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public health physical activity

Elisabeth Waldmann, Georg Heinze, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Irina GessI, Daniela Sallinger, Philip Jeschek, Martha Britto-Arias, Petra Salzl, Elisabeth Fasching, Bernd Jilma, Michael Kundi, Michael Trauner, Monika Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of (pre)cancerous colorectal lesions are higher in men than in women, although transition rates from advanced lesions to cancer is similar in both sexes. Our aim was to investigate whether the sex-specific difference in incidence of premalignant colorectal lesions might be explained by the impact of risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysing health check-up examinations and screening colonoscopies performed within a national quality assurance program...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Thiago Hérick Sá, Ana Clara Duran, Marko Tainio, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, James Woodcock
The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Timothy S Church
The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(000):0000-0000) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
I O Oliveira, L P Silva, M C Borges, O M Cruz, J W Tessmann, J V S Motta, F K Seixas, B L Horta, D P Gigante
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a key intermediate in methionine metabolism. A high plasma concentration of Hcy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among other determinants. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity) on Hcy concentrations in a young Brazilian population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population comprised 3803 individuals from the Pelotas Birth Cohort, aged 22-23 years...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Emma Stait, Michael Calnan
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, differential consumption patterns in health-related behaviours have increasingly been highlighted as playing an important role in explaining persistent and widening health inequalities. This period has also seen government public health policies in England place a greater emphasis on changing 'lifestyle' behaviours, in an attempt to tackle social inequalities in health. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the variation in health-related behaviour in relation to socio-economic position, in the English adult population, to determine the nature of this relationship and whether it has changed over time...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Tonje Holte Stea, Tommy Haugen, Sveinung Berntsen, Vigdis Guttormsen, Nina Cecilie Øverby, Kristin Haraldstad, Eivind Meland, Eirik Abildsnes
BACKGROUND: In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6-10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Rebecca M Stanley, Rachel A Jones, Dylan P Cliff, Stewart G Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J Reilly, Ngiare Brown, Karen J Mickle, Steven J Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul Chandler, Penny Cross, Fay Gowers, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Lauren E Griffith, Parminder Raina, Mélanie Levasseur, Nazmul Sohel, Hélène Payette, Holly Tuokko, Edwin van den Heuvel, Andrew Wister, Anne Gilsing, Christopher Patterson
BACKGROUND: We examine the population impact on functional disability and social participation of physical and mental chronic conditions individually and in combination. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based data from community-dwelling people aged 45 years and over living in the 10 Canadian provinces in 2008-2009 were used to estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for functional disability in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living and social participation restrictions for individual and combinations of chronic conditions, stratified by age and gender, after adjusting for confounding variables...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Michael Bursztyn, Aliza Hammerman-Rozenberg, Jeremy Jacobs, Jochanan Stessman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and association with mortality of orthostatic hypertension (OHYPER) amongst the oldest old. DESIGN AND METHOD: Two waves from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study of community dwelling residents born in 1920-21 were examined at age of 85 (n = 1004), and 90 (n = 437). Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured three times on two occasions, averaged and compared to 1 minute standing BP. OHYPER, orthostatic hypotension (OHYPO) or normotension (ONT) were classified if the difference of standing-sitting SBP either increased or decreased by ≥20mmHg, or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Oline Anita Bjørkelund, Hanna Degerud, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Cristina Julian, Marleen A H Lentjes, Inge Huybrechts, Robert Luben, Nick Wareham, Luis A Moreno, Kay-Tee Khaw
Vitamin D deficiency and physical inactivity have been associated with bone loss and fractures, but their combined effect has scarcely been studied either in younger or older adults. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between physical activity, age and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status separately and in combination with the incidence of fracture risk in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. Baseline (1993-1998) self-reported physical activity and serum 25(OH)D concentrations at follow-up (1998-2000) were collected in 14,624 men and women (aged 42-82 y between 1998 and 2000)...
2016: PloS One
Thomas L McKenzie
Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or are at a loss regarding the assessment of physical activity in explicit locations, especially in open environments where many people come and go in a seemingly indiscriminate fashion...
October 17, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Esma R Isenovic, Zoran Gluvic, Bozidarka Zaric, Ivana Resanovic, Milan Obradovic, Aleksandar Mitrovic, Djordje Radak
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a leading public health and clinical challenge worldwide. MetS represents a group of interelated risk factors that predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Its prevalence ranges between 10 and 84%, depending of the geographic region, urban or rural environment, individual demographic characteristics of the population studied (sex, age, racial and ethnic origin), as well as the criteria used to define MetS. Persons with MetS have higher mortality rate when compared with people without MetS, primarily caused by progressive atherosclerosis, accelerated by pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulation components of MetS...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Andrea D Smith, Alessio Crippa, James Woodcock, Søren Brage
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Inverse associations between physical activity (PA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well known. However, the shape of the dose-response relationship is still uncertain. This review synthesises results from longitudinal studies in general populations and uses non-linear models of the association between PA and incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified 28 prospective studies on leisure-time PA (LTPA) or total PA and risk of type 2 diabetes...
October 17, 2016: Diabetologia
Dilip V Jeste, Dan G Blazer, Kathleen C Buckwalter, Keri-Leigh K Cassidy, Len Fishman, Lisa P Gwyther, Saul M Levin, Christopher Phillipson, Ramesh R Rao, Ellen Schmeding, William A Vega, Julie A Avanzino, Danielle K Glorioso, John Feather
Older adults consistently prefer aging in place, which requires a high level of community support and services that are currently lacking. With a rapidly aging population, the present infrastructure for healthcare will prove even more inadequate to meet seniors' physical and mental health needs. A paradigm shift away from the sole focus on delivery of interventions at an individual level to more prevention-focused, community-based approaches will become essential. Recent initiatives have been proposed to promote healthy lifestyles and preventive care to enable older adults to age in place...
July 28, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Fernando Lanas, Lydia Bazzano, Adolfo Rubinstein, Matias Calandrelli, Chung-Shiuan Chen, Natalia Elorriaga, Laura Gutierrez, Jose A Manfredi, Pamela Seron, Nora Mores, Rosana Poggio, Jacqueline Ponzo, Hector Olivera, Jiang He, Vilma E Irazola
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major determinant of cardiovascular disease in South America. However, population-based data are limited. METHODS: A total of 7,524 women and men, aged 35 to 74 years old, were randomly selected from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America between February 2010 and December 2011. Obesity clinical measurements and cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methodology. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were 35...
2016: PloS One
Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos, David O Okonkwo, Jon Almquist, Julian Bailes, Mark Barisa, Jeffrey Bazarian, O Josh Bloom, David Brody, Robert Cantu, Javier Cardenas, Jay Clugston, Randall Cohen, Ruben Echemendia, R J Elbin, Richard Ellenbogen, Janna Fonseca, Gerard Gioia, Kevin Guskiewicz, Robert Heyer, Gillian Hotz, Grant L Iverson, Barry Jordan, Geoffrey Manley, Joseph Maroon, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Anne Mucha, Elizabeth Pieroth, Kenneth Podell, Matthew Pombo, Teena Shetty, Allen Sills, Gary Solomon, Danny G Thomas, Tamara C Valovich McLeod, Tony Yates, Ross Zafonte
BACKGROUND: Conventional management for concussion involves prescribed rest and progressive return to activity. Recent evidence challenges this notion and suggests that active approaches may be effective for some patients. Previous concussion consensus statements provide limited guidance regarding active treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current landscape of treatment for concussion and to provide summary agreements related to treatment to assist clinicians in the treatment of concussion...
October 12, 2016: Neurosurgery
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