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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735903/genetics-of-non-syndromic-childhood-obesity-and-the-use-of-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-technologies
#1
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Proença da Fonseca, Claudio Mastronardi, Angad Johar, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Gilberto Paz-Filho
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with the development of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The elevated prevalence of obesity is mostly due to inadequate diet and lifestyle, but it is also influenced by genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To review recent advances in the field of the genetics of obesity. We summarize the list of genes associated with the rare non-syndromic forms of obesity, and explain their function...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733773/the-influence-of-black-identity-on-wellbeing-and-health-behaviors
#2
Fiona B Lewis, Marie-Claire Boutrin, Lisa Dalrymple, Lorna H McNeill
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Black identity on wellbeing and health behaviors. METHODS: Data from the third year (wave) of a longitudinal cohort study (N = 1316) from a large, majority Black, Protestant church of 16,000 members located in Houston, Texas, were used to conduct secondary data analyses. Univariate analyses were used to obtain participants' sociodemographic and health characteristics. ANCOVA and linear regression analyses and Bonferroni adjustments were used to examine the influence of the centrality, public and private regard aspects of Black identity as measured by the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity subscales on wellbeing (CES-D scores and self-reported general health) and health behaviors (diet and physical activity levels)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731554/evaluation-of-a-healthiness-rating-system-for-food-outlet-types-in-australian-residential-communities
#3
Hamid Moayyed, Bridget Kelly, Xiaoqi Feng, Victoria Flood
AIM: To obtain expert consensus to develop and evaluate a rating system on the relative healthiness of Australian suburbs' food outlet types. METHODS: Twenty-four food outlet types and 10 local suburbs were identified from previous mapping studies and based on a scan of suburbs across one large Australian geographical region. Initial food outlet 'scores' for relative healthiness were proposed based on available literature, classified into five categories, from 'most' to 'least' healthy...
February 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730383/consensus-modeling-to-develop-the-farmers-market-readiness-assessment-and-decision-instrument
#4
Eunlye Lee, Jarrod Dalton, David Ngendahimana, Pat Bebo, Ashley Davis, Daniel Remley, Carol Smathers, Darcy A Freedman
Nutrition-related policy, system, and environmental (PSE) interventions such as farmers' markets have been recommended as effective strategies for promoting healthy diet for chronic disease prevention. Tools are needed to assess community readiness and capacity factors influencing successful farmers' market implementation among diverse practitioners in different community contexts. We describe a multiphase consensus modeling approach used to develop a diagnostic tool for assessing readiness and capacity to implement farmers' market interventions among public health and community nutrition practitioners working with low-income populations in diverse contexts...
July 20, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729394/body-fat-of-rats-of-different-age-groups-and-nutritional-states-assessment-by-micro-ct-and-skinfold-thickness
#5
Eva Tekus, Alexandra Miko, Nora Furedi, Ildiko Rostas, Judit Tenk, Tamas Kiss, István Szitter, Marta Balasko, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Marta Wilhelm, Erika Petervari
Obesity presents a growing public health problem. Therefore, the analysis of body composition is important in clinical practice as well as in animal research models of obesity, hence precise methods for the assessment of body fat would be essential. We aimed to evaluate in vivo abdominal micro-computed tomography scan restricted to the L1-L3 region (micro-CT(L1-L3)), a skinfold thickness-based method (STM) and post mortem body composition analysis (PMA) with regard to whole-body micro-CT scan in rats. Male Wistar rats of different age-groups (from 3 to 24 months) and nutritional states (normally fed, high-fat diet-induced obese, calorie-restricted) were used...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728777/the-emerging-nutritional-problems-of-school-adolescents-overweight-obesity-and-associated-factors-in-jimma-town-ethiopia
#6
Nurezeman Gali, Dessalegn Tamiru, Meseret Tamrat
BACKGROUND: Globally, overweight is rapidly becoming one of the most important medical and public health problems. Adolescent obesity is a multisystem disease with potentially devastating consequences that persist into adulthood. However, there is a paucity of available information regarding the adolescent overweight and obesity in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April/2015 among 546 adolescents...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728473/parents-views-on-childhood-obesity-qualitative-analysis-of-discussion-board-postings
#7
Jessica Appleton, Cathrine Fowler, Nicola Brown
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an increasing concern for parents and health professionals alike. Parents' perception of obesity as a current health issue for their children is important for the everyday parenting and health choices parents make. As parents are frequently going online to seek and exchange information about parenting and child health, asynchronous online discussion forums provide an opportunity to investigate their perceptions and concerns. Understanding parents' perceptions, beliefs and attitudes is important in any childhood obesity prevention and intervention...
