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PET, thyroid

Michele M Merten, M Regina Castro, Jun Zhang, Jolanta M Durski, Mabel Ryder
BACKGROUND: Cytologically defined indeterminate thyroid nodules are a diagnostic challenge. Surgical lobectomy remains gold standard for definitive diagnosis, however, 70-85% of nodules are ultimately benign. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT) in excluding cancer among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules within our institution using surgical pathology as a gold standard reference and to perform a systematic review of published prospective studies on the NPV of PET/CT in evaluating indeterminate thyroid nodules...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Alina Gavrila, Per-Olof Hasselgren, Allison Glasgow, Ashley N Doyle, Alice Lee, Peter Fox, Gautam Shiva, James V Hennessey, Gerald M Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess
BACKGROUND: In addition to its role in adaptive thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue (BAT) may protect from weight gain, insulin resistance/diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the influence of thyroid hormone (TH) levels on BAT volume and activity. The aim of this pilot study was to gain further insight regarding the effect of TH treatment on BAT function in adult humans by evaluating the BAT mass and activity prospectively in six patients, first in the hypothyroid and then in the thyrotoxic phase...
October 17, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Arun Sasikumar, Ajith Joy, Raviteja Nanabala, Madhavan Unni, Padmanabhan Tk
We describe a case of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma with intensely tracer concentrating lesions in left suprarenal region, mediastinal lymph nodes, lytic bone lesions, thyroid nodules, and mild abnormal tracer-avid lung nodules in Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT. On the other hand F-FDG PET/CT showed mild to no significant abnormal uptake in these lesions. Complimentary uptake pattern was observed in Ga-PSMA and F-FDG PET images in thyroid lesions and D5 vertebral lesion. This case highlights the possibilities of imaging clear cell renal cell carcinoma with Ga-PSMA and opens the possibility of treatment with Lu-PSMA...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Tom Wilhelm, Thomas Winkens, Almut Kunze, Martin Freesmeyer
A 65-year-old woman presented with increased human thyroglobulin (3.3 ng/mL) 5 years after resection of a papillary thyroid carcinoma and successful I radioiodine therapy. I whole-body scintigraphy showed a small focus ventrally in the right lower neck, leading to suspicion of a papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. I-PET/CT and real-time PET/US fusion matched to a small hypoechoic/anechoic ovoid structure situated between the right sternoclavicular joint and the brachiocephalic trunk. After surgical resection, histology allowed a diagnosis of thymic cyst...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jan Müller, Robin Reichel, Sebastian Vogt, Stefan P Müller, Wolfgang Sauerwein, Wolfgang Brandau, Angelika Eggert, Alexander Schramm
Neuroectodermal tumours are characterized by aberrant processing of disialogangliosides concomitant with high expression of GD2 or GD3 on cell surfaces. Antibodies targeting GD2 are already in clinical use for therapy of neuroblastoma, a solid tumour of early childhood. Here, we set out to identify peptides with high affinity to human disialoganglioside GD2. To this end, we performed a combined in vivo and in vitro screen using a recombinant phage displayed peptide library. We isolated a phage displaying the peptide sequence WHWRLPS that specifically binds to the human disialoganglioside GD2...
2016: PloS One
Koji Morita, Takahiko Sakamoto, Shuji Ota, Hideo Masugi, Ikumi Chikuta, Yamato Mashimo, Naoki Edo, Takuo Tokairin, Nobuhiko Seki, Toshio Ishikawa
It has been shown that metastases to the thyroid from extrathyroidal malignancies occur as solitary or multiple nodules, or may involve the whole thyroid gland diffusely. However, diffuse metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old woman with diffuse infiltration of gastric adenocarcinoma (signet-ring-cell carcinoma/poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) cells in the thyroid. The pathological diagnosis was made based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Julie Obert, Laetitia Vercellino, Axel Van Der Gucht, Constance de Margerie-Mellon, Emmanuelle Bugnet, Sylvie Chevret, Gwenaël Lorillon, Abdellatif Tazi
PURPOSE: The standard evaluation of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) includes a clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and a skeleton/skull X-ray survey, with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the case of pulmonary involvement. Preliminary reports suggest that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET-CT) may be useful for evaluating patients with LCH. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive adult patients with multisystem LCH were included in this retrospective study, and were evaluated using standard procedures and (18)F-FDG PET-CT...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hayahiko Fujii, Masashi Nakadate, Hiroaki Tanaka, Naoki Harata, Sayako Oota, Jun Isogai, Katsuya Yoshida
OBJECTIVE: To assess (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) images in primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) patients before and after treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of data for ten patients (four men, six women) of mean age 65 (range 48-88) years, with histopathologically confirmed malignant thyroid lymphoma who underwent pre-treatment and post-treatment (18)F-FDG PET between January 2005 and December 2014...
September 10, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Martin Barrio, Johannes Czernin, Michael W Yeh, Miguel F Palma Diaz, Pawan Gupta, Martin Allen-Auerbach, Christiaan Schiepers, Ken Herrmann
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of incidental thyroid abnormalities discovered in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) (FDG PET/CT) studies remains controversial. The aim of this large retrospective study was to (a) determine the prevalence of focal F-FDG thyroid uptake on whole-body F-FDG PET/CT studies carried out for nonthyroid cancers and (b) to test whether intense focal F-FDG thyroid uptake is associated with malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 921 F-FDG PET/CT studies in 6216 patients carried out at our institution between January 2012 and December 2014 were analyzed...
