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2018: PloS One
Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Sunmin Park, Da Sol Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Bin Kim, Suna Kang
We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration(ICV) of brain estrogen and progesterone on menopausal symptoms and their effects on the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) in estrogen-deficient rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy(OVX) or Sham-operation, OVX rats were given ICV infusions of either 17β-estradiol(4 μg/day; ICV-E), progesterone(0.8 μg/day; ICV-P), or vehicle(control) for 4 weeks. OVX rats in the positive-control group were orally provided 150 μg 17β-estradiol/kg bw/day...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Marina Ezcurra
High-throughput molecular studies are greatly advancing our knowledge of the human microbiome and its specific role in governing health and disease states. A myriad of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community disequilibria (dysbiosis) and human diseases. However, due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the human microbiome we need robust experimental models that allow the systematic manipulation of variables to test the multitude of hypotheses arisen from large-scale 'meta-omic' projects...
March 19, 2018: Biogerontology
Vikas C Ghattargi, Yogesh S Nimonkar, Shaunak A Burse, Dimple Davray, Shreyas V Kumbhare, Sudarshan A Shetty, Meghana A Gaikwad, Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Swapnil P Doijad, Bhimashankar Utage, Om Prakash Sharma, Yogesh S Shouche, Bharati S Meti, Shrikant P Pawar
The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health and efforts need to be done for cultivation and characterisation of bacteria with potential health benefits. Here, we isolated a bacterium from a healthy Indian adult faeces and investigated its potential as probiotic. The cultured bacterial strain 17OM39 was identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain 17OM39 exhibited tolerance to acidic pH, showed antimicrobial activity and displayed strong cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity...
March 19, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Marnix H Medema
Microbial and plant specialized metabolites, also known as natural products, are key mediators of microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions and constitute a rich resource for drug development. In the past decade, genome mining has emerged as a prominent strategy for natural product discovery. Initially, such mining was performed on the basis of individual microbial genome sequences. Now, these efforts are being scaled up to fully genome-sequenced strain collections, pangenomes of bacterial genera, and large sets of metagenome-assembled genomes from microbial communities...
March 2018: MSystems
Casey M Theriot
Over the past 10 years, microbiome research has focused on defining the structures associated with different disease states in multiple systems, but has fallen short on showing causation. Prior omic studies have generated many new hypotheses, but moving forward we need to start dissecting the function of each bacterium alone and in concert with complex bacterial communities in well-characterized systems. Over the next 5 years, we need a merging of new omic technologies for exploratory studies with classical bacterial genetics, bacterial physiology, protein engineering, and biochemistry to further define the biochemical mechanisms of the gut microbiota...
March 2018: MSystems
Catherine A Lozupone
In recent years, there has been a deluge of papers linking altered microbiome compositions to a myriad of diseases. Mechanistic insight into microbial drivers of disease phenotypes is essential for translation to novel therapies. A key mechanism by which microbes influence health is immune modulation by components of their capsule and cell envelope and their metabolites. A major research focus of my laboratory is to gain mechanistic insight into which microbes modulate host immunity generally and in the context of disease...
March 2018: MSystems
Peter J Turnbaugh
Although the importance of human genetic polymorphisms in therapeutic outcomes is well established, the role of specific genotypic or copy number variants in our "second genome" (the microbiome) has been largely overlooked. In this Perspective, I will discuss three major barriers to integrating metagenomics into pharmacology, highlighting ongoing research by us and others that has begun to shed light on the mechanisms that link the human microbiome to the efficacy and toxicity of small-molecule and biological therapies...
March 2018: MSystems
Levi Waldron
The Waldron lab for computational biostatistics bridges the areas of cancer genomics and microbiome studies for public health, developing methods to exploit publicly available data resources and to integrate -omics studies.
