies have improved the care of patients with lung cancers. These successes have rallied calls to replace or avoid chemotherapy. Yet, even in this era of precision medicine and exciting advances, cytotoxic chemotherapies remain an essential component of lung cancer treatment. In the setting of locoregional disease, chemotherapy is the only systemic therapy thus far proven to enhance curability when combined with surgery or radiation. In the metastatic setting, chemotherapy can improve the length and quality of life in many patients...
October 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Sebastián Del Rosso, Laurinda Abreu, Heather E Webb, Hassane Zouhal, Daniel A Boullosa
The aim of the study was to assess the stress responses in drivers during an official rally car race and the influence of fitness and body composition on stress hormones. Fitness and body composition were assessed in 9 rally car drivers with an incremental exercise test for determination of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and 6-site skinfold method, respectively. Before (pre) and after (post) the first stage of an official rally car race, data were collected for heart rate (HR), blood samples were collected for analysis of hormones (i...
March 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Anthony P Turner, Hugh Richards
PURPOSE: To monitor physiological and attention responses of drivers and codrivers during a World Rally Championship (WRC) event. METHODS: Observational data were collected from ten male drivers/codrivers on heart rate (HR), core body (T core) and skin temperature (T sk), hydration status (urine osmolality), fluid intake (self-report), and visual and auditory selective attention (performance tests). Measures were taken pre-, mid-, and postcompetition day and also during the precompetition reconnaissance...
2015: BioMed Research International
Philippe Perrin, Alexis Lion, Gilles Bosser, Gérome Gauchard, Claude Meistelman
BACKGROUND: Car sickness is a frequent and potentially disabling problem, commonly related to a theory of sensory conflict, in particular visuo-vestibular, and between actual and anticipated sensory signals. This study aimed to evaluate predictors of motion sickness (MS) in rally car co-drivers exposed to various accelerations. METHODS: The subjects were 85 rally co-drivers (21 women) who filled in a questionnaire investigating MS symptoms in 4 situations: 1) special stages (competition itself); 2) special stages reconnaissance; 3) reading a book in the car; and 4) rear-seat passenger...
May 2013: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Joseph A Jackson, Michael Begon, Richard Birtles, Steve Paterson, Ida M Friberg, Amy Hall, Ann Lowe, Catriona Ralli, Andrew Turner, Malgorzata Zawadzka, Janette E Bradley
A revolutionary advance in ecological immunology is that postgenomic technologies now allow molecular mediators defined in laboratory models to be measured at the mRNA level in field studies of many naturally occurring species. Here, we demonstrate the application of such an approach to generate meaningful immunological profiles for wild mammals. We sampled a natural field vole population across the year (n = 307) and developed a battery of cellular assays in which functionally different pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling responses (transcription factors and cytokines) were activated and quantified by Q-PCR...
March 2011: Molecular Ecology
Mark Wilson, Mark Chattington, Dilwyn E Marple-Horvat
On a winding open road, a driver consistently looks to the inside of each bend before turning the steering wheel. When researchers disrupt this coordination by instructing drivers not to move their eyes, drivers' performance is impaired and their completion time during racing increases. The present authors examined whether changing internal states in a way that also restricts eye movements reduces coordination and affects performance. Participants (N = 24) completed a simulated rally stage under manipulation of their anxiety state through ego threat...
May 2008: Journal of Motor Behavior
Mark Wilson, Nickolas C Smith, Mark Chattington, Mike Ford, Dilwyn E Marple-Horvat
We tested some of the key predictions of processing efficiency theory using a simulated rally driving task. Two groups of participants were classified as either dispositionally high or low anxious based on trait anxiety scores and trained on a simulated driving task. Participants then raced individually on two similar courses under counterbalanced experimental conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The effort exerted on the driving tasks was assessed though self-report (RSME), psychophysiological measures (pupil dilation) and visual gaze data...
November 2006: Journal of Sports Sciences
M Wilson, S Stephenson, M Chattington, D E Marple-Horvat
When driving along a winding road, eye movements and steering are tightly linked. When approaching a bend, the driver looks across to the inside kerb (the tangent point) some time before turning the steering wheel. All drivers we have tested show this optimal coordination, without which driving is impaired. An intriguing question is how much of the benefit for steering arises just from moving the eyes in this coordinated way (ahead of steering and in the same direction), and how much from the visual information that the eyes move to acquire, in this instance the foveated tangent point...
January 2007: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jani Backman, Keijo Häkkinen, Jari Ylinen, Arja Häkkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen
The purpose of the present study was to investigate neuromuscular performance characteristics in open-wheel and rally drivers using the cross-sectional study design. The subjects (N = 28) consisted of experienced international-level open-wheel drivers (n = 9), experienced international-level rally drivers (n = 9) and a physically active nondriving male control group (n = 10). In 3 separate test sessions, speed, muscle strength, and endurance tests were performed. The rally drivers had higher (p < 0.05) grip, shoulder flexion, and ankle plantar flexion strength, as compared to the control group...
November 2005: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
D E Marple-Horvat, M Chattington, M Anglesea, D G Ashford, M Wilson, D Keil
When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside kerb before turning the steering wheel. Eye movements and steering are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which means that the oculomotor controller can assist the neural centres controlling steering. This optimum coordination is observed for all drivers; but despite being the preferred solution to the motor-control problem of successfully steering along a winding road, the question remains as to how crucial such coordinated eye and steering movements are for driving performance...
June 2005: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
N J Mansfield, J M Marshall
BACKGROUND: During stage rallying, musculoskeletal injuries may be provoked by the high magnitude of vibration and shock to which the driver and co-driver are exposed. Drivers and co-drivers experience similar exposure to whole body mechanical shocks and vibration but different exposure to hand/wrist stressors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate by a questionnaire study the prevalence of symptoms of musculoskeletal injuries after rallying in 13 professional and 105 amateur stage rally competitors...
October 2001: British Journal of Sports Medicine
S M Walker, B Dawson, T R Ackland
To investigate the combined use of an interactive racecar simulator and heat acclimation on psychomotor (driving) performance, eight rally drivers underwent 4 days of repeated heat (50 degrees C) exposure (1 h x day(-1)) during which they performed a simulated rally drive (3x12-min stages each separated by a 2-min break), after first cycling for 15 min at 125 W to induce some degree of fatigue and heat storage prior to beginning the rally. During the rally stages, a generic set of pace notes were read to the subject by a co-driver...
April 2001: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
T Videman, R Simonen, J Usenius, K Osterman, M Battié
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the consequences of rally driving on lumbar degenerative changes. BACKGROUND: Vehicular driving is suspected to accelerate disc degeneration through whole-body vibration, leading to back problems. However, in an earlier well-controlled study of lumbar MRI findings in monozygotic twins, significant effects of lifetime driving on disc degeneration were not demonstrated. Another study of machine operators found only long-term exposure to vibration on unsprung seats led to a reduction in disc height...
February 2000: Clinical Biomechanics
D Panizza, M Lecasble
The effects of atenolol were investigated in car drivers participating in an amateur car rally. Atenolol or placebo were administered to two groups of 20 crews (driver and assistant) in this double-blind randomized trial. When compared with placebo, there was no deterioration in subjective appraisal of alertness and reaction ability in subjects given atenolol, and stress symptoms were markedly reduced. When compared with previous experience, the incidence of improved subjective appraisal of general driving ability was higher with atenolol (30 reports) than with placebo (5 reports)...
1985: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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