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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355853/microbiome-gut-microbiota-sways-response-to-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355696/effects-of-non-purified-and-semi-purified-commercial-diets-on-behaviors-plasma-corticosterone-levels-and-cecum-microbiome-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Atsushi Toyoda, Hikari Shimonishi, Mizuho Sato, Kento Usuda, Natsuki Ohsawa, Kentaro Nagaoka
Diverse commercially available feeds are used in animal studies according to the purpose of the studies. We sought to understand the relationship between feed ingredients and their effects on animal physiology and behaviors. Here, we investigated how male laboratory mice (C57BL/6J ("B6") mice) were affected by chronic feeding with two commercially available diets, a non-purified diet (MF) and a semi-purified diet (AIN-93G). In B6 mice, both diets similarly induced spontaneous activities in the home cage and the open field box, anxiety in the elevated plus maze test, and depressive-like behaviors in tail-suspension and forced-swimming tests, and with both diets, similar data were obtained on calorie intake, water intake, body weight gain, and plasma corticosterone levels...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355542/no-appendix-necessary-fecal-transplants-and-antibiotics-can-resolve-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Tejas Joshi, Bret D Elderd, Karen C Abbott
The appendix has been hypothesized to protect the colon against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by providing a continuous source of commensal bacteria that crowd out the potentially unhealthy bacteria and/or by contributing to defensive immune dynamics. Here, a series of deterministic systems comprised of ordinary differential equations, which treat the system as an ecological community of microorganisms, model the dynamics of colon microbiome. The first model includes migration of commensal bacteria from the appendix to the gut, while the second model expands this to also include immune dynamics...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355428/silver-fluoride-as-a-treatment-for-dental-caries
#4
J A Horst
Medical management of caries is a distinct treatment philosophy that employs topical minimally invasive therapies that treat the disease and is not merely prevention. This strategy is justified as an alternative or supplement to traditional care by significant disease recurrence rates following comprehensive operative treatment under general anesthesia. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is one agent to enable effective noninvasive treatment. The announcement of breakthrough therapy designation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) suggests that SDF may become the first FDA-approved drug for treating caries...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355422/oral-microbiome-studies-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#5
A Mira
Understanding the microbiology of dental caries is not a mere academic exercise; it provides the basis for preventive, diagnostic, and treatment strategies and gives the dentist a theoretical framework to become a better professional. The last years have seen the development of new research methodologies, ranging from high-throughput sequencing or "omics" techniques to new fluorescence microscopy applications and microfluidics, which have allowed the study of the oral microbiome to an unprecedented level of detail...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355418/rebalancing-the-caries-microbiome-dysbiosis-targeted-treatment-and-sugar-alcohols
#6
L Zhan
Dental caries is a disease that results from microbiome dysbiosis with the involvement of multiple cariogenic species, including mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli, Scardovia wiggsiae, and several Actinomyces species that have the cariogenic traits of acid production and acid tolerance. Sugar consumption also plays an important role interacting with microbiome dysbiosis, determining the fate of caries development. In addition, the MS transmission that encompasses multiple sources can have long-term impacts on the oral microbiome and caries development in children...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355414/the-caries-microbiome-implications-for-reversing-dysbiosis
#7
A C R Tanner, C A Kressirer, S Rothmiller, I Johansson, N I Chalmers
The oral microbiome plays a critical role in maintaining oral health. Frequent dietary carbohydrate intake can lead to dysbiosis of the microbial community from overproduction of acid with selection for increases in acidogenic, acid-tolerant bacteria. Knowledge of the caries-associated microbiome is key in planning approaches to reverse the dysbiosis to achieve health. For risk assessment and treatment studies, it would be valuable to establish whether microbial monitoring requires assay of multiple species or whether selected key species would suffice...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355410/in-sickness-and-in-health-what-does-the-oral-microbiome-mean-to-us-an-ecological-perspective
#8
P D Marsh