March 2018: MSystems
Nicole A Hynson, Kiana L Frank, Rosanna A Alegado, Anthony S Amend, Mohammad Arif, Gordon M Bennett, Andrea J Jani, Matthew C I Medeiros, Yuriy Mileyko, Craig E Nelson, Nhu H Nguyen, Olivia D Nigro, Sladjana Prisic, Sangwoo Shin, Daisuke Takagi, Samuel T Wilson, Joanne Y Yew
Despite increasing acknowledgment that microorganisms underpin the healthy functioning of basically all multicellular life, few cross-disciplinary teams address the diversity and function of microbiota across organisms and ecosystems. Our newly formed consortium of junior faculty spanning fields such as ecology and geoscience to mathematics and molecular biology from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa aims to fill this gap. We are united in our mutual interest in advancing a new paradigm for biology that incorporates our modern understanding of the importance of microorganisms...
March 2018: MSystems
Jillian M Petersen, Jay Osvatic
Animals evolved in a world teeming with microbes, which play pivotal roles in their health, development, and evolution. Although the overwhelming majority of living animals are invertebrates, the minority of "microbiome" studies focus on this group. Interest in invertebrate-microbe interactions is 2-fold-a range of immune components are conserved across almost all animal (including human) life, and their functional roles may be conserved. Thus, understanding cross talk between microbes and invertebrate animals can lead to insights of broader relevance...
March 2018: MSystems
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Human-associated microbial communities include prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms across high-level clades of the tree of life. While advances in high-throughput sequencing technology allow for the study of diverse lineages, the vast majority of studies are limited to bacteria, and very little is known on how eukaryote microbes fit in the overall microbial ecology of the human gut. As recent studies consider eukaryotes in their surveys, it is becoming increasingly clear that eukaryotes play important ecological roles in the microbiome as well as in host health...
March 2018: MSystems
Georgios D Kitsios
Severe bacterial pneumonia is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, yet current diagnostic approaches rely on identification of causative pathogens by cultures, which require extended incubation periods and often fail to detect relevant pathogens. Consequently, patients are prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics in a "one-size-fits-all" manner, which may be inappropriate for their individual needs and promote antibiotic resistance. My research focuses on leveraging next-generation sequencing of microbial DNA directly from patient samples for the development of new, culture-independent definitions of pneumonia...
March 2018: MSystems
Jason C Kwan
Bacteria have supplied us with many bioactive molecules for use in medicine and agriculture. However, rates of discovery have decreased as the biosynthetic capacity of the culturable biosphere has been continuously mined for many decades. The as-yet-uncultured biosphere is likely to hold far greater biosynthetic potential, especially where ecological niches favor the selection of therapeutically useful bioactivities. I outline here how metagenomics and other systems biology approaches can be used to gain insight into small-molecule biosynthesis and the selective forces which shape it...
March 2018: MSystems
Emily K Cope
Despite growing efforts to understand the role of the microbiota in airway disease, mechanisms that link microbial community dysbiosis to chronic inflammation remain elusive. Our laboratory is interested in how altered microbiota composition or function influences airway inflammatory diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Given the tight interplay between host-associated microbes and host immunity, the potential for translational microbiome research to guide clinical decisions and novel therapeutics is becoming better appreciated...
March 2018: MSystems
Nicola Segata
Metagenomics has transformed microbiology, but its potential has not been fully expressed yet. From computational methods for digging deeper into metagenomes to study designs for addressing specific hypotheses, the Segata Lab is pursuing an integrative metagenomic approach to describe and model human-associated microbial communities as collections of strains. Linking strain variants to host phenotypes and performing cultivation-free population genomics require large cohorts and meta-analysis strategies to synthesize available cohorts but can revolutionize our understanding of the personalized host-microbiome interface which is at the base of human health...
March 2018: MSystems
M D Mbogning Fonkou, M Bilen, F Cadoret, P-E Fournier, G Dubourg, D Raoult
We report the main characteristics of 'Enterococcus timonensis' strain Marseille-P2817T (CSUR P2817), 'Leptotrichia massiliensis' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P3007T (CSUR P3007), 'Actinomyces marseillensis' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P2818T (CSUR P2818), 'Actinomyces pacaensis' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P2985T (CSUR P2985), 'Actinomyces oralis' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P3109T (CSUR P3109), 'Actinomyces culturomici' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P3561T (CSUR P3561) and 'Gemella massiliensis' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P3249T (CSUR P3249) which were isolated from human sputum samples...
March 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
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