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public health diet

Lihui Men, Zifeng Pi, Yuan Zhou, Mengying Wei, Yuanyuan Liu, Fengrui Song, Zhongying Liu
Obesity has become a global epidemic and public health challenge which associates with serious health issues including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, arthritis, and some types of cancer. To better understand obesity and obesity-related dysfunction, a high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese model was developed on Sprague-Dawley rats. Metabolomics based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was untilized to identify and analyze obesity related metabolites in rat urine samples...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ryoko Tajima, Takeshi Kimura, Ayaka Enomoto, Kaede Yanoshita, Aki Saito, Satomi Kobayashi, Katsunori Masuda, Kaoruko Iida
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through lifestyle modification is an important public health issue. Carbohydrate intake from soft drinks has received particular interest. Owing to differences in dietary habits, however, major contributors to the intake of dietary carbohydrates, such as rice, bread, and noodles, might have more influence on NAFLD prevalence in East Asian countries than consumption of soft drinks. We examined the relationship of the intake of rice, bread, and noodles, as well as overall carbohydrate intake, with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Bharat V Shah, Zamurrud M Patel
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and more so in India. With limited availability and high cost of therapy, barely 10 % of patients with incident end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases get treatment in India. Therefore, all possible efforts should be made to retard progression of CKD. This article reviews the role of low protein diet (LPD) in management of CKD subjects and suggests how to apply it in clinical practice. DISCUSSION: The role of LPD in retarding progression of CKD is well established in animal experimental studies...
October 21, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Wei Lu, Hanwen Chen, Yuequn Niu, Han Wu, Dajing Xia, Yihua Wu
BACKGROUND: Dairy products are major components of daily diet and the association between consumption of dairy products and public health issues has captured great attention. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk. METHODS: After a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE, 11 population-based cohort studies involving 778,929 individuals were considered eligible and included in the analyses...
October 21, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M K Shea, C H Gilhooly, B Dawson-Hughes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Acid-producing diets have been associated with adverse health conditions. Dietary acid load can be estimated from dietary intake data, but the available methods require a full dietary assessment. We sought to identify a simpler means to estimate 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), a robust measure of net endogenous acid production, using self-reported intakes of fruits, vegetables (acid-neutralizing foods), grain and/or protein (acid-producing foods) acquired by two different methods in community-dwelling older adults...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Francislaine A Dos Reis Lívero, Gracianny Gomes Martins, José Ederaldo Queiroz Telles, Olair Carlos Beltrame, Stellee Marcela Petris Biscaia, Célia Regina Cavichiolo Franco, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Alexandra Acco
Ethanol abuse is a serious public health problem that is associated with several stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), the earliest stage of ALD, is a multifactorial injury that involves oxidative stress and disruptions of lipid metabolism. Although benign and reversible, no pharmacological treatments are available for this condition. In the present study, we induced AFLD in mice with 10% ethanol and a low-protein diet and then orally treated them with a hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera (HEBT; 30 mg kg(-1))...
October 15, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Norm Campbell
Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Nilsson
During more than 50 years the high cardiovascular risk in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, now Russia, has been described as very high. This is based on epidemiological findings from countries and regions, for example within the MONICA study as organized by the WHO. One common explanation is that this is influenced by an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile including high prevalence rates of hypertension in many subjects, in combination with unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, diet) and stressful social conditions, including health care gaps...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Marion G Priebe, Jolene R McMonagle
BACKGROUND: In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. METHOD: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015...
2016: PloS One
Idan Hecht, Asaf Achiron, Vitaly Man, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash
PURPOSE: Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy affecting millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Environmental factors, behaviors, and diet are intimately related to patient health and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. This study aims to review the literature, focusing on the last three years, regarding modifiable lifestyle interventions in the management of primary open angle glaucoma. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 2013 and July 2016 on the topic of lifestyle interventions in primary open angle glaucoma...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Andreotti, Moreno Paolini
Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated...
October 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Josephine Adeolu, Eme Owoaje, Adesola Olumide
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents are exposed to a significant amount of sexual content in the media. This has far-reaching effects on their sexual practices as this exposure is occurring at a period when most adolescents are often not sure of the choices to make, and the choices they make during adolescence affect their health when they become adults. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure of in-school adolescents to sexual content in the electronic media and their sexual intentions...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Jacqueline A Vernarelli, Diane C Mitchell, Barbara J Rolls, Terryl J Hartman
PURPOSE: Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
I C Sampaio, P H Q S Medeiros, F A P Rodrigues, P A Cavalcante, S A Ribeiro, J S Oliveira, M M G Prata, D V S Costa, S G C Fonseca, M M Guedes, A M Soares, G A C Brito, A Havt, S R Moore, A A M Lima
Undernutrition represents a major public health challenge for middle- and low-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate whether a multideficient Northeast Brazil regional basic diet (RBD) induces acute morphological and functional changes in the ileum of mice. Swiss mice (∼25 g) were allocated into two groups: i) control mice were fed a standard diet and II) undernourished mice were fed the RBD. After 7 days, mice were killed and the ileum collected for evaluation of electrophysiological parameters (Ussing chambers), transcription (RT-qPCR) and protein expression (western blotting) of intestinal transporters and tight junctions...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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