July 21, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728058/high-prevalence-of-esbls-in-retail-chicken-meat-despite-reduced-use-of-antimicrobials-in-chicken-production-france
#8
Tiago Casella, Mara Correa Lelles Nogueira, Estelle Saras, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are critically important antibiotics for humans and their use in animals poses a potential threat for public health. Chicken represents an increasing part of the human diet and has also been regarded as a source of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae because of the worldwide off-label use of ceftiofur, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Thus, numerous studies pointed out chicken as a reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and/or clones at risk for humans. In France, late 2011, strong political pressure led to a drastic reduction of ceftiofur use and all other antibiotics in chicken production...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#9
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721435/effect-of-a-combined-tai-chi-resistance-training-and-dietary-intervention-on-cognitive-function-in-obese-older-women
#10
F Xu, M J Delmonico, I E Lofgren, K M Uy, S A Maris, D Quintanilla, A G Taetzsch, J Letendre, L Mahler
Cognitive decline in older adults is a major public health problem and can compromise independence and quality of life. Exercise and diet have been studied independently and have shown to be beneficial for cognitive function, however, a combined Tai Chi, resistance training, and diet intervention and its influence on cognitive function has not been undertaken. The current study used a 12-week non-randomized research design with experiment and control groups to examine the effect of a combined Tai Chi, resistance training, and diet intervention on cognitive function in 25 older obese women...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720899/p32-heterozygosity-protects-against-age-and-diet-induced-obesity-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#11
Yong Liu, Patrick L Leslie, Aiwen Jin, Koji Itahana, Lee M Graves, Yanping Zhang
Obesity is increasing in prevalence and has become a global public health problem. The main cause of obesity is a perturbation in energy homeostasis, whereby energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the deregulation of energy homeostasis, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we identify mitochondrial p32 (also known as C1QBP) as an important regulator of lipid homeostasis that regulates both aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. We show that while whole-body deletion of the p32 results in an embryonic lethal phenotype, mice heterozygous for p32 are resistant to age- and high-fat diet-induced ailments, including obesity, hyperglycemia, and hepatosteatosis...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720235/self-efficacy-and-self-care-behaviours-among-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Melba Sheila D'Souza, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Kader Parahoo, Ramesh Venkatesaperumal, Susan Achora, Arcalyd Rose R Cayaban
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has an impact on an individuals' health and is influenced by glycemic control. AIM: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic and clinical factors on self-efficacy and self-care behaviours among adults with T2DM. DESIGN: A correlational, descriptive study was used. One hundred and forty Omani adults with T2DM were recruited from a public hospital. METHODS: Data on self-efficacy, self-care behaviours and glycemic control were collected between April and July 2016...
August 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#13
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717859/estimated-costs-of-clinical-and-surgical-treatment-of-severe-obesity-in-the-brazilian-public-health-system
#14
Paula Rosales Zubiaurre, Luciana Ribeiro Bahia, Michelle Quarti Machado da Rosa, Roberto Pereira Assumpção, Alexandre Vontobel Padoin, Samanta Pereira Sussembach, Everton Nunes da Silva, Claudio Corá Mottin
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. This study aimed to estimate and compare the anual costs of clinical and surgical treatment of severe obesity from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System. METHODS: An observational and cross-sectional study was performed in three reference centers. Data collection on health resources utilization and productivity loss was carried out through an online questionnaire...
July 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715990/single-subject-studies-in-translational-nutrition-research
#15
Nicholas J Schork, Laura H Goetz
There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715062/gestational-weight-gain-historical-evolution-of-a-contested-health-outcome
#16
Edmond D Shenassa, Celena Kinsey, Marian Moser Jones, Jenifer Fahey
The history of research on gestational weight gain (GWG) in the United States and United Kingdom provides a context for current clinical practice. We trace the evolution of research on GWG in scientific literature from the 19th century to the present and examine its implications for contemporary clinical and public health practice. Obstetricians, beginning in the late 1800s, recommended dieting during pregnancy in order to limit GWG to 20 lb or less, driven by a belief that excessive weight gain was a cause of toxemia...
July 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712165/effectiveness-of-a-school-based-multicomponent-intervention-on-nutritional-status-among-primary-school-children-in-bangkok-thailand
#17
Nattapon Chawla, Alessio Panza, Chutima Sirikulchayanonta, Ramesh Kumar, Surasak Taneepanichskul
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712161/a-health-behavior-score-is-associated-with-hypertension-and-obesity-among-australian-adults
#18
Katherine M Livingstone, Sarah A McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between a health behavior score and prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity. METHODS: Adults (n = 4,609; 19-85 years) were included from the cross-sectional Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A health behavior score was derived based on individuals meeting recommendations for diet quality, smoking, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep. Poisson regression estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) of hypertension and overweight/obesity by health behavior score...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708468/a-botanical-composition-from-morus-alba-ilex-paraguariensis-and-rosmarinus-officinalis-for-body-weight-management
#19
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Obesity is the largest and fastest growing public health catastrophe in the world affecting both adults and children with a prevalence impacting more than one-third of United States (US) adult population. Although the long-term solution lies in lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercise, intervention is required for those who are already obese. Unfortunately, treatment options remain quite limited due to associated side effects of conventional therapeutics. As a natural alternative, in this study we describe the beneficial effect of a standardized composition (UP603) comprised of extracts from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis in improving metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD) and high fat & high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708273/pediatric-obesity-related-curricular-content-and-training-in-dental-schools-and-dental-hygiene-programs-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#20
Kimon Divaris, Vaishnavi Bhaskar, Kathleen A McGraw
OBJECTIVES: The authors conducted a systematic review to determine: a) What dental schools and dental hygiene programs are doing to promote knowledge and skills related to addressing childhood obesity and to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and b) What else these schools and programs could do to better equip future oral health professionals to address childhood obesity and reduce consumption of SSBs. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, Education Full Text (EBSCOHost), and ERIC (EBSCOHost) to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting on obesity or dietetic-related curricula in dental and dental hygiene education within the last 20 years...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
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