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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488422/lithium-restores-age-related-olfactory-impairment-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#1
Sandra Guidi, Patrizia Bianchi, Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Stefania Trazzi, Elisabetta Ciani, Renata Bartesaghi
In this review we look at this biological overlaps of neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions, as exemplified by major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT), with consequences for serotonin availability for the melatonergic pathways. Such work significantly questions the validity and utility of non-biologically based current classification systems for psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions...
August 1, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427239/body-image-dissatisfaction-in-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-females-is-strongly-predicted-by-immune-activation-and-mucosa-derived-activation-of-the-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-pathway
#2
Chutima Roomruangwong, Buranee Kanchanatawan, André F Carvalho, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). METHODS: We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2-4 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (≤ 3) versus those with a higher score...
August 30, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349436/the-role-of-the-microbial-metabolites-including-tryptophan-catabolites-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-immune-inflammatory-and-neuroimmune-disease
#3
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Andre Carvalho, Javier R Caso, Yolanda Sanz, Ken Walder, Michael Maes
There is a growing awareness that gut commensal metabolites play a major role in host physiology and indeed the pathophysiology of several illnesses. The composition of the microbiota largely determines the levels of tryptophan in the systemic circulation and hence, indirectly, the levels of serotonin in the brain. Some microbiota synthesize neurotransmitters directly, e.g., gamma-amino butyric acid, while modulating the synthesis of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)...
June 27, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037573/iga-igm-responses-to-tryptophan-and-tryptophan-catabolites-trycats-are-differently-associated-with-prenatal-depression-physio-somatic-symptoms-at-the-end-of-term-and-premenstrual-syndrome
#4
Chutima Roomruangwong, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, George Anderson, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
There is some evidence that lowered tryptophan and an activated tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway play a role in depression, somatoform disorder, and postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between the TRYCAT pathway and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and perinatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms. We examine the associations between end of term serum IgM and IgA responses to tryptophan and 9 TRYCATs in relation to zinc, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin and prenatal physio-somatic (previously known as psychosomatic) symptoms (fatigue, back pain, muscle pain, dyspepsia, obstipation) and prenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms as measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
April 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803479/multiprobe-molecular-imaging-of-an-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-rat-model-for-glutamatergic-dysfunction
#5
Lauren Kosten, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Robert Verkerk, David Thomae, Livia De Picker, Leonie Wyffels, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens
There are many indications of a connection between abnormal glutamate transmission through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction and the occurrence of schizophrenia. The importance of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) became generally recognized due to its physical link through anchor proteins with NMDAR. Neuroinflammation as well as the kynurenine (tryptophan catabolite; TRYCAT) pathway are equally considered as major contributors to the pathology. We aimed to investigate this interplay between glutamate release, neuronal activation and inflammatory markers, by using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) in a rat model known to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms...
February 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654773/glioma-tryptophan-catabolite-and-melatoninergic-pathways-link-microrna-14-3-3-chromosome-4q35-epigenetic-processes-and-other-glioma-biochemical-changes
#6
Timothy V Beischlag, George Anderson, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli
Primary glioma, as well as secondary metastases, provide significant treatment challenges. An understanding of the biological underpinnings of glioma is likely to provide new pharmaceutical targets that will improve patient survival. Here, we look at the role that the kynurenine pathways and associated tyrptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) play in glioma, linking this to changes in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), immuneinflammatory activity, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the melatoninergic pathways...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654772/bipolar-disorder-the-role-of-the-kynurenine-and-melatonergic-pathways
#7
George Anderson, Aude Jacob, Frank Bellivier, Pierre Alexis Geoffroy
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a long-recognized severe and common psychiatric disorder, with a complex and often diverse range of presentations. BD is a heterogenous disorder that has traditionally, if rather simply, been defined by the recurrences of manic and depressive episodes, and presents with numerous immune-inflammatory and circadian/sleep abnormalities. A number of different lines of research have investigated the biological underpinnings of BD and demonstrate a heritability of about 80-90%. This genetic contribution is thought to be mediated by a wide array of genetic factors, rather than being strongly influenced by a couple of genes...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26307347/comorbidity-between-depression-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-explained-by-immune-inflammatory-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-tryptophan-catabolite-and-gut-brain-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Marta Martin-Subero, George Anderson, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Michael Berk, Michael Maes
The nature of depression has recently been reconceptualized, being conceived as the clinical expression of activated immune-inflammatory, oxidative, and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, including tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT), autoimmune, and gut-brain pathways. IO&NS pathways are similarly integral to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The increased depression prevalence in IBD associates with a lower quality of life and increased morbidity in IBD, highlighting the role of depression in modulating the pathophysiology of IBD...
