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exercise diet

Mads Rosenkilde, Lisbeth Rygaard, Pernille Nordby, Lars Bo Nielsen, Bente Stallknecht
Exercise training and weight loss both reduce cardiovascular risk, but the independent importance of the two strategies is unclear. We aimed to investigate independent and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on lipoproteins and dyslipidemia in overweight sedentary men. Sixty individuals were randomized to 12 weeks of endurance training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and energy increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). Equal energetic deficits (-600 kcal/day) were prescribed by exercise for T and caloric restriction for D...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alberto Raggi, Licia Grazzi, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Paola Ciasca, Luisa Chiapparini, Alessandra Erbetta, Giuseppe Faragò, Matilde Leonardi, Domenico D'Amico
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with obesity, and weight loss is important to reduce intracranial pressure and improve visual function. A 38-year-old woman with IIH followed an extreme diet, which resulted in 30% weight loss (BMI moved from 34.9 to 24.6). Weight loss resulted in a significant reduction of papilloedema, normalization of intracranial pressure and improvement in headache pattern, but also induced a state of initial malnutrition, relevant depression and disability. She was discharged with the indication to start a controlled diet and improve physical activity: clinical situation get back to stability, with the patient loosing further weight (BMI=21...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Katy Sutcliffe, G J Melendez-Torres, Helen E D Burchett, Michelle Richardson, Rebecca Rees, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review...
March 14, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Tiet-Hanh Dao-Tran, Charrlotte Seib, Lee Jones, Debra Anderson
OBJECTIVE: This study compared health-related quality of life and its associated factors among 305 women in Vietnam and 175 women in Australia aged 60-71. Descriptive analyses, Chi square, independent t-tests, and General Linear Models were used for data analysis. RESULTS: After controlling for socio-demographics, lifestyles, and chronic diseases, older women in Vietnam had lower levels of physical health but similar levels of mental health to those in Australia...
March 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Robin A Wilson, William Deasy, Christos G Stathis, Alan Hayes, Matthew B Cooke
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT)...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Chao-Chun Cheng, Ching-Yun Hsu, Jen-Fang Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of dietary and exercise interventions on weight loss and body composition in overweight/obese peri- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Medline, Central, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant trials conducted until December 31, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies of overweight/obese peri- or postmenopausal women that examined the effects of dietary or exercise interventions, alone or combined, on weight loss were included...
March 12, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Tiffany Yang, Nu-Chu Liang
Physical inactivity and increased consumption of energy dense, high fat (HF) foods often leads to a state of positive energy balance. Regular exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight and mediate changes in dietary selection. Past studies using a two-diet choice (chow vs. HF) and voluntary wheel running paradigm found that when a novel HF diet and wheel running are simultaneously introduced, male rats show complete and persistent HF diet avoidance whereas the majority of females show HF diet avoidance for a few days, but then revert to HF diet preference...
March 9, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Manabu Akahane, Akie Maeyashiki, Yasuhito Tanaka, Tomoaki Imamura
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of musculoskeletal diseases, depressive mental state, and hypertension on locomotive syndrome, a condition of reduced mobility requiring nursing care. Since locomotive syndrome is a major public health issue that needs attention, its relationship with functional inconvenience in performing daily activities was also investigated. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using an Internet panel survey, comprising 747 persons aged 30-90 years...
March 12, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Ryuji Furihata, Chisato Konno, Masahiro Suzuki, Sakae Takahashi, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Takashi Ohida, Makoto Uchiyama
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. METHOD: Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Michaela C Devries, Christopher McGlory, Douglas R Bolster, Alison Kamil, Maike Rahn, Laura Harkness, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Background: Older women may not be consuming enough protein to maintain muscle mass. Augmentation of protein intake with leucine may enhance the muscle protein synthetic response in older women to aid in maintaining muscle mass. Objective: We measured the acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) response to consumption of a high-quality mixed protein beverage compared with an isonitrogenous protein beverage with added leucine...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ray W Squires, Adam M Shultz, Joerg Herrmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer patients nearly universally experience a decline in quality of life, with fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance as cardinal reflections. A routine exercise program can improve these signs and symptoms as well as overall outcomes. The review provides an updated overview of the field and its translation to clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A wealth of clinical studies have documented the safety and benefits of exercise after and during cancer therapy, and pilot and larger-scale studies are currently ongoing to integrate exercise into the treatment program for cancer patients undergoing active therapy (EXACT pilot, OptiTrain, and TITAN study)...
