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Jimena Barbeito-Andrés, Valeria Bernal, Paula N Gonzalez
Mammalian brain has repeated structures at both sides of the median plane, although some asymmetries have been described even under normal conditions. Characterizing normal patterns of asymmetry in mouse brain is important to recognize features that depart from expected ranges in the most widely used mammalian model. Analyses on brain morphology based on magnetic resonance image (MRI) have largely focused on volumes while less is known about shape asymmetry. We introduce a flexible protocol based on geometric morphometrics to assess patterns of asymmetry in shape and size of mouse brain from microMRI scans...
September 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Xiaoling Wang, Ying Chen, Lian Xue, Nipon Pothayee, Rui Zhang, Judy S Riffle, Theresa M Reineke, Louis A Madsen
Nanoparticle-based therapeutic agents can in some cases provide selective delivery to tumors, yet this field would greatly benefit from more detailed understanding of particle transport into and within tumor tissue. To provide fundamental information for optimizing interstitial transport of polymeric nanoparticles, we have developed a quantitative approach employing real-time analysis of nanoparticle diffusion into bulk biological hydrogels using microMRI. We use two distinct imaging approaches to probe the migration of two novel "theranostic" polymeric agents (combining drug delivery and contrast agent functions) into bulk hydrogels...
November 6, 2014: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mette Kjoelhede Nedergaard, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Thomas Urup, Helle Broholm, Henrik El Ali, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Marie-Thérése Stockhausen, Andreas Kjaer, Ulrik Lassen
BACKGROUND: Conflicting data exist for anti-cancer effects of anti-placental growth factor (anti-PlGF) in combination with anti-VEGF. Still, this treatment combination has not been evaluated in intracranial glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts. In clinical studies, position emission tomography (PET) using the radiolabeled amino acid O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) add complementary but distinct information about glioma growth; however, the value of 18F-FET MicroPET combined with MicroMRI has not been investigated preclinically...
2015: PloS One
Ilya Zaslavsky, Richard A Baldock, Jyl Boline
Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Maarten Ooms, Roma Rietjens, Janaki Raman Rangarajan, Kathleen Vunckx, Sara Valdeolivas, Frederik Maes, Uwe Himmelreich, Javier Fernandez-Ruiz, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere, Cindy Casteels
Several lines of evidence imply early alterations in endocannabinoid and phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) signaling in Huntington disease (HD). Using [(18)F]MK-9470 and [(18)F]JNJ42259152 small-animal positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated for the first time cerebral changes in type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor binding and PDE10A levels in vivo in presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and late symptomatic HD (R6/2) mice, in relation to glucose metabolism ([(18)F]FDG PET), brain morphology (magnetic resonance imaging) and motor function...
December 2014: Neurobiology of Aging
Chang Liu, Zhide Guo, Pu Zhang, Manli Song, Zuoquan Zhao, Xiaowei Wu, Xianzhong Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Specific targeting of galactose-carrying molecule to ASGP-R in normal hepatocytes has been demonstrated before. In this study, galactosyl polystyrene was synthesized from controllable ratio of functional monomers and radio-labelled with (99m)Tc by formulated kit for SPECT imaging of hepatic function. METHODS: p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54) was synthesized by free-radical copolymerization initiated by AIBN, purified by dialysis, lyophilized to kit with Tricine and TPPTS as co-ligands for (99m)Tc labeling...
August 2014: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Guillaume Kazmitcheff, Christian Duriez, Mathieu Miroir, Yann Nguyen, Olivier Sterkers, Alexis Bozorg Grayeli, Stéphane Cotin
This paper is centered on the development of a new training and rehearsal simulation system for middle ear surgery. First, we have developed and validated a mechanical atlas based on finite element method of the human middle ear. The atlas is based on a microMRI. Its mechanical behavior computed in real-time has been successfully validated. In addition, we propose a method for the registration of the mechanical atlas on patient imagery. The simulation can be used for a rehearsal surgery with the geometrical anatomy of a given patient and with mechanical data that are validated...