April 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25620790/bipolar-disorder-role-of-immune-inflammatory-cytokines-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-tryptophan-catabolites
#9
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex disorder with a range of presentations. BD is defined by the presentation of symptoms of mania or depression, with classification dependent on patient/family reports and behavioural observations. Recent work has investigated the biological underpinnings of BD, highlighting the role played by increased immune-inflammatory activity, which is readily indicated by changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines or signalling, both centrally and systemically, e.g. increased interleukin-6 trans-signalling...
February 2015: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24803587/neuroprogression-in-schizophrenia-pathways-underpinning-clinical-staging-and-therapeutic-corollaries
#10
REVIEW
Justin Davis, Steven Moylan, Brian H Harvey, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
OBJECTIVE: Whilst dopaminergic dysfunction remains a necessary component involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, our current pharmacological armoury of dopamine antagonists does little to control the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This suggests other pathological processes must be implicated. This paper aims to elaborate on such theories. METHODS: Data for this review were sourced from the electronic database PUBMED, and was not limited by language or date of publication...
June 2014: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24669209/redox-regulation-and-the-autistic-spectrum-role-of-tryptophan-catabolites-immuno-inflammation-autoimmunity-and-the-amygdala
#11
George Anderson, Michael Maes
The autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) form a set of multi-faceted disorders with significant genetic, epigenetic and environmental determinants. Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), immuno-inflammatory pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCATs) pathway play significant interactive roles in driving the early developmental etiology and course of ASD. O&NS interactions with immuno-inflammatory pathways mediate their effects centrally via the regulation of astrocyte and microglia responses, including regional variations in TRYCATs produced...
March 2014: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24664436/activation-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-the-acute-phase-of-stroke-and-its-role-in-fatigue-and-depression-following-stroke
#12
Heidi Ormstad, Robert Verkerk, Karl-Friedrich Amthor, Leiv Sandvik
Many stroke survivors suffer from poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD), indicating the importance of increasing the base of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying these sequelae. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether activation of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway predicts subsequent fatigue or depression in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Acute serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), tryptophan (TRP) catabolites (TRYCATs), and competing amino acids, as well as subsequent fatigue and depression, were measured in 45 stroke patients...
2014: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24180395/oxidative-nitrosative-stress-and-immuno-inflammatory-pathways-in-depression-treatment-implications
#13
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
This paper reviews recent work on the biological underpinnings of clinical depression emphasizing the crucial role of immunoinflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways in driving changes in neuronal regulating tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). The essence of the association of O&NS pathways with autoimmune responses in depression is via damage to lipid membranes, anchorage molecules and functional proteins that lead to changes in their chemical structures creating new modified epitopes (neoepitopes), which are highly immunogenic...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24150993/role-of-immune-inflammatory-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-pathways-in-the-etiology-of-depression-therapeutic-implications
#14
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Steven Moylan, Michael Maes
Accumulating data have led to a re-conceptualization of depression that emphasizes the role of immune-inflammatory processes, coupled to oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS). These in turn drive the production of neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), driving tryptophan away from serotonin, melatonin, and N-acetylserotonin production, and contributing to central dysregulation. This revised perspective better encompasses the diverse range of biological changes occurring in depression and in doing so provides novel and readily attainable treatment targets, as well as potential screening investigations prior to treatment initiation...
