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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164168/doubling-down-increased-risk-taking-behavior-following-a-loss-by-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder-is-associated-with-striatal-and-anterior-cingulate-dysfunction
#1
Joshua L Gowin, April C May, Marc Wittmann, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) have been associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that altered activity in reward and decision-making circuitry may underlie cocaine user's heightened risk-taking. It remains unclear if this behavior is driven by greater reward salience, lack of appreciation of danger, or another deficit in risk-related processing. METHODS: Twenty-nine CUD participants and forty healthy comparison participants completed the Risky Gains Task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999558/an-embodied-approach-to-understanding-making-sense-of-the-world-through-simulated-bodily-activity
#2
REVIEW
Firat Soylu
Even though understanding is a very widely used concept, both colloquially and in scholarly work, its definition is nebulous and it is not well-studied as a psychological construct, compared to other psychological constructs like learning and memory. Studying understanding based on third-person (e.g., behavioral, neuroimaging) data alone presents unique challenges. Understanding refers to a first-person experience of making sense of an event or a conceptual domain, and therefore requires incorporation of multiple levels of study, at the first-person (phenomenological), behavioral, and neural levels...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773690/interactive-roles-of-the-cerebellum-and-striatum-in-sub-second-and-supra-second-timing-support-for-an-initiation-continuation-adjustment-and-termination-icat-model-of-temporal-processing
#3
REVIEW
Elijah A Petter, Nicholas A Lusk, Germund Hesslow, Warren H Meck
The contributions of cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal circuits to timing and time perception have often been a point of contention. In this review we propose that the cerebellum principally functions to reduce variability, through the detection of stimulus onsets and the sub-division of longer durations, thus contributing to both sub-second and supra-second timing. This sensitivity of the cerebellum to stimulus dynamics and subsequent integration with motor control allows it to accurately measure intervals within a range of 100-2000ms...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749394/brain-connectivity-and-neurological-disorders-after-stroke
#4
Antonello Baldassarre, Lenny E Ramsey, Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An important challenge in neurology is identifying the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral deficits after brain injury. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the effects of focal brain lesions on brain networks and behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging studies indicate that the human brain is organized in large-scale resting state networks (RSNs) defined via functional connectivity, that is the temporal correlation of spontaneous activity between different areas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541949/disrupted-functional-connectome-in-antisocial-personality-disorder
#5
Weixiong Jiang, Feng Shi, Jian Liao, Huasheng Liu, Tao Wang, Celina Shen, Hui Shen, Dewen Hu, Wei Wang, Dinggang Shen
Studies on antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) subjects focus on brain functional alterations in relation to antisocial behaviors. Neuroimaging research has identified a number of focal brain regions with abnormal structures or functions in ASPD. However, little is known about the connections among brain regions in terms of inter-regional whole-brain networks in ASPD patients, as well as possible alterations of brain functional topological organization. In this study, we employ resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) to examine functional connectome of 32 ASPD patients and 35 normal controls by using a variety of network properties, including small-worldness, modularity, and connectivity...
August 19, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194619/activity-in-the-rat-olfactory-cortex-is-correlated-with-behavioral-response-to-odor-a-micropet-study
#6
Philippe Litaudon, Caroline Bouillot, Luc Zimmer, Nicolas Costes, Nadine Ravel
How olfactory cortical areas interpret odor maps evoked in the olfactory bulb and translate odor information into behavioral responses is still largely unknown. Indeed, rat olfactory cortices encompass an extensive network located in the ventral part of the brain, thus complicating the use of invasive functional methods. In vivo imaging techniques that were previously developed for brain activation studies in humans have been adapted for use in rodents and facilitate the non-invasive mapping of the whole brain...
January 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977400/network-analysis-of-functional-brain-connectivity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-using-resting-state-fmri
#7
Tingting Xu, Kathryn R Cullen, Bryon Mueller, Mindy W Schreiner, Kelvin O Lim, S Charles Schulz, Keshab K Parhi
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with symptoms such as affect dysregulation, impaired sense of self, and self-harm behaviors. Neuroimaging research on BPD has revealed structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions and connections. However, little is known about the topological organizations of brain networks in BPD. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 20 patients with BPD and 10 healthy controls, and constructed frequency-specific functional brain networks by correlating wavelet-filtered fMRI signals from 82 cortical and subcortical regions...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954598/a-cognitive-neuroscience-view-of-voice-processing-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-a-window-into-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#8
REVIEW
Tatiana Conde, Oscar F Gonçalves, Ana P Pinheiro
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH...
March 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25800172/face-recognition-in-schizophrenia-disorder-a-comprehensive-review-of-behavioral-neuroimaging-and-neurophysiological-studies
#9
REVIEW
Catherine Bortolon, Delphine Capdevielle, Stéphane Raffard
Facial emotion processing has been extensively studied in schizophrenia patients while general face processing has received less attention. The already published reviews do not address the current scientific literature in a complete manner. Therefore, here we tried to answer some questions that remain to be clarified, particularly: are the non-emotional aspects of facial processing in fact impaired in schizophrenia patients? At the behavioral level, our key conclusions are that visual perception deficit in schizophrenia patients: are not specific to faces; are most often present when the cognitive (e...
