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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557190/extending-the-construct-network-of-trait-disinhibition-to-the-neuroimaging-domain-validation-of-a-bridging-scale-for-use-in-the-european-imagen-project
#1
Sarah J Brislin, Christopher J Patrick, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees, Angela Heinrich, Laura E Drislane, James R Yancey, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Patricia Conrod, Argyris Stringaris, Maren Struve, Betteke van Noort, Yvonne Grimmer, Tahmine Fadai, Gunter Schumann, Jens Foell
Trait disinhibition, a clinical-liability construct, has well-established correlates in the diagnostic, self-rating, task-behavioral, and brain potential response domains. Recently, studies have begun to test for neuroimaging correlates of this liability factor, but more work of this type using larger data sets is needed to clarify its brain bases. The current study details the development and validation of a scale measure of trait disinhibition composed of questionnaire items available in the IMAGEN project, a large-scale longitudinal study of factors contributing to substance abuse that includes clinical interview, self-report personality, task-behavioral, neuroimaging, and genomic measures...
March 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504536/progress-and-challenges-in-frontotemporal-dementia-research-a-20-year-review
#2
John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
The landscape of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has evolved remarkably in recent years and is barely recognizable from two decades ago. Knowledge of the clinical phenomenology, cognition, neuroimaging, genetics, pathology of the different subtypes of FTD, and their relations to other neurodegenerative conditions, has increased rapidly, due in part, to the growing interests into these neurodegenerative brain conditions. This article reviews the major advances in the field of FTD over the past 20 years, focusing primarily on the work of Frontier, the frontotemporal dementia clinical research group, based in Sydney, Australia...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176031/the-neurophysiology-of-working-memory-development-from-childhood-to-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#3
Carlos M Gómez, Catarina Isabel Barriga-Paulino, Elena Isabel Rodríguez-Martínez, Ma Ángeles Rojas-Benjumea, Antonio Arjona, Jaime Gómez-González
Working memory (WM) is an important cognitive function that is necessary to perform our daily activities. The present review briefly describes the most accepted models underlying WM and the neural networks involved in its processing. The review focuses on how the neurophysiological mechanisms develop with age in the periods from childhood to adolescence and young adulthood. Studies using behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological techniques showed the progress of WM throughout the development. The present review focuses on the neurophysiology of the basic processes underlying WM operations, as indicated by electroencephalogram-derived signals, in order to take advantage of the excellent time resolution of this technique...
November 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#4
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
February 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164168/doubling-down-increased-risk-taking-behavior-following-a-loss-by-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder-is-associated-with-striatal-and-anterior-cingulate-dysfunction
#5
Joshua L Gowin, April C May, Marc Wittmann, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) have been associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that altered activity in reward and decision-making circuitry may underlie cocaine user's heightened risk-taking. It remains unclear if this behavior is driven by greater reward salience, lack of appreciation of danger, or another deficit in risk-related processing. METHODS: Twenty-nine CUD participants and forty healthy comparison participants completed the Risky Gains Task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999558/an-embodied-approach-to-understanding-making-sense-of-the-world-through-simulated-bodily-activity
#6
REVIEW
Firat Soylu
Even though understanding is a very widely used concept, both colloquially and in scholarly work, its definition is nebulous and it is not well-studied as a psychological construct, compared to other psychological constructs like learning and memory. Studying understanding based on third-person (e.g., behavioral, neuroimaging) data alone presents unique challenges. Understanding refers to a first-person experience of making sense of an event or a conceptual domain, and therefore requires incorporation of multiple levels of study, at the first-person (phenomenological), behavioral, and neural levels...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773690/interactive-roles-of-the-cerebellum-and-striatum-in-sub-second-and-supra-second-timing-support-for-an-initiation-continuation-adjustment-and-termination-icat-model-of-temporal-processing
#7
REVIEW
Elijah A Petter, Nicholas A Lusk, Germund Hesslow, Warren H Meck
The contributions of cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal circuits to timing and time perception have often been a point of contention. In this review we propose that the cerebellum principally functions to reduce variability, through the detection of stimulus onsets and the sub-division of longer durations, thus contributing to both sub-second and supra-second timing. This sensitivity of the cerebellum to stimulus dynamics and subsequent integration with motor control allows it to accurately measure intervals within a range of 100-2000ms...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749394/brain-connectivity-and-neurological-disorders-after-stroke
#8
Antonello Baldassarre, Lenny E Ramsey, Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An important challenge in neurology is identifying the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral deficits after brain injury. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the effects of focal brain lesions on brain networks and behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging studies indicate that the human brain is organized in large-scale resting state networks (RSNs) defined via functional connectivity, that is the temporal correlation of spontaneous activity between different areas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541949/disrupted-functional-connectome-in-antisocial-personality-disorder
#9
Weixiong Jiang, Feng Shi, Jian Liao, Huasheng Liu, Tao Wang, Celina Shen, Hui Shen, Dewen Hu, Wei Wang, Dinggang Shen
Studies on antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) subjects focus on brain functional alterations in relation to antisocial behaviors. Neuroimaging research has identified a number of focal brain regions with abnormal structures or functions in ASPD. However, little is known about the connections among brain regions in terms of inter-regional whole-brain networks in ASPD patients, as well as possible alterations of brain functional topological organization. In this study, we employ resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) to examine functional connectome of 32 ASPD patients and 35 normal controls by using a variety of network properties, including small-worldness, modularity, and connectivity...