January 2014: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24085563/neurodegeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-interactions-of-oxidative-stress-tryptophan-catabolites-and-depression-with-mitochondria-and-sirtuins
#15
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
The biological underpinnings to the etiology and course of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease are an area of extensive research that has yet to produce an early biological marker or disease-slowing or preventative treatment. Recent conceptualizations of Parkinson's disease have integrated immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress occurring in depression, somatization and peripheral inflammation into the course of Parkinson's disease. We review the data showing the importance of immuno-inflammatory processes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in such classically conceived 'comorbidities', suggesting that lifetime, prodromal and concurrent depression and somatization may be intricately involved in the etiology and course of Parkinson's disease, rather than psychiatric comorbidities...
April 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23952563/biological-phenotypes-underpin-the-physio-somatic-symptoms-of-somatization-depression-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
G Anderson, M Berk, M Maes
OBJECTIVE: Somatization is a symptom cluster characterized by 'psychosomatic' symptoms, that is, medically unexplained symptoms, and is a common component of other conditions, including depression and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This article reviews the data regarding the pathophysiological foundations of 'psychosomatic' symptoms and the implications that this has for conceptualization of what may more appropriately be termed physio-somatic symptoms. METHOD: This narrative review used papers published in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar electronic databases using the keywords: depression and chronic fatigue, depression and somatization, somatization and chronic fatigue syndrome, each combined with inflammation, inflammatory, tryptophan, and cell-mediated immune (CMI)...
February 2014: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23844687/trycat-pathways-link-peripheral-inflammation-nicotine-somatization-and-depression-in-the-etiology-and-course-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
Increased depression, somatization, gut inflammation and wider peripheral inflammation are all associated with the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Classically such concurrent conditions have been viewed as "comorbidities", driven by high levels of stress in a still poorly understood and treated disorder. Here we review the data on how oxidative and nitrosative stress in association with immuno-inflammatory responses, drives alteration in tryptophan catabolites, including kynurenine, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid that drive not only the 'comorbidities" of PD but also important processes in the etiology and course of PD per se...
February 2014: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23531160/inflammation-serotonin-and-major-depression
#18
REVIEW
Mario Catena-Dell'Osso, Francesco Rotella, Adriana Dell'Osso, Andrea Fagiolini, Donatella Marazziti
The understanding of the neurobiological processes leading to major depressive disorder (MDD) is an active field of research in the scientific community. For years, the alteration of monoamine neurotransmission, in particular serotonin (5-HT), has been considered the most significant pathophysiological mechanism of the disorder. However, biological data supporting the postulated MDD-related monoamine alterations have been inconclusive, and the use of monoaminergic antidepressants has not yielded the expected results...
May 1, 2013: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22930036/schizophrenia-is-primed-for-an-increased-expression-of-depression-through-activation-of-immuno-inflammatory-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-tryptophan-catabolite-pathways
#19
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
Schizophrenia and depression are two common and debilitating psychiatric conditions. Up to 61% of schizophrenic patients have comorbid clinical depression, often undiagnosed. Both share significant overlaps in underlying biological processes, which are relevant to the course and treatment of both conditions. Shared processes include changes in cell-mediated immune and inflammatory pathways, e.g. increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1 response; activation of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, e...
April 5, 2013: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22814705/inflammation-related-disorders-in-the-tryptophan-catabolite-pathway-in-depression-and-somatization
#20
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes, Michael Berk
A recent study--comparing those with depression, somatization, comorbid depression+somatization, and controls--showed specific changes in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway in somatization, specifically lowered tryptophan and kynurenic acid, and increased kynurenine/kynurenic acid (KY/KA) and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios. These findings suggest that somatization and depression with somatization are characterized by increased activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and disorders in kynurenine aminotransferase activity, which carry a neurotoxic potential...
2012: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
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