September 8, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Takaaki Fujii, Reina Yajima, Hironori Tatsuki, Hiroyuki Kuwano
In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of positron emission tomography using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to detect metastatic lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer. We also investigated whether certain factors, including the size of the metastasis to the lymph nodes, are associated with FDG avidity. A total of 22 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively were enrolled in this study. Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed in the final pathology in 10 of the 22 patients (45...
September 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Renaud Ciappuccini, Nicolas Aide, David Blanchard, Jean-Pierre Rame, Dominique de Raucourt, Jean-Jacques Michels, Emmanuel Babin, Stéphane Bardet
OBJECTIVES: 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool used to evidence persistent/recurrent disease (PRD) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and iodine-refractory lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value at the cervical level of the routine whole-body (WB) acquisition and that of a complementary head and neck (HN) acquisition, performed successively during the same PET/CT study. METHODS: PET/CT studies combining WB and HN acquisitions performed in 85 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians...
2016: PloS One
Jeroen de Filette, Yanina Jansen, Max Schreuer, Hendrik Everaert, Brigitte Velkeniers, Bart Neyns, Bert Bravenboer
CONTEXT: Immune checkpoint blockade is associated with endocrine-related adverse events. Thyroid dysfunction during pembrolizumab therapy, an anti-programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), remains to be fully characterized. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and characteristics of pembrolizumab-associated thyroid dysfunction. DESIGN AND SETTING: Thyroid function was monitored prospectively in melanoma patients who initiated pembrolizumab within an expanded access program at a referral oncology center...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Aamna Hassan, Saima Riaz, Waleed Zafar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of malignancy in incidental thyroidal uptake on PET with fluorine-18 deoxyglucose integrated with computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) in Pakistani cancer patients and to assess the role of standardized uptake value (SUV) in deciding which lesions to investigate further. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent F-FDG PET/CT scans over a period of 59 months and further analysed those with visually increased thyroidal uptake...
October 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Jennifer M Ní Mhuircheartaigh, Bettina Siewert, Maryellen R Sun
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between size of thyroid nodules at computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT), and size at ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of thyroid ultrasound studies over a 2-year period. RESULTS: A total of 307 patients were included in the study. There was a statistically significant difference between the size of nodules measured on ultrasound compared with cross-sectional imaging (P < ...
August 5, 2016: Clinical Imaging
Martin Krakauer, Andreas Kjaer, Finn N Bennedbæk
Preoperative localisation of the diseased parathyroid gland(s) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a prerequisite for subsequent minimally invasive surgery. Recently, as alternatives to conventional sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy, the (11)C-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracers methionine and choline have shown promise for this purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of using the (18)F-based PET tracer fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET), as the longer half-life of (18)F makes it logistically more favourable...
August 17, 2016: Diagnostics
Yun Hee Kang, Hye Kyung Lee, Geon Park
Cowden syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas in various tissues and cancers (breast, thyroid, and endometrium). We report CS of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract that was incidentally detected by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at postoperative surveillance in an endometrial cancer patient. PET/CT showed mildly increased FDG uptake along the entire esophagus and stomach. Upper GI endoscopy and histologic examination revealed glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus and several hundred gastric polyps...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alex Khoshnevisan, Krisanat Chuamsaamarkkee, Mehdi Boudjemeline, Alex Jackson, Gareth E Smith, Anthony Gee, Gilbert O Fruhwirth, Philip Blower
PURPOSE: Anion transport by the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is an established target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy. Current radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) of hNIS expression are limited to (124)I- and (18)F-BF4-. We sought new (18)F-labeled hNIS substrates offering higher specific activity, higher affinity and simpler radiochemical synthesis than (18)F-BF4-. METHODS: The ability of a range of anions, some containing fluorine, to block (99m)TcO4- uptake in hNIS-expressing cells was measured...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Suk Kyeong Kim, Young So, Hyun Woo Chung, Young Bum Yoo, Kyung Sik Park, Tae Sook Hwang, Bokyung Kim, Won Woo Lee
Whether preoperative F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated the potential of primary tumor FDG avidity for the prediction of tumor recurrence in PTC patients. A total of 412 PTC patients (72 males, 340 females; age: 47.2 ± 12.2 years; range: 17-84 years) who underwent FDG-PET/CT prior to total thyroidectomy (n = 350), subtotal thyroidectomy (n = 2), or lobectomy (n = 60) from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed...
August 19, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Mine Şencan Eren, Özhan Özdoğan, Arzu Gedik, Mehmet Ceylan, Merih Güray Durak, Mustafa Seçil, Mehmet Ali Koçdor, Abdurrahman Çömlekçi, Hatice Durak
BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine the prevalence of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas (TIs) detected by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18F-FDG PET/CT images were evaluated prospectively for the presence of thyroid uptake. The patients with a TI were evaluated by an endocrinologist according to the predefined diagnostic algorithm. The final diagnosis was obtained clinically and/or by pathology...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
A Kukulska, J Krajewska, Z Kołosza, E Paliczka-Cies Lik, Z Puch, E Gubała, A Król, M Kalemba, A Kropin Ska, B Jarząb
INTRODUCTION: Available methods, including serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement and whole-body scan (WBS) performed after radioiodine administration, allow for a precise diagnostics in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, some asymptomatic patients demonstrate negative WBS despite a high Tg serum concentration. In these subjects, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) should be considered. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate a diagnostic value of FDG-PET in asymptomatic hyperthyroglobulinemia...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
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