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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#1
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721697/interventions-to-reduce-consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-or-increase-water-intake-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
E J Vargas-Garcia, C E L Evans, A Prestwich, B J Sykes-Muskett, J Hooson, J E Cade
A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of interventions to reduce sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) or increase water intakes and to examine the impact of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in consumption patterns. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials published after January 1990 and until December 2016 reporting daily changes in intakes of SSB or water in volumetric measurements (mL d(-1) ) were included. References were retrieved through searches of electronic databases and quality appraisal followed Cochrane principles...
July 18, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717814/malnutrition-in-hospitalised-older-adults-a-multicentre-observational-study-of-prevalence-associations-and-outcomes
#3
E O'Shea, S Trawley, E Manning, A Barrett, V Browne, S Timmons
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with high costs and adverse outcomes. The prevalence, predictors and outcomes of malnutrition on admission to hospital are not clear for this population. DESIGN: Prospective Cohort Study. SETTING: Six hospital sites (five public, one private). PARTICIPANTS: In total, 606 older adults aged 70+ were included. All elective and acute admissions to any speciality were eligible...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717334/osteoporosis-knowledge-among-future-healthcare-practitioners-findings-from-a-malaysian-public-university
#4
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Shazia Qasim Jamshed, Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi, Muhammad Farhan Baharuddin, Muhammad Afif Johari, Nur Ashikin Binti Ab Aziz, Siti Farhanah Binti Ahmad Sabri, Nur Akmal Binti Ismail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students in relevant health-care academic programs are the future professionals who should play an active role in increasing community awareness regarding chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. This research aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis, one of the growing health-care burdens in Malaysia, among students belong to three different health occupations programs in a Malaysian University. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on osteoporosis and to explore the potential association between the study program and osteoporosis-related knowledge among medicine, pharmacy, and allied health sciences students in a Malaysian University...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716847/nonnutritive-sweeteners-and-cardiometabolic-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-prospective-cohort-studies
#5
Meghan B Azad, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Rasheda Rabbani, Justin Lys, Leslie Copstein, Amrinder Mann, Maya M Jeyaraman, Ashleigh E Reid, Michelle Fiander, Dylan S MacKay, Jon McGavock, Brandy Wicklow, Ryan Zarychanski
BACKGROUND: Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents...
July 17, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715994/fgf23-and-nutritional-metabolism
#6
Lindsay R Pool, Myles Wolf
The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has provided a more complete understanding of the regulation of phosphate and mineral homeostasis in health and in chronic kidney disease. It has also offered new insights into stratification of risk of cardiovascular events and death among patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. In this review, we provide an overview of FGF23 biology and physiology, summarize clinical outcomes that have been associated with FGF23, discuss potential mechanisms for these observations and their public health implications, and explore clinical and population health interventions that aim to reduce FGF23 levels and improve public health...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715993/metabolic-effects-of-intermittent-fasting
#7
Ruth E Patterson, Dorothy D Sears
The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715990/single-subject-studies-in-translational-nutrition-research
#8
Nicholas J Schork, Laura H Goetz
There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#9
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715062/gestational-weight-gain-historical-evolution-of-a-contested-health-outcome
#10
Edmond D Shenassa, Celena Kinsey, Marian Moser Jones, Jenifer Fahey
The history of research on gestational weight gain (GWG) in the United States and United Kingdom provides a context for current clinical practice. We trace the evolution of research on GWG in scientific literature from the 19th century to the present and examine its implications for contemporary clinical and public health practice. Obstetricians, beginning in the late 1800s, recommended dieting during pregnancy in order to limit GWG to 20 lb or less, driven by a belief that excessive weight gain was a cause of toxemia...
July 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714433/ultra-processed-family-foods-in-australia-nutrition-claims-health-claims-and-marketing-techniques
#11
Claire Elizabeth Pulker, Jane Anne Scott, Christina Mary Pollard
OBJECTIVE: To objectively evaluate voluntary nutrition and health claims and marketing techniques present on packaging of high-market-share ultra-processed foods (UPF) in Australia for their potential impact on public health. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Packaging information from five high-market-share food manufacturers and one retailer were obtained from supermarket and manufacturers' websites. SUBJECTS: Ingredients lists for 215 UPF were examined for presence of added sugar...
