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public health exercise

Effiong Ekong Akpan, Udeme Ekpenyong Ekrikpo, Aniema Isaac Assam Udo
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing the world over, and it is now regarded as a public health problem. The prevalence of CKD in Nigeria remained largely unknown with hospital-based data of 2-8%. However, emerging community studies show a prevalence of 10-26.8%. This study was conducted during the 2013 world kidney day activities in Uyo, Akwa Ibom, State of Nigeria, with an estimated population of 554,906 people. Sensitizations of members of the public were ensured through the media...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Hiral Shah, Emiliano Albanese, Cynthia Duggan, Igor Rudan, Kenneth M Langa, Maria C Carrillo, Kit Yee Chan, Yves Joanette, Martin Prince, Martin Rossor, Shekhar Saxena, Heather M Snyder, Reisa Sperling, Mathew Varghese, Huali Wang, Marc Wortmann, Tarun Dua
At the First WHO Ministerial Conference on Global Action Against Dementia in March, 2015, 160 delegates, including representatives from 80 WHO Member States and four UN agencies, agreed on a call for action to reduce the global burden of dementia by fostering a collective effort to advance research. To drive this effort, we completed a globally representative research prioritisation exercise using an adapted version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. We elicited 863 research questions from 201 participants and consolidated these questions into 59 thematic research avenues, which were scored anonymously by 162 researchers and stakeholders from 39 countries according to five criteria...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Idan Hecht, Asaf Achiron, Vitaly Man, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash
PURPOSE: Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy affecting millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Environmental factors, behaviors, and diet are intimately related to patient health and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. This study aims to review the literature, focusing on the last three years, regarding modifiable lifestyle interventions in the management of primary open angle glaucoma. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 2013 and July 2016 on the topic of lifestyle interventions in primary open angle glaucoma...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Catherine M Wright, Paula J Duquesnay, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Virginia R Chomitz, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Elizabeth G Langevin, Miriam E Nelson, Jennifer M Sacheck
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children's overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children's MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
Aparna P Nanduri, Sally Fullman, Lori Morell, Steve Buyske, Mary L Wagner
BACKGROUND: Project Healthy Bones (PHB) is a 24-week, peer-led exercise and education program for older adults at risk of osteoporosis. METHOD: Residents from an assisted living and senior community program were enrolled after medical clearance. Participant demographics, geriatric fitness assessments, exercise logs, quizzes, and surveys were collected at baseline and 24 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t tests and ANOVA of change scores for the pooled data within the R statistical environment...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Maliyhah Al-Bayan, Nadia Islam, Shawneaqua Edwards, Dustin T Duncan
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women's perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure...
October 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
Justin Lessler, C Jessica E Metcalf, Felicity T Cutts, Bryan T Grenfell
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2-5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jyoti Thulkar, Shalini Singh, Shashi Sharma, Tanmay Thulkar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The osteoporosis is becoming public health problem in India and neighboring Asian countries. As the environmental risk factors for osteoporosis in women are similar in these countries, the study was planned to compare risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Asian countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was done in August 2015. The period included for this search was from January 2005 to December 2014...
July 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
Fariba Samadian, Nooshin Dalili, Ali Jamalian
Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Pelbreton C Balfour, Jorge A Gonzalez, Christopher M Kramer
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a significant global public health burden despite advancements in prevention and therapeutic strategies. Common non-invasive imaging modalities, anatomic and functional, are available for the assessment of patients with stable chest pain. Exercise electrocardiography is a long-standing method for evaluation for CAD and remains the initial test for the majority of patients who can exercise adequately with a baseline interpretable electrocardiogram. The addition of cardiac imaging to exercise testing provides incremental benefit for accurate diagnosis for CAD and is particularly useful in patients who are unable to exercise adequately and/or have uninterpretable electrocardiograms...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Kirsten K Davison, Selma Gicevic, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Claudia Ganter, Christine L Simon, Sami Newlan, Jennifer A Manganello
BACKGROUND: The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Bidyut K Sarkar, Robert West, Monika Arora, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, K Srinath Reddy, Lion Shahab
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use kills half a million people every month, most in low-middle income countries (LMICs). There is an urgent need to identify potentially low-cost, scalable tobacco cessation interventions for these countries. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a brief community outreach intervention delivered by health workers to promote tobacco cessation in India. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 32 low-income administrative blocks in Delhi, half government authorised ('resettlement colony') and half unauthorised ('J...
October 5, 2016: Thorax
Janet Klara Djomba, Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj
INTRODUCTION: Research on social networks in public health focuses on how social structures and relationships influence health and health-related behaviour. While the sociocentric approach is used to study complete social networks, the egocentric approach is gaining popularity because of its focus on individuals, groups and communities. METHODS: One of the participants of the healthy lifestyle health education workshop 'I'm moving', included in the study of social support for exercise was randomly selected...
December 1, 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Sarah G Dean, Leon Poltawski, Anne Forster, Rod S Taylor, Anne Spencer, Martin James, Rhoda Allison, Shirley Stevens, Meriel Norris, Anthony I Shepherd, Raff Calitri
INTRODUCTION: The Rehabilitation Training (ReTrain) intervention aims to improve functional mobility, adherence to poststroke exercise guidelines and quality of life for people after stroke. A definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) is required to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of ReTrain, which is based on Action for Rehabilitation from Neurological Injury (ARNI). The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility of such a definitive trial and inform its design...
October 3, 2016: BMJ Open
Lily Yarney, Thomas Buabeng, Diana Baidoo, Justice Nyigmah Bawole
BACKGROUND: Health is a basic human right necessary for the exercise of other human rights. Every human being is, therefore, entitled to the highest possible standard of health necessary to living a life of dignity. Establishment of patients' Charter is a step towards protecting the rights and responsibilities of patients, but violation of patients' rights is common in healthcare institutions, especially in the developing world. This study which was conducted between May 2013 and May 2014, assessed the operationalization of Ghana's Patients Charter in a peri-urban public hospital...
April 23, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Gulzar H Shah, Bobbie Newell, Ruth E Whitworth
BACKGROUND: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs' informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness...
April 30, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Shan-Shan Shen, Jiao-Jiao Chu, Lei Cheng, Xing-Kun Zeng, Ting He, Li-Yu Xu, Jiang-Ru Li, Xu-Jiao Chen
INTRODUCTION: With a rapidly ageing population, sarcopenic obesity, defined as decreased muscle mass and function combined with increased body fat, is a complex health problem. Although sarcopenic obesity contributes to a decline in physical function and exacerbates frailty in older adults, evidence from clinical trials about the effect of exercise and nutrition on this complex syndrome in Chinese older adults is lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We devised a study protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Afrozul Haq, Sunil J Wimalawansa, Pawel Pludowski, Fatme Al Anouti
In the UAE and the Gulf region in general, there are several intricate public health issues in the context of vitamin D deficiency that needs to be addressed. Changes in lifestyle such as diet, lack of exercise, cultural habits, avoiding sun exposure due to excessive heat, and other risk factors predispose those who live in GULF countries, such as Emiratis likely to becoming vitamin D deficient. Consequently, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high, and new guidelines are needed to overcome this major public health issue...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
David K Cundiff, Paul S Agutter
BACKGROUND: Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4-MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. METHODS: Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries...
August 24, 2016: Curēus
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