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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324105/thyroid-hormone-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-levels-in-female-offspring-of-obese-rats
#1
T Tabachnik, T Kisliouk, A Marco, N Meiri, A Weller
Maternal obesity is a risk factor for offspring obesity. Melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r) is one of the mediators of food intake and energy balance. This study examines epigenetic mechanisms underlying altered Mc4r levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in offspring of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese dams, and aims to elucidate the role of thyroid hormones in epigenetic regulation and tagging of their nucleosome at the Mc4r promoter. Female Wistar rats were fed HFD or chow from weaning through gestation and lactation...
January 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302124/reliability-and-acceptability-of-six-station-multiple-mini-interviews-past-behavioural-versus-situational-questions-in-postgraduate-medical-admission
#2
Toru Yamada, Juichi Sato, Hiroshi Yoshimura, Tomoya Okubo, Eiji Hiraoka, Takashi Shiga, Tadao Kubota, Shigeki Fujitani, Junji Machi, Nobutaro Ban
BACKGROUND: The multiple mini-interview (MMI) is increasingly used for postgraduate medical admissions and in undergraduate settings. MMIs use mostly Situational Questions (SQs) rather than Past-Behavioural Questions (PBQs). A previous study of MMIs in this setting, where PBQs and SQs were asked in the same order, reported that the reliability of PBQs was non-inferior to SQs and that SQs were more acceptable to candidates. The order in which the questions are asked may affect reliability and acceptability of an MMI...
March 16, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279752/novel-spiroimidazopyridine-derivative-sak3-improves-methimazole-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#3
Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272341/liver-effects-of-clinical-drugs-differentiated-in-human-liver-slices
#4
Alison E M Vickers, Anatoly V Ulyanov, Robyn L Fisher
Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM), diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM) and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM). Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM) and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM), while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM), terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM), and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264549/the-utility-of-multiple-mini-interviews-experience-of-a-medical-school
#5
Kyong-Jee Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam, Bum Sun Kwon
PURPOSE: This paper aims to introduce the design of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) as a tool to assess medical school applicants' attributes in alignment with the school's educational goals and to evaluate its utility. METHODS: In this MMI, candidates rotated through six stations (10 minutes per station), in which specific interview topics were drawn by mapping the school's educational goals with the core competencies for entering medical students. We conducted post-MMI surveys of all of the interviewers and candidates to investigate their experiences of MMIs...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216885/simultaneous-determination-of-eight-phenolic-acids-five-saponins-and-four-tanshinones-for-quality-control-of-compound-preparations-containing-danshen-sanqi-herb-pair-by-hplc-dad
#6
Hong Yao, Xiaomei Huang, Shaoguang Li, Youjia Wu, Xinhua Lin, Peiying Shi
BACKGROUND: The herb-pair, Salviaemiltiorrhizae (Danshen, DS) and Panaxnotoginseng (Sanqi,SQ), often occurs in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in clinics in Asian areas. Many commercial preparations containing the DS-SQ herb-pair were produced by various manufactures with the different production process. The raw materials were from different sources, which raised a challenge to control the quality of the herb-pair medicines...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203042/relationship-between-dose-of-antithyroid-drugs-and-adverse-events-in-pediatric-patients-with-graves-disease
#7
Kie Yasuda, Yoko Miyoshi, Makiko Tachibana, Noriyuki Namba, Kazunori Miki, Yukiko Nakata, Toru Takano, Keiichi Ozono
Graves' disease (GD) accounts for a large proportion of pediatric hyperthyroidism, and the first-line treatment is antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Methimazole (MMI) is effective in most patients but is associated with significant adverse events (AEs). We reviewed the medical records of GD patients (n = 56) with onset age of <15 yr and investigated the relationship between MMI dose and AEs. The study population comprised 11 male and 45 female patients and the median age at diagnosis was 11 yr. All patients were initially treated with ATDs...
January 2017: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192819/mir-346-and-trab-as-predicative-factors-for-relapse-in-graves-disease-within-one-year
#8
Jianhui Li, Yawei Cai, Xiaohua Sun, Danzhen Yao, Jinying Xia
Despite the efficacy and safety, antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy for Graves' disease (GD) is associated with a high risk of relapse, especially within the first year. The inability to predict whether and when relapse may occur is a major problem for ATD therapy. This study was aimed to investigate potential predicative factors for GD patients after ATD withdrawal. Consecutive patients newly diagnosed with GD and treated with ATD [methimazole (MMI)] were enrolled in this study. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were used for the analysis of predicative parameters for GD relapse after MMI withdrawal...
February 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129495/the-association-between-antenatal-exposure-to-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-autism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Hilary K Brown, Neesha Hussain-Shamsy, Yona Lunsky, Cindy-Lee E Dennis, Simone N Vigod
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the relationship between antenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and child autism, with specific attention to maternal mental illness (MMI) as a potential confounding factor. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from database inception to January 28, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords included terms for SSRIs, pregnancy, and autism...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118682/multiple-mini-interview-predictive-validity-for-performance-on-a-pharmacy-licensing-examination
#10
Andrea J Cameron, Linda D MacKeigan, Nicholas Mitsakakis, John A Pugsley
CONTEXT: Predictive validity studies on the use of the multiple mini-interview (MMI) have been primarily in medicine. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the predictive validity of the MMI for performance within a pharmacy programme and on the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada (PEBC) Qualifying Examination for licensure, and to compare the predictive validity of the MMI with that of pre-pharmacy grade point average (GPA) and Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) score...
