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Trycat and somatization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037573/iga-igm-responses-to-tryptophan-and-tryptophan-catabolites-trycats-are-differently-associated-with-prenatal-depression-physio-somatic-symptoms-at-the-end-of-term-and-premenstrual-syndrome
#1
Chutima Roomruangwong, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, George Anderson, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
There is some evidence that lowered tryptophan and an activated tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway play a role in depression, somatoform disorder, and postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between the TRYCAT pathway and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms. We examine the associations between end of term serum IgM and IgA responses to tryptophan and 9 TRYCATs in relation to zinc, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin and prenatal physio-somatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms (fatigue, back pain, muscle pain, dyspepsia, obstipation) and prenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms as measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
April 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24085563/neurodegeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-interactions-of-oxidative-stress-tryptophan-catabolites-and-depression-with-mitochondria-and-sirtuins
#2
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
The biological underpinnings to the etiology and course of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease are an area of extensive research that has yet to produce an early biological marker or disease-slowing or preventative treatment. Recent conceptualizations of Parkinson's disease have integrated immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress occurring in depression, somatization and peripheral inflammation into the course of Parkinson's disease. We review the data showing the importance of immuno-inflammatory processes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in such classically conceived 'comorbidities', suggesting that lifetime, prodromal and concurrent depression and somatization may be intricately involved in the etiology and course of Parkinson's disease, rather than psychiatric comorbidities...
April 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23952563/biological-phenotypes-underpin-the-physio-somatic-symptoms-of-somatization-depression-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
G Anderson, M Berk, M Maes
OBJECTIVE: Somatization is a symptom cluster characterized by 'psychosomatic' symptoms, that is, medically unexplained symptoms, and is a common component of other conditions, including depression and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This article reviews the data regarding the pathophysiological foundations of 'psychosomatic' symptoms and the implications that this has for conceptualization of what may more appropriately be termed physio-somatic symptoms. METHOD: This narrative review used papers published in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar electronic databases using the keywords: depression and chronic fatigue, depression and somatization, somatization and chronic fatigue syndrome, each combined with inflammation, inflammatory, tryptophan, and cell-mediated immune (CMI)...
February 2014: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23844687/trycat-pathways-link-peripheral-inflammation-nicotine-somatization-and-depression-in-the-etiology-and-course-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
Increased depression, somatization, gut inflammation and wider peripheral inflammation are all associated with the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Classically such concurrent conditions have been viewed as "comorbidities", driven by high levels of stress in a still poorly understood and treated disorder. Here we review the data on how oxidative and nitrosative stress in association with immuno-inflammatory responses, drives alteration in tryptophan catabolites, including kynurenine, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid that drive not only the 'comorbidities" of PD but also important processes in the etiology and course of PD per se...
February 2014: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22814705/inflammation-related-disorders-in-the-tryptophan-catabolite-pathway-in-depression-and-somatization
#5
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
A recent study--comparing those with depression, somatization, comorbid depression+somatization, and controls--showed specific changes in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway in somatization, specifically lowered tryptophan and kynurenic acid, and increased kynurenine/kynurenic acid (KY/KA) and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios. These findings suggest that somatization and depression with somatization are characterized by increased activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and disorders in kynurenine aminotransferase activity, which carry a neurotoxic potential...
2012: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22445460/biological-underpinnings-of-the-commonalities-in-depression-somatization-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Somatization is a multisomatoform disorder characterized by medically unexplained, functional or psychosomatic symptoms. Similar somatic symptoms are key components of depression and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). METHODS: This paper reviews the evidence that such symptoms are organically based. We use the term "physio-somatic" to describe these symptoms. RESULTS: Inflammation, cell-mediated immune (CMI) activation and alterations in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway are associated with the physio-somatic symptoms of depression, ME/CFS and/or somatization...
June 2012: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22364930/diagnostic-classifications-in-depression-and-somatization-should-include-biomarkers-such-as-disorders-in-the-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-pathway
#7
Michael Maes, Winfried Rief
The tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is induced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which upon activation depletes plasma tryptophan (TRP) and increases the synthesis of TRYCATs. Both phenomena are associated with somatization and depression. The aims of this study are to examine whether disorders in the TRYCAT pathway are specific to depression or somatization and whether the diagnoses somatization, depression, and comorbid depression+somatization reflect qualitatively distinct clinical and biological categories...
April 30, 2012: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21712776/somatization-but-not-depression-is-characterized-by-disorders-in-the-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-pathway-indicating-increased-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-lowered-kynurenine-aminotransferase-activity
#8
Michael Maes, Piotr Galecki, Robert Verkerk, Winfried Rief
BACKGROUND: Reduced plasma tryptophan occurs in depression and somatization. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) with consequent synthesis of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) and lowered tryptophan are associated with the onset of depression in the puerperium and during interferon-alpha treatment. Depression is accompanied by lowered kynurenic acid, a neuroprotectant, or increased kynurenine, a neurotoxic TRYCAT. AIMS AND METHODS: To examine plasma tryptophan; kynurenine; kynurenic acid; the kynurenine / tryptophan (KY/TRP) ratio, indicating IDO activity; and the kynurenine / kynurenic acid (KY/KA) ratio, indicating kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) activity, in somatization; depression; somatization + depression; and controls...
2011: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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