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Sangkyu Kim, S Michal Jazwinski
The gut microbiota shows a wide inter-individual variation, but its within-individual variation is relatively stable over time. A functional core microbiome, provided by abundant bacterial taxa, seems to be common to various human hosts regardless of their gender, geographic location, and age. With advancing chronological age, the gut microbiota becomes more diverse and variable. However, when measures of biological age are used with adjustment for chronological age, overall richness decreases, while a certain group of bacteria associated with frailty increases...
July 19, 2018: Gerontology
Josephine V Seale, Richard A Hutchinson, Paul F Fleming, Ajay Sinha, Stephen T Kempley, Shahid M Husain, Michael R Millar
BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting those of extreme prematurity and/or very low birth weight. A number of risk factors have been identified, including an association between the use of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of NEC. AIM: This review sought to address whether the choice of antibiotic(s) used to treat infants with suspected late-onset sepsis (LOS) influences the risk of developing NEC...
July 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Marian P De Leon, Andrew D Montecillo, Dale S Pinili, Maria Auxilia T Siringan, Doo-Sang Park
Bats are highly diverse and ecologically valuable mammals. They serve as host to bacteria, viruses and fungi that are either beneficial or harmful to its colony as well as to other groups of cave organisms. The bacterial diversity of two bat guano samples, C1 and C2, from Cabalyorisa Cave, Mabini, Pangasinan, Philippines were investigated using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. V3-V4 hypervariable regions were amplified and then sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 250 PE system. Reads were processed using Mothur and QIIME pipelines and assigned 12,345 OTUs for C1 and 5,408 OTUs for C2...
2018: PloS One
Jordan R Murphy, Sudeshna Paul, Anne L Dunlop, Elizabeth J Corwin
Postpartum depression is a relatively common occurrence that may carry lifelong consequences. Also common is the exposure of pregnant and postpartum women in the United States to antibiotics, especially during the peripartum period. Antibiotic exposure is known to alter gut microbial composition and structure, contributing to a dysbiotic, or imbalanced gut microbiome, and is a mechanism suggested for the increased risk of depressive symptoms following antibiotic exposure in non-pregnant, non-postpartum populations...
July 19, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Amandeep Singh, Grant Fong, Jenny Liu, Yun-Hsuan Wu, Kevin Chang, William Park, Jihwan Kim, Christina Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Kirkwood M Land, Vipan Kumar
In this study, we outline the synthesis of isatin-ferrocenyl chalcone and 1 H -1,2,3-triazole-tethered isatin-ferrocene conjugates along with their antimicrobial evaluation against the human mucosal pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis . The introduction of a triazole ring among the synthesized conjugates improved the activity profiles with most of the compounds in the library, exhibiting 100% growth inhibition in a preliminary susceptibility screen at 100 μM. IC50 determination of the most potent compounds in the set revealed an inhibitory range between 2 and 13 μM...
May 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Clair R Martin, Vadim Osadchiy, Amir Kalani, Emeran A Mayer
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown bidirectional interactions within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Gut microbes communicate to the central nervous system through at least 3 parallel and interacting channels involving nervous, endocrine, and immune signaling mechanisms. The brain can affect the community structure and function of the gut microbiota through the autonomic nervous system, by modulating regional gut motility, intestinal transit and secretion, and gut permeability, and potentially through the luminal secretion of hormones that directly modulate microbial gene expression...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Xue Ming, Neil Chen, Carly Ray, Gretchen Brewer, Jeffrey Kornitzer, Robert A Steer
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurologic disorder characterized by hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattentiveness, with genetic and environmental factors contributing to the disorder. With the growing recognition of the microbiome's role in many neurological disorders, the authors propose that it may also be implicated in ADHD. Here, we describe several evolving areas of research to support this hypothesis. First, a unique composition of gut bacteria has been identified and linked to behaviors in ADHD...
2018: Child Neurology Open
J David Spence
Lifestyle is far more important than most physicians suppose. Dietary changes in China that have resulted from increased prosperity are probably responsible for a marked rise in coronary risk in the past several decades, accelerating in recent years. Intake of meat and eggs has increased, while intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grains has decreased. Between 2003 and 2013, coronary mortality in China increased 213%, while stroke mortality increased by 26.6%. Besides a high content of cholesterol, meat (particularly red meat) contains carnitine, while egg yolks contain phosphatidylcholine...
June 2018: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Elisabetta Mueller, Martin Blaser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Somaieh Afiuni-Zadeh, Kristin L M Boylan, Pratik D Jagtap, Timothy J Griffin, Joel D Rudney, Marnie L Peterson, Amy P N Skubitz
The human cervical-vaginal area contains proteins derived from microorganisms that may prevent or predispose women to gynecological conditions. The liquid Pap test fixative is an unexplored resource for analysis of microbial communities and the microbe-host interaction. Previously, we showed that the residual cell-free fixative from discarded Pap tests of healthy women could be used for mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic identification of cervical-vaginal proteins. In this study, we reprocessed these MS raw data files for metaproteomic analysis to characterize the microbial community composition and function of microbial proteins in the cervical-vaginal region...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sydney I Glassman, Jennifer B H Martiny
Recent discussion focuses on the best method for delineating microbial taxa, based on either exact sequence variants (ESVs) or traditional operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of marker gene sequences. We sought to test if the binning approach (ESVs versus 97% OTUs) affected the ecological conclusions of a large field study. The data set included sequences targeting all bacteria (16S rRNA) and fungi (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]), across multiple environments diverging markedly in abiotic conditions, over three collection times...