March 10, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Hironori Nagasaka, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Tohru Yorifuji, Haruki Komatsu, Tomonozumi Takatani, Ichiro Morioka, Satoshi Hirayama, Takashi Miida
OBJECTIVE: CD36 deficiency is characterized by limited cellular long chain fatty acid uptake in the skeletal and cardiac muscles and often causes energy crisis in these muscles. However, suitable treatment for CD36 deficiency remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and metabolic effects of medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) in two CD36-deficient preschool children who often developed fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia. METHODS: Fasting blood glucose, total ketone bodies, and free fatty acids were examined and compared for usual supper diets and for diets with replacement of one component with 2 g/kg of 9% MCT-containing milk (MCT milk)...
November 29, 2017: Nutrition
Yuan-Yuan Lei, Suzanne C Ho, Ashley Cheng, Carol Kwok, Chi-Kiu Iris Lee, Ka Li Cheung, Roselle Lee, Herbert H F Loong, Yi-Qian He, Winnie Yeo
Background: The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guideline provides recommendations for cancer prevention among cancer survivors. Limited data have examined whether guideline adherence is related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: An ongoing prospective cohort study involving 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer assessed exercise, diet, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at 18-months follow-up after diagnosis...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Jingyu Sun, Chen Zhang, MinJeong Kim, Yajuan Su, Lili Qin, Jingmei Dong, Yunhe Zhou, Shuzhe Ding
Exercise and resveratrol supplementation exhibit anti-obesity functions in the long term but have not been fully investigated yet in terms of their early potential effectiveness. Mice fed with high-fat diet were categorized into control (Cont), exercise (Ex), resveratrol supplementation (Res), and exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation (Ex + Res) groups. In the four-week period of weight loss, exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation exerted no additional effects on body weight loss but significantly improved whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis...
March 9, 2018: BMB Reports
Joanna Zapolska, Katarzyna Witczak-Sawczuk, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Małgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska, Joanna Smarkusz, Lucyna Ostrowska
Background: Properly balanced diet and exercise are an essential element of healthy living for children and adolescents. Particular attention should be paid to nutrition and physical activity among juniors after cancer treatment, which is one of the most important elements of the convalescence period. Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of diet, physical activity of healthy children and adolescents with patients after cancer treatment. Material and methods: The study involved 60 children and adolescents; 30 healthy juniors and 30 patients after treatment for cancer...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Enni-Maria Hietavala, Johanna K Ihalainen, Lynda A Frassetto, Moritz Schumann, Daniela Eklund, Hannu Pitkänen, Keijo Häkkinen, Antti A Mero
Prolonged effects of dietary acid intake on acid-base status and kidney function have not yet been studied in an intervention study in healthy subjects. Dietary acid load can be estimated by calculating the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of foods. Effects of low-PRAL and moderate-PRAL diets on acid-base status and kidney function were investigated during a 12-week exercise training period. Healthy, 20-50-year-old men ( n = 21) and women ( n = 25) participated in the study and were randomly divided into low-PRAL and moderate-PRAL groups...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
Carling D Gerlinsky, Martin Haulena, Andrew W Trites, David A S Rosen
Decreased health may have lowered the birth and survival rates of Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands over the past 30 yr. Reference ranges for clinical hematology and serum chemistry parameters needed to assess the health of wild sea lion populations are limited. Here, blood parameters were serially measured in 12 captive female Steller sea lions ranging in age from 3 wk to 16 yr to establish baseline values and investigate age-related changes. Whether diving activity affects hematology parameters in animals swimming in the ocean compared with animals in a traditional aquarium setting was also examined...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sabine Daemen, Nynke van Polanen, Matthijs K C Hesselink
The majority of fat in the human body is stored as triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue. In the obese state, adipose tissue mass expands and excess lipids are stored in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Lipids are stored in skeletal muscle in the form of small lipid droplets. Although originally viewed as dull organelles that simply store lipids as a consequence of lipid overflow from adipose tissue, lipid droplets are now recognized as key components in the cell that exert a variety of relevant functions in multiple tissues (including muscle)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kyung-Wan Baek, Hee-Jae Cha, Mee Sun Ock, Hong Soo Kim, Jeong-An Gim, Jung-Jun Park
Previously, we monitored the expression level of the pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats in order to assess muscle damage. In this study, we analyzed whether exercise or dietary adjustment was more effective at preventing high-fat diet-induced muscle damage. High-fat diet-induced obese rats were divided into three groups: the high-fat diet (HFD), the combined high-fat diet and exercise (HFD+EXE), and the dietary adjustment (DA) groups...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
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