August 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194619/activity-in-the-rat-olfactory-cortex-is-correlated-with-behavioral-response-to-odor-a-micropet-study
#10
Philippe Litaudon, Caroline Bouillot, Luc Zimmer, Nicolas Costes, Nadine Ravel
How olfactory cortical areas interpret odor maps evoked in the olfactory bulb and translate odor information into behavioral responses is still largely unknown. Indeed, rat olfactory cortices encompass an extensive network located in the ventral part of the brain, thus complicating the use of invasive functional methods. In vivo imaging techniques that were previously developed for brain activation studies in humans have been adapted for use in rodents and facilitate the non-invasive mapping of the whole brain...
January 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977400/network-analysis-of-functional-brain-connectivity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-using-resting-state-fmri
#11
Tingting Xu, Kathryn R Cullen, Bryon Mueller, Mindy W Schreiner, Kelvin O Lim, S Charles Schulz, Keshab K Parhi
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with symptoms such as affect dysregulation, impaired sense of self, and self-harm behaviors. Neuroimaging research on BPD has revealed structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions and connections. However, little is known about the topological organizations of brain networks in BPD. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 20 patients with BPD and 10 healthy controls, and constructed frequency-specific functional brain networks by correlating wavelet-filtered fMRI signals from 82 cortical and subcortical regions...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954598/a-cognitive-neuroscience-view-of-voice-processing-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-a-window-into-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#12
REVIEW
Tatiana Conde, Oscar F Gonçalves, Ana P Pinheiro
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH...
March 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25800172/face-recognition-in-schizophrenia-disorder-a-comprehensive-review-of-behavioral-neuroimaging-and-neurophysiological-studies
#13
REVIEW
Catherine Bortolon, Delphine Capdevielle, Stéphane Raffard
Facial emotion processing has been extensively studied in schizophrenia patients while general face processing has received less attention. The already published reviews do not address the current scientific literature in a complete manner. Therefore, here we tried to answer some questions that remain to be clarified, particularly: are the non-emotional aspects of facial processing in fact impaired in schizophrenia patients? At the behavioral level, our key conclusions are that visual perception deficit in schizophrenia patients: are not specific to faces; are most often present when the cognitive (e...
June 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25751131/procedural-learning-during-declarative-control
#14
Matthew J Crossley, F Gregory Ashby
There is now abundant evidence that human learning and memory are governed by multiple systems. As a result, research is now turning to the next question of how these putative systems interact. For instance, how is overall control of behavior coordinated, and does learning occur independently within systems regardless of what system is in control? Behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuroscience data are somewhat mixed with respect to these questions. Human neuroimaging and animal lesion studies suggest independent learning and are mostly agnostic with respect to control...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404911/behavioral-computational-and-neuroimaging-studies-of-acquired-apraxia-of-speech
#15
Kirrie J Ballard, Jason A Tourville, Donald A Robin
A critical examination of speech motor control depends on an in-depth understanding of network connectivity associated with Brodmann areas 44 and 45 and surrounding cortices. Damage to these areas has been associated with two conditions-the speech motor programming disorder apraxia of speech (AOS) and the linguistic/grammatical disorder of Broca's aphasia. Here we focus on AOS, which is most commonly associated with damage to posterior Broca's area (BA) and adjacent cortex. We provide an overview of our own studies into the nature of AOS, including behavioral and neuroimaging methods, to explore components of the speech motor network that are associated with normal and disordered speech motor programming in AOS...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25358718/neural-mechanisms-of-rhythm-perception-present-findings-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Li-Ann Leow, Jessica A Grahn
The capacity to synchronize movements to the beat in music is a complex, and apparently uniquely human characteristic. Synchronizing movements to the beat requires beat perception, which entails prediction of future beats in rhythmic sequences of temporal intervals. Absolute timing mechanisms, where patterns of temporal intervals are encoded as a series of absolute durations, cannot fully explain beat perception. Beat perception seems better accounted for by relative timing mechanisms, where temporal intervals of a pattern are coded relative to a periodic beat interval...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25175878/insights-into-human-behavior-from-lesions-to-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Sara M Szczepanski, Robert T Knight
The prefrontal cortex (PFC), a cortical region that was once thought to be functionally insignificant, is now known to play an essential role in the organization and control of goal-directed thought and behavior. Neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and modeling techniques have led to tremendous advances in our understanding of PFC functions over the last few decades. It should be noted, however, that neurological, neuropathological, and neuropsychological studies have contributed some of the most essential, historical, and often prescient conclusions regarding the functions of this region...
September 3, 2014: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24581556/action-versus-valence-in-decision-making
#18
REVIEW
Marc Guitart-Masip, Emrah Duzel, Ray Dolan, Peter Dayan
The selection of actions, and the vigor with which they are executed, are influenced by the affective valence of predicted outcomes. This interaction between action and valence significantly influences appropriate and inappropriate choices and is implicated in the expression of psychiatric and neurological abnormalities, including impulsivity and addiction. We review a series of recent human behavioral, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies whose key design feature is an orthogonal manipulation of action and valence...
April 2014: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23874319/is-there-a-generalized-magnitude-system-in-the-brain-behavioral-neuroimaging-and-computational-evidence
#19
Filip Van Opstal, Tom Verguts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23843821/testosterone-and-aggressive-behavior-in-man
#20
Menelaos L Batrinos
Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization...
2012: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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