2013: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Mona Al Mukaddam, Chamith S Rajapakse, Yusuf A Bhagat, Felix W Wehrli, Wensheng Guo, Helen Peachey, Shane O LeBeau, Babette S Zemel, Christina Wang, Ronald S Swerdloff, Shiv C Kapoor, Peter J Snyder
CONTEXT: Severe deficiencies of testosterone (T) and GH are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Replacement of T in hypogonadal men improves several bone parameters. Replacement of GH in GH-deficient men improves BMD. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether T and GH treatment together improves the structural and mechanical parameters of bone more than T alone in men with hypopituitarism. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: This randomized, prospective, 2-year study included 32 men with severe deficiencies of T and GH due to panhypopituitarism...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Daniel Chappard
Bone mass is determined throughout life by modeling and remodeling mechanisms. Trabecular bone consists of a network of trabeculae (plates and rods) whose distribution is highly anisotropic: trabeculae are disposed parallel to the resultant of stress lines (Wolff's law). The trabecular microarchitecture appears to be conditioned by mechanical stresses exerted on skeletal bones. Few clinically validated methods are available to assess and monitor the bone microarchitecture in bone diseases. The best-developed is bone histomorphometry, with the use of new algorithms to appreciate various 2D characteristics of the trabeculae, such as thickness and connectivity...
November 2010: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Qin Wang, Wei Luan, Vadim Goz, Steven J Burakoff, Spiros P Hiotis
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of complex transgenic colonies and labour-intensive techniques pose significant challenges in work involving mouse models for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Other animal models of unusual species are generally impractical for research purposes. AIMS: To develop a highly reproducible orthotopic mouse model for HCC based on the murine α-foetoprotein (AFP), producing cell line Hepa1-6 and to monitor liver tumour progression via in vivo imaging, and measurement of plasma AFP...
September 2011: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
C Casteels, C Vandeputte, J R Rangarajan, T Dresselaers, O Riess, G Bormans, F Maes, U Himmelreich, H Nguyen, K Van Laere
Several lines of evidence imply early alterations in metabolic and endocannabinoid neurotransmission in Huntington disease (HD). Using [(18)F]MK-9470 and small animal PET, we investigated for the first time cerebral changes in type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor binding in vivo in pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic rats of HD (tgHD), in relation to glucose metabolism, morphology and behavioral testing for motor and cognitive function. Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats (14 tgHD and 9 wild-types) were investigated between the age of 2 and 11 months...
June 2011: Experimental Neurology
Sri Harsha Maramraju, S David Smith, Sachin S Junnarkar, Daniela Schulz, Sean Stoll, Bosky Ravindranath, Martin L Purschke, Sergio Rescia, Sudeepti Southekal, Jean-François Pratte, Paul Vaska, Craig L Woody, David J Schlyer
We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 × 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 × 2.22 × 5 mm(3)) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent...
April 21, 2011: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Russell Hayden, Stacia Sawyer, Eric Frey, Susumu Mori, Americo A Migliaccio, Charles C Della Santina
To facilitate design of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis that can restore sensation to individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular hair cell function, we created a virtual labyrinth model. Model geometry was generated through 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of microMRI and microCT scans of normal chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) acquired with 30-48 μm and 12 μm voxels, respectively. Virtual electrodes were positioned based on anatomic landmarks, and the extracellular potential field during a current pulse was computed using finite element methods...
May 2011: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Richard E Norman, John G Flanagan, Ian A Sigal, Sophie M K Rausch, Inka Tertinegg, C Ross Ethier
Scleral thickness, especially near the optic nerve head (ONH), is a potential factor of interest in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Large differences in the dimensions of the sclera, the principal load-bearing tissue of the eye, have been observed between individuals. This study aimed to characterize the effects of these differences on ONH biomechanics. Eleven enucleated human globes (7 normal and 4 ostensibly glaucomatous) were imaged using high-field microMRI and segmented to produce 3-D individual-specific corneoscleral shells...
July 2011: Experimental Eye Research
Chamith S Rajapakse, Jeremy F Magland, Michael J Wald, X Sherry Liu, X Henry Zhang, X Edward Guo, Felix W Wehrli
The mechanical properties of bone estimated by micro-finite element (microFE) analysis on the basis of in vivo micro-MR images (microMRIs) of the distal extremities provide a new tool for direct assessment of the mechanical consequences of intervention. However, the accuracy of the method has not previously been investigated. Here, we compared microFE-derived mechanical parameters obtained from microMRIs at 160 microm isotropic voxel size now achievable in vivo with those derived from 25 microm isotropic (reference) microCT images of 30 cadaveric tibiae from 15 donors (4 females and 11 males, aged 55-84 years)...
September 2010: Bone
Katrien Vandoorne, Jeremy Magland, Vicki Plaks, Amnon Sharir, Elazar Zelzer, Felix Wehrli, Brian A Hemmings, Alon Harmelin, Michal Neeman
PKBalpha/Akt1, a protein kinase, is a major mediator of angiogenic signaling. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of PKB alpha/Akt1 