keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Microbiome

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100714/the-dynamics-of-the-pulmonary-microbiome-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-the-association-with-occurrence-of-pneumonia
#2
Tetyana Zakharkina, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Sébastien Matamoros, Pedro Povoa, Antoni Torres, Janine B Kastelijn, Jorrit J Hofstra, B de Wever, Menno de Jong, Marcus J Schultz, Peter J Sterk, Antonio Artigas, Lieuwe D J Bos
RATIONALE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infections in patients admitted to the ICU. The adapted island model predicts several changes in the respiratory microbiome during intubation and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that mechanical ventilation and antibiotic administration decrease the diversity of the respiratory microbiome and that these changes are more profound in patients who develop VAP. METHODS: Intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU-patients were included...
January 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099858/mucosal-microbes-mitigate-maladies
#3
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Steven G Deeks
Understanding the factors that promote or prevent HIV transmission remains a critical component of the global battle against HIV/AIDS. Gosmann et al. (2017) reveal a putative role for the vaginal microbiome in modulating heterosexual transmission of HIV, uncovering a potential strategy for protecting women from acquisition of the virus.
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099499/oral-microbiota-in-infants-fed-a-formula-supplemented-with-bovine-milk-fat-globule-membranes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Niklas Timby, Magnus Domellöf, Pernilla Lif Holgerson, Christina E West, Bo Lönnerdal, Olle Hernell, Ingegerd Johansson
BACKGROUND: In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants <6 months of age. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to characterize the oral microbiota in infants fed MFGM-supplemented formula and compare it to that of infants fed standard formula or breast milk. METHODS: In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, exclusively formula-fed infants <2 months of age were randomized to be fed experimental formula (EF, n = 80) with reduced energy and protein and supplemented with a bovine MFGM concentrate, or standard formula (SF, n = 80) until 6 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099455/evaluating-the-impact-of-dna-extraction-method-on-the-representation-of-human-oral-bacterial-and-fungal-communities
#5
Anna Vesty, Kristi Biswas, Michael W Taylor, Kim Gear, Richard G Douglas
The application of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technologies has greatly improved our understanding of the human oral microbiome. While deciphering this diverse microbial community using such approaches is more accurate than traditional culture-based methods, experimental bias introduced during critical steps such as DNA extraction may compromise the results obtained. Here, we systematically evaluate four commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods (MoBio PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, Zymo Bacterial/Fungal DNA Mini PrepTM, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation) based on the following criteria: DNA quality and yield, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of fungi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098630/collapse-of-the-microbiome-emergence-of-the-pathobiome-and-the-immunopathology-of-sepsis
#6
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098358/subclinical-alteration-of-the-cervical-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-idiopathic-infertility
#7
Giuseppina Campisciano, Fiorella Florian, Angela D'Eustacchio, David Stanković, Giuseppe Ricci, Manola Comar
Biomarkers have a wide application in research and clinic, they help to choose the correct treatment for diseases. Recent studies, addressing the vaginal microbiome using next generation sequencing (NGS), reported the involvement of bacterial species in infertility. We compared the vaginal microbiome of idiopathic infertility diagnosed women with that of healthy, non-idiopathic infertile and bacterial vaginosis affected women, to identify bacterial species suitable as biomarkers. Information on microorganisms was obtained from the V3-16S rDNA sequencing of cervical-vaginal fluids of 96 women using the Ion Torrent platform...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097828/pollen-has-a-microbiome-implications-for-plant-reproduction-insect-pollination-and-human-allergies
#8
Michael Zasloff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097816/effect-of-temperature-and-colonization-of-legionella-pneumophila-and-vermamoeba-vermiformis-on-bacterial-community-composition-of-copper-drinking-water-biofilms
#9
Helen Y Buse, Pan Ji, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards, Nicholas J Ashbolt
It is unclear how the water-based pathogen, Legionella pneumophila (Lp), and associated free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts change or are changed by the microbial composition of drinking water (DW) biofilm communities. Thus, this study characterized the bacterial community structure over a 7-month period within mature (> 600-day-old) copper DW biofilms in reactors simulating premise plumbing and assessed the impact of temperature and introduction of Lp and its FLA host, Vermamoeba vermiformis (Vv), co-cultures (LpVv)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097632/acquisition-and-adaptation-of-the-airway-microbiota-in-the-early-life-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#10
REVIEW
Sébastien Boutin, Alexander H Dalpke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#11
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096487/a-clostridium-difficile-specific-gel-forming-protein-required-for-optimal-spore-germination
#12
M Lauren Donnelly, William Li, Yong-Qing Li, Lauren Hinkel, Peter Setlow, Aimee Shen
: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#13
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096258/regulation-of-glucose-uptake-and-enteroendocrine-function-by-the-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptor
#14
Siegfried Ussar, Max-Felix Haering, Shiho Fujisaka, Dominik Lutter, Kevin Y Lee, Ning Li, Georg K Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body, however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF1R in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, loss of IR alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, loss of IR reduces intestinal glucose uptake...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#15
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095919/ancient-bacteria-of-the-%C3%A3-tzi-s-microbiome-a-genomic-tale-from-the-copper-age
#16
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Sabrina Duranti, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Ancient microbiota information represents an important resource to evaluate bacterial evolution and to explore the biological spread of infectious diseases in history. The soft tissue of frozen mummified humans, such as the Tyrolean Iceman, has been shown to contain bacterial DNA that is suitable for population profiling of the prehistoric bacteria that colonized such ancient human hosts. RESULTS: Here, we performed a microbial cataloging of the distal gut microbiota of the Tyrolean Iceman, which highlights a predominant abundance of Clostridium and Pseudomonas species...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095889/evolution-of-gut-microbiota-composition-from-birth-to-24-weeks-in-the-infantmet-cohort
#17
Cian J Hill, Denise B Lynch, Kiera Murphy, Marynka Ulaszewska, Ian B Jeffery, Carol Anne O'Shea, Claire Watkins, Eugene Dempsey, Fulvio Mattivi, Kieran Touhy, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Paul W O' Toole, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age. METHODS: V4-V5 region 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing and, in parallel, bacteriological culture. The metabolomic profile of infant urine at 4 weeks of age was also examined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095877/deciphering-composition-and-function-of-the-root-microbiome-of-a-legume-plant
#18
Kyle Hartman, Marcel Ga van der Heijden, Valexia Roussely-Provent, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including agricultural systems. Legumes form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia bacteria and thereby account for large, natural nitrogen inputs into soils. Here, we describe the root bacteria microbiome of the legume Trifolium pratense combining culture-dependent and independent methods...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095828/improved-genome-sequencing-using-an-engineered-transposase
#19
Amirali Kia, Christian Gloeckner, Trina Osothprarop, Niall Gormley, Erin Bomati, Michelle Stephenson, Igor Goryshin, Molly Min He
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by reducing turnaround time and cost. However, no major breakthrough has been made in the upstream library preparation methods until the transposase-based Nextera method was invented. Nextera combines DNA fragmentation and barcoding in a single tube reaction and therefore enables a very fast workflow to sequencing-ready DNA libraries within a couple of hours. When compared to the traditional ligation-based methods, transposed-based Nextera has a slight insertion bias...
January 17, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095208/tale-of-the-huanglongbing-disease-pyramid-in-the-context-of-the-citrus-phytobiome
#20
Nian Wang, Lukasz Stelinski, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Jim H Graham, Yunzeng Zhang
The Huanglongbing (HLB) disease pyramid is composed of Liberibacters, psyllid vectors, citrus hosts and the environment. The epidemiological outcomes for Liberibacter-associated plant diseases are collectively determined by the inherent relationships between plant-Liberibacters and psyllids, and how various environment factors affect plant-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions. Citrus-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions occur in a complex microbiome system. In this review, we focus on the progress in understanding the HLB disease pyramid, and how the microbiome affects the HLB disease pyramid including the interaction between HLB and the citrus microbiome; the interaction between Liberibacters and psyllids; the interaction between Liberibacters and gut microbiota in psyllids, and the effect of HLB on selected above- and belowground citrus pathogens...
January 17, 2017: Phytopathology
keyword
keyword
193
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"