The oral microbiome is natural and has a symbiotic relationship with the host by delivering important benefits. In oral health, a dynamic balance is reached between the host, the environment, and the microbiome. However, the frequent intake of sugar and/or reductions in saliva flow results in extended periods of low pH in the biofilm, which disrupts this symbiotic relationship. Such conditions inhibit the growth of beneficial species and drive the selection of bacteria with an acid-producing/acid-tolerating phenotype, thereby increasing the risk of caries (dysbiosis)...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355408/getting-to-know-the-known-unknowns-heterogeneity-in-the-oral-microbiome
#9
R A Burne
Technological advances in DNA sequencing have provided unprecedented insights into the composition of the oral microbiome in health and disease, and RNA-sequencing and metabolomics-related technologies are beginning to yield information on the activities of these organisms. Importantly, progress in this area has brought the scientific community closer to an understanding of what constitutes a health-associated microbiome and is supporting the notion that the microbiota in healthy sites assumes an active role in promoting health and suppressing the acquisition, persistence, and activities of overt and opportunistic pathogens...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355278/a-metagenomics-approach-to-the-intestinal-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mice-fed-with-oolong-tea-polyphenols
#10
Mei Cheng, Xin Zhang, Jieyu Zhu, Lu Cheng, Jinxuan Cao, Zufang Wu, Peifang Weng, Xiaojie Zheng
To investigate the modulatory effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) on intestinal microbiota, OTP was prepared by column chromatography and its influence on the gut flora structure was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity mouse model. We observed a robust increase in bacterial biodiversity and the abundance of genera known to be butyrate- and acetate-producing bacteria. A large increase in Bacteroidetes with a decrease in Firmicutes was observed after the administration of OTP for 4 weeks, and the corresponding decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio reflected the positive modulatory effect of OTP on the intestinal microbiota...
January 22, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354879/metagenomic-signatures-of-microbial-communities-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-sediments-of-azores-vent-fields
#11
Teresa Cerqueira, Cristina Barroso, Hugo Froufe, Conceição Egas, Raul Bettencourt
The organisms inhabiting the deep-seafloor are known to play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes, which produce biomass from single carbon molecules, constitute the primary source of nutrition for the higher organisms, being critical for the sustainability of food webs and overall life in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. The present study investigates the metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge...
January 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353922/modeling-host-microbiome-interactions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Teklu K Gerbaba, Luke Green-Harrison, Andre G Buret
The microbiome influences host processes including nutritional availability, development, immunity, and behavioral responses. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model to study molecular mechanisms of host-microbial interactions. Recent efforts have been made to profile the natural microbiome of C. elegans, laying a foundation for mechanistic studies of host-microbiome interactions in this genetically tractable model system. Studies using single-species microbes, multi-microbial systems, and humanized worm-microbiome interaction studies reveal metabolic and microbial-microbial interactions relevant in higher organisms...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353752/steam-explosion-enhances-digestibility-and-fermentation-of-corn-stover-by-facilitating-ruminal-microbial-colonization
#13
Shengguo Zhao, Guodong Li, Nan Zheng, Jiaqi Wang, Zhongtang Yu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate steam explosion as a pretreatment to enhance degradation of corn stover by ruminal microbiome. The steam explosion conditions were first optimized, and then the efficacy of steam explosion was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Steam explosion altered the physical and chemical structure of corn stover as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively, and increased its cellulose content while decreasing hemicellulose content...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353471/a-strategy-for-association-study-on-intestinal-microbiome-and-brain-metabolome-across-lifespan-of-rats
#14
Tianlu Chen, Yijun You, Guoxiang Xie, Xiaojiao Zheng, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Qing Zhao, Shouli Wang, Huang Fengjie, Cynthia Rajani, Chongchong Wang, Shaoqiu Chen, Yan Ni, Herbert Yu, Youping Deng, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Jia
There is increased appreciation for the diverse roles of the microbiome-gut-brain axis on mammalian growth and health throughout the lifespan. Numerous studies demonstrated that gut microbiome and their metabolites were involved extensively in the communication of brain and gut. Association study of brain metabolome and gut microbiome is an active field offering large amount of information on the interaction of microbiome, brain and gut while data size and complicated hierarchical relationships were the major obstacles...