June 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25751131/procedural-learning-during-declarative-control
#10
Matthew J Crossley, F Gregory Ashby
There is now abundant evidence that human learning and memory are governed by multiple systems. As a result, research is now turning to the next question of how these putative systems interact. For instance, how is overall control of behavior coordinated, and does learning occur independently within systems regardless of what system is in control? Behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuroscience data are somewhat mixed with respect to these questions. Human neuroimaging and animal lesion studies suggest independent learning and are mostly agnostic with respect to control...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404911/behavioral-computational-and-neuroimaging-studies-of-acquired-apraxia-of-speech
#11
Kirrie J Ballard, Jason A Tourville, Donald A Robin
A critical examination of speech motor control depends on an in-depth understanding of network connectivity associated with Brodmann areas 44 and 45 and surrounding cortices. Damage to these areas has been associated with two conditions-the speech motor programming disorder apraxia of speech (AOS) and the linguistic/grammatical disorder of Broca's aphasia. Here we focus on AOS, which is most commonly associated with damage to posterior Broca's area (BA) and adjacent cortex. We provide an overview of our own studies into the nature of AOS, including behavioral and neuroimaging methods, to explore components of the speech motor network that are associated with normal and disordered speech motor programming in AOS...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25358718/neural-mechanisms-of-rhythm-perception-present-findings-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Li-Ann Leow, Jessica A Grahn
The capacity to synchronize movements to the beat in music is a complex, and apparently uniquely human characteristic. Synchronizing movements to the beat requires beat perception, which entails prediction of future beats in rhythmic sequences of temporal intervals. Absolute timing mechanisms, where patterns of temporal intervals are encoded as a series of absolute durations, cannot fully explain beat perception. Beat perception seems better accounted for by relative timing mechanisms, where temporal intervals of a pattern are coded relative to a periodic beat interval...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25175878/insights-into-human-behavior-from-lesions-to-the-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Sara M Szczepanski, Robert T Knight
The prefrontal cortex (PFC), a cortical region that was once thought to be functionally insignificant, is now known to play an essential role in the organization and control of goal-directed thought and behavior. Neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and modeling techniques have led to tremendous advances in our understanding of PFC functions over the last few decades. It should be noted, however, that neurological, neuropathological, and neuropsychological studies have contributed some of the most essential, historical, and often prescient conclusions regarding the functions of this region...
September 3, 2014: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24581556/action-versus-valence-in-decision-making
#14
REVIEW
Marc Guitart-Masip, Emrah Duzel, Ray Dolan, Peter Dayan
The selection of actions, and the vigor with which they are executed, are influenced by the affective valence of predicted outcomes. This interaction between action and valence significantly influences appropriate and inappropriate choices and is implicated in the expression of psychiatric and neurological abnormalities, including impulsivity and addiction. We review a series of recent human behavioral, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies whose key design feature is an orthogonal manipulation of action and valence...
April 2014: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23874319/is-there-a-generalized-magnitude-system-in-the-brain-behavioral-neuroimaging-and-computational-evidence
#15
Filip Van Opstal, Tom Verguts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23843821/testosterone-and-aggressive-behavior-in-man
#16
Menelaos L Batrinos
Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization...
2012: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23805100/manganese-neurotoxicity-new-perspectives-from-behavioral-neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-studies-in-humans-and-non-human-primates
#17
Tomás R Guilarte
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal and has important physiological functions for human health. However, exposure to excess levels of Mn in occupational settings or from environmental sources has been associated with a neurological syndrome comprising cognitive deficits, neuropsychological abnormalities and parkinsonism. Historically, studies on the effects of Mn in humans and experimental animals have been concerned with effects on the basal ganglia and the dopaminergic system as it relates to movement abnormalities...
2013: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23781194/sensing-assessing-and-augmenting-threat-detection-behavioral-neuroimaging-and-brain-stimulation-evidence-for-the-critical-role-of-attention
#18
Raja Parasuraman, Scott Galster
Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects-biological motion perception and action understanding-is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively "primitive," automatic function immune to top-down effects...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23562270/social-information-signaling-by-neurons-in-primate-striatum
#19
Jeffrey T Klein, Michael L Platt
Social decisions depend on reliable information about others. Consequently, social primates are motivated to acquire information about the identity, social status, and reproductive quality of others. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies implicate the striatum in the motivational control of behavior. Neuroimaging studies specifically implicate the ventromedial striatum in signaling motivational aspects of social interaction. Despite this evidence, precisely how striatal neurons encode social information remains unknown...
April 22, 2013: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23232664/imaging-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-relationship-to-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Nicola J Ray, Antonio P Strafella
Established substance addictions and impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as pathological gambling share similar underlying neurobiology, and recent data extends these commonalities to the risk factors that increase an individuals' susceptibility to develop such behaviours. In Parkinson's disease (PD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) are increasingly recognised to develop after patients begin dopamine (DA) restoration therapy, in particular DA agonists. In both the PD and non-PD population, more impulsive individuals are at increased risk for impulse control disorders...
April 2013: Journal of Neural Transmission
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