July 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712165/effectiveness-of-a-school-based-multicomponent-intervention-on-nutritional-status-among-primary-school-children-in-bangkok-thailand
#12
Nattapon Chawla, Alessio Panza, Chutima Sirikulchayanonta, Ramesh Kumar, Surasak Taneepanichskul
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a major public health issue today. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in both adults and children. Childhood obesity in Thailand has more than doubled since the 1960s and a recent study reported that overweight and obesity in Thais is the 5th highest in Asia. The present study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life-skills, multicomponent, school-based intervention on child nutritional status. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was conducted in two-groups (control and intervention schools) on 453 students attending grade levels 4-5 in Bangkok...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712161/a-health-behavior-score-is-associated-with-hypertension-and-obesity-among-australian-adults
#13
Katherine M Livingstone, Sarah A McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between a health behavior score and prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity. METHODS: Adults (n = 4,609; 19-85 years) were included from the cross-sectional Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A health behavior score was derived based on individuals meeting recommendations for diet quality, smoking, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep. Poisson regression estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) of hypertension and overweight/obesity by health behavior score...
July 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712112/socioeconomic-differences-in-the-cost-availability-and-quality-of-healthy-food-in-sydney
#14
Belinda Crawford, Roy Byun, Emily Mitchell, Susan Thompson, Bin Jalaludin, Siranda Torvaldsen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. METHODS: A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711809/assessing-the-impact-of-hazardous-waste-on-children-s-health-the-exposome-paradigm
#15
D A Sarigiannis
Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709461/do-public-nursing-home-care-providers-deliver-higher-quality-than-private-providers-evidence-from-sweden
#16
Ulrika Winblad, Paula Blomqvist, Andreas Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Swedish nursing home care has undergone a transformation, where the previous virtual public monopoly on providing such services has been replaced by a system of mixed provision. This has led to a rapidly growing share of private actors, the majority of which are large, for-profit firms. In the wake of this development, concerns have been voiced regarding the implications for care quality. In this article, we investigate the relationship between ownership and care quality in nursing homes for the elderly by comparing quality levels between public, for-profit, and non-profit nursing home care providers...
July 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708273/pediatric-obesity-related-curricular-content-and-training-in-dental-schools-and-dental-hygiene-programs-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#17
Kimon Divaris, Vaishnavi Bhaskar, Kathleen A McGraw
OBJECTIVES: The authors conducted a systematic review to determine: a) What dental schools and dental hygiene programs are doing to promote knowledge and skills related to addressing childhood obesity and to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and b) What else these schools and programs could do to better equip future oral health professionals to address childhood obesity and reduce consumption of SSBs. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, Education Full Text (EBSCOHost), and ERIC (EBSCOHost) to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting on obesity or dietetic-related curricula in dental and dental hygiene education within the last 20 years...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702424/epigenetics-linking-nutrition-to-molecular-mechanisms-in-aging
#18
REVIEW
Joo Hyun Park, Yeongran Yoo, Yoon Jung Park
Healthy aging has become a major goal of public health. Many studies have provided evidence and theories to explain molecular mechanisms of the aging process. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for life span and the progression of aging. Epigenetics is a fascinating field of molecular biology, which studies heritable modifications of DNA and histones that regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark that shows progressive changes during aging...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701162/does-the-ingestion-of-a-24%C3%A2-hour-low-glycaemic-index-asian-mixed-meal-diet-improve-glycaemic-response-and-promote-fat-oxidation-a-controlled-randomized-cross-over-study
#19
Stefan Gerardus Camps, Bhupinder Kaur, Rina Yu Chin Quek, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
BACKGROUND: The health benefits of consuming a low glycaemic index (GI) diet to reduce the risk of type 2 Diabetes are well recognized. In recent years the GI values of various foods have been determined. Their efficacy in constructing and consuming a low GI diet over 24 h in modulating glycaemic response has not been fully documented. The translation of using single-point GI values of foods to develop a 24 h mixed meal diet can provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians to optimize food choice for glycaemic control...
July 12, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699973/healthy-school-happy-school-design-and-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial-designed-to-prevent-weight-gain-in-children
#20
Daniela Schneid Schuh, Maíra Ribas Goulart, Sandra Mari Barbiero, Caroline D'Azevedo Sica, Raphael Borges, David William Moraes, Lucia Campos Pellanda
Background: Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. Objectives: To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. Methods: This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil...
June 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
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