January 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353421/1-day-or-5-day-fecal-samples-which-one-is-more-beneficial-to-be-used-for-dna-based-gut-microbiota-study
#15
Tingting Su, Rongbei Liu, Yanqin Long, Sheng Quan, Sanchuan Lai, Lan Wang, Jianmin Si, Shujie Chen
Fecal sample collection is an important influential factor for DNA-based gut microbiota study. It is controversial whether the microbiome detected in fecal sample collected at one random day could fully represent the gut microbial community. The aim of the study is to figure out whether the use of fecal sample mixture collected at consecutive 5 days could more accurately represent gut microbial community. 1- and 5-day fecal samples were collected from 8 healthy adults and analyzed by 16S rRNA sequence. Our results indicated that both 1-day fecal samples and 5-day samples exhibited relatively high repeatability...
January 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353409/16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-reveals-altered-composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-individuals-with-kidney-stones
#16
Ruiqiang Tang, Yonghua Jiang, Aihua Tan, Juan Ye, Xiaoying Xian, Yuanliang Xie, Qiuyan Wang, Ziting Yao, Zengnan Mo
Nephrolithiasis is a common urological disease with high prevalence and recurrence rates. Characterizing gut microbiome profiles of nephrolithiasis patients may provide valuable insights and potential biomarkers for the disease. Therefore, we explored the relation between gut microbiome and nephrolithiasis using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. 13 patients with multiple kidney stones and 13 matched healthy controls were recruited. A decreasing trend in number of observed species in nephrolithiasis patients was detected, although statistical significance was not reached (p = 0...
January 20, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353263/subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology-in-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Ishwarlal Jialal, Sridevi Devaraj
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common global problem that comprises the cardio-metabolic cluster and predisposes to both diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although the pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated, both increased inflammation and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. It appears that both monocyte/macrophages and adipose tissue (AT) conspire to accentuate both the pro-inflammatory state and increased insulin resistance. Whilst there are scant data on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) biology, there are data on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) dysregulation...
January 20, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352709/analysis-of-gut-microbiota-diversity-and-auxiliary-diagnosis-as-a-biomarker-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Yang Shen, Jintian Xu, Zhiyong Li, Yichen Huang, Ye Yuan, Jixiang Wang, Meng Zhang, Songnian Hu, Ying Liang
With the advent of sequencing technology, characterization of schizophrenia with underlying probing of gut microbiome can provide abundant clues for diagnosis and prognosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we first compared the difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls by 16S rRNA sequencing. We further explored whether gut microbiota can be used as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We restricted inclusion criteria strictly to control confounding bias...
January 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351278/analysis-of-the-tonsillar-microbiome-in-young-adults-with-sore-throat-reveals-a-high-relative-abundance-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-with-low-diversity
#19
T Prescott Atkinson, Robert M Centor, Li Xiao, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, William Van Der Pol, Casey D Morrow, Amy E Ratliff, Donna M Crabb, Arthur H Totten, Carlos A Estrada, Michael B Faircloth, Ken B Waites
Fusobacterium necrophorum (Fn), a gram-negative anaerobe, is increasingly implicated as an etiologic agent in older adolescents and young adults with sore throat. Inadequately treated Fn pharyngitis may result in suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess and Lemierre's syndrome. Data from the literature suggest that the incidence of life-threating complications in these age groups from Fn pharyngitis (Lemierre's syndrome) in the United States exceeds those associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis (acute rheumatic fever)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351192/seed-endophyte-microbiome-of-crotalaria-pumila-unpeeled-identification-of-plant-beneficial-methylobacteria
#20
Ariadna S Sánchez-López, Isabel Pintelon, Vincent Stevens, Valeria Imperato, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Carmen González-Chávez, Rogelio Carrillo-González, Jonathan Van Hamme, Jaco Vangronsveld, Sofie Thijs
Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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