January 24, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113688/a-micro-ga-embedded-pso-feature-selection-approach-to-intelligent-facial-emotion-recognition
#11
Kamlesh Mistry, Li Zhang, Siew Chin Neoh, Chee Peng Lim, Ben Fielding
This paper proposes a facial expression recognition system using evolutionary particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based feature optimization. The system first employs modified local binary patterns, which conduct horizontal and vertical neighborhood pixel comparison, to generate a discriminative initial facial representation. Then, a PSO variant embedded with the concept of a micro genetic algorithm (mGA), called mGA-embedded PSO, is proposed to perform feature optimization. It incorporates a nonreplaceable memory, a small-population secondary swarm, a new velocity updating strategy, a subdimension-based in-depth local facial feature search, and a cooperation of local exploitation and global exploration search mechanism to mitigate the premature convergence problem of conventional PSO...
April 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113507/learning-expressionlets-via-universal-manifold-model-for-dynamic-facial-expression-recognition
#12
Mengyi Liu, Shiguang Shan, Ruiping Wang, Xilin Chen
Facial expression is a temporally dynamic event which can be decomposed into a set of muscle motions occurring in different facial regions over various time intervals. For dynamic expression recognition, two key issues, temporal alignment and semantics-aware dynamic representation, must be taken into account. In this paper, we attempt to solve both problems via manifold modeling of videos based on a novel midlevel representation, i.e. expressionlet. Specifically, our method contains three key stages: 1) each expression video clip is characterized as a spatial-temporal manifold (STM) formed by dense low-level features; 2) a Universal Manifold Model (UMM) is learned over all low-level features and represented as a set of local modes to statistically unify all the STMs...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102434/low-muscle-mass-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-findings-from-the-koges
#13
Jang Won Son, Seong Su Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Soon Jib Yoo, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Nam H Cho
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Asians have a propensity to develop type 2 diabetes with a lower BMI than Western populations. This discrepancy may be due to differences in body fat and muscle mass for a given BMI. However, unlike adiposity, it is unclear whether muscle mass affects the risk of type 2 diabetes in Asian populations. METHODS: We conducted a 2-yearly prospective assessment of 6895 participants who were free of diabetes at the baseline examination as part of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study...
January 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062304/duplication-of-dio3-genes-in-teleost-fish-and-their-divergent-expression-in-skin-during-flatfish-metamorphosis
#14
R N Alves, J C R Cardoso, T Harboe, R S T Martins, M Manchado, B Norberg, D M Power
Deiodinase 3 (Dio3) plays an essential role during early development in vertebrates by controlling tissue thyroid hormone (TH) availability. The Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) possesses duplicate dio3 genes (dio3a and dio3b). Expression analysis indicates that dio3b levels change in abocular skin during metamorphosis and this suggests that this enzyme is associated with the divergent development of larval skin to the juvenile phenotype. In larvae exposed to MMI, a chemical that inhibits TH production and blocks metamorphosis, expression of dio3b in ocular skin is significantly up-regulated suggesting that THs normally modulate this genes expression during this developmental event...
January 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042986/association-between-mastication-and-cognitive-status-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Akio Tada, Hiroko Miura
PURPOSE: A substantial number of elderly people suffer from cognitive impairment and dementia, which are considered to have various risk factors, including masticatory dysfunction; however, the association between mastication and cognition is inconclusive. The objectives of this systematic review were to provide an overview of the literature on (1) the association between mastication and cognitive function and (2) the association between mastication and dementia incidence, in elderly people...
May 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#16
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024976/neurologic-functional-outcomes-of-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-versus-conventional-treatment-for-malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Yu-Ping Li, Meng-Zhuo Hou, Guang-Yu Lu, Natalia Ciccone, Xing-Dong Wang, Lun Dong, Chen Cheng, Heng-Zhu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) versus conventional treatment (CT) for patients with malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction and to investigate the impact of age and surgical timing on neurologic function and mortality. METHODS: We searched English and Chinese databases for randomized controlled trials or observational studies published before August 2016. Outcomes included good functional outcome (GFO), mortality, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index scores...
March 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024439/impact-of-sociodemographic-characteristics-of-applicants-in-multiple-mini-interviews
#18
Jean-Michel Leduc, Richard Rioux, Robert Gagnon, Christian Bourdy, Ashley Dennis
BACKGROUND: Multiple mini-interviews (MMI) are commonly used for medical school admission. This study aimed to assess if sociodemographic characteristics are associated with MMI performance, and how they may act as barriers or enablers to communication in MMI. METHODS: This mixed-method study combined data from a sociodemographic questionnaire, MMI scores, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with applicants and assessors. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and a thematic framework analysis...
December 26, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004374/individual-differences-in-media-multitasking-and-performance-on-the-n-back
#19
Brandon C W Ralph, Daniel Smilek
A number of studies have recently examined the link between individual differences in media multitasking (using the MMI) and performance on working memory paradigms. However, these studies have yielded mixed results. Here we examine the relation between media multitasking and one particular working memory paradigm-the n-back (2- and 3-back)-improving upon previous research by (a) treating media multitasking as a continuous variable and adopting a correlational approach as well as (b) using a large sample of participants...
December 21, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978464/selectivity-evaluation-and-separation-of-human-immunoglobulin-g-fab-and-fc-fragments-with-mixed-mode-resins
#20
Ying-Di Luo, Qi-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Ming Yuan, Wei Shi, Shan-Jing Yao, Dong-Qiang Lin
Adsorption selectivity is critical important for mixed-mode chromatography with specially-designed ligands. Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), Fc and Fab fragments were used in the present work to evaluate adsorption behavior and binding selectivity of four mixed-mode resins with the ligands of 4-mercatoethyl-pyridine (MEP), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 5-aminobenzimidazole (ABI) and tryptophan-5-aminobenzimidazole (W-ABI), respectively. The resins showed an obvious pH-dependent adsorption behavior. High adsorption capacities were found at neutral pH for hIgG, Fc and Fab, and almost no adsorption happened under acidic conditions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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