July 18, 2018: MSphere
Amy D Proal, Trevor G Marshall
The theory of autoimmunity was developed at a time when the human body was regarded as largely sterile. Antibodies in patients with chronic inflammatory disease could consequently not be tied to persistent human pathogens. The concept of the "autoantibody" was created to reconcile this phenomenon. Today, however, the discovery of the human microbiome has revolutionized our understanding of human biology. Humans are superorganisms that harbor trillions of persistent microbial cells. Indeed, vast human microbiomes have been detected in human tissue and blood...
June 2018: Discovery Medicine
Steven D Hicks, Neil Khurana, Jeremy Williams, Cindy Dowd Greene, Richard Uhlig, Frank A Middleton
The microbiome plays a vital role in human health and disease. Interaction between human hosts and the microbiome occurs through a number of mechanisms, including transcriptomic regulation by microRNA (miRNA). In animal models, circadian variations in miRNA and microbiome elements have been described, but patterns of co-expression and potential diurnal interaction in humans have not. We investigated daily oscillations in salivary miRNA and microbial RNA to explore relationships between these components of the gut-brain-axis and their implications in human health...
2018: PloS One
Ana Y Wang, Peter S Thuy-Boun, Gregory S Stupp, Andrew I Su, Dennis W Wolan
The lysis and extraction of soluble bacterial proteins from cells is a common practice for proteomics analyses, but insoluble bacterial biomasses are often left behind. Here, we show that with triflic acid treatment, the insoluble bacterial biomass of Gram- and Gram+ bacteria can be rendered soluble. We use LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics to show that bacterial proteins in the soluble and insoluble post-lysis fractions differ significantly. Additionally, in the case of Gram- Pseudomonas aeruginosa, triflic acid treatment enriches for cell envelope-associated proteins...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Marta Grochowska, Marcin Wojnar, Marek Radkowski
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders. It is estimated that the human gut is colonized by up to 1018 microorganisms, mostly anaerobic bacteria. The gut microbiome is responsible for multiple functions, e.g. tightness of the intestine barrier, digestion and absorption. The correlation between gut dysbiosis and development of psychiatric, autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as bidirectional communication between brain and gut microflora have been shown...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Gloria I Solano-Aguilar, Sukla Lakshman, Saebyeol Jang, Ethiopia Beshah, Yue Xie, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Richi Gupta, Bryan Vinyard, Aleksey Molokin, Joseph F Urban, Patrick Gillevet, Cindy D Davis
Background: Dietary habits have been linked with variability of gut microbiota composition and disease risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding a cocoa powder with or without a probiotic on the composition and function of the fecal microbiome of pigs. Methods: Four groups of 8 pigs each were fed a standard growth diet supplemented with cocoa powder, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG), cocoa powder + LGG, or an equal amount of fiber similar to that found in cocoa powder (control group)...
May 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Charles N Bernstein, Jessica D Forbes
Background: Since the description of the normal human gut microbiome in healthy individuals using broad-range polymerase chain reaction, there has been great advancement in the techniques used to conduct microbiome research and applications of this research across health, gastrointestinal diseases, and nongastrointestinal diseases. Summary and Key Messages: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), studies have reported gut dysbiosis meaning that the microbial composition, diversity, and richness are altered...
November 2017: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Jin Wang, Tianfang Wang, Micah A Bishop, John F Edwards, Hang Yin, Stephen Dalton, Laura K Bryan, Shaying Zhao
Extreme intestinal polyposis in pet dogs has not yet been reported in literature. We identified a dog patient who developed numerous intestinal polyps, with the severity resembling human classic familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), except the jejunum-ileum junction being the most polyp-dense. We investigated this dog, in comparison with 22 other dogs with spontaneous intestinal tumors but no severe polyposis, and with numerous published human cancers. We found, not APC mutation, but three other alteration pathways as likely reasons of this canine extreme polyposis...
June 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Kah-Ooi Chua, Sze-Looi Song, Hoi-Sen Yong, Wah-Seng See-Too, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
The weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina is an aggressive predator of other arthropods and has been employed as a biological control agent against many insect pests in plantations. Despite playing important roles in pest management, information about the microbiota of O. smaragdina is limited. In this work, a number of O. smaragdina colonies (n = 12) from Malaysia had been studied on their microbiome profile using Illumina 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We characterized the core microbiota associated with these O...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lucas William Mendes, Rodrigo Mendes, Jos M Raaijmakers, Siu Mui Tsai
Over the past century, plant breeding programs have substantially improved plant growth and health, but have not yet considered the potential effects on the plant microbiome. Here, we conducted metatranscriptome analysis to determine if and how breeding for resistance of common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox) affected gene expression in the rhizobacterial community. Our data revealed that the microbiome of the Fox-resistant cultivar presented a significantly higher expression of genes associated with nutrient metabolism, motility, chemotaxis, and the biosynthesis of the antifungal compounds phenazine and colicin V...
July 17, 2018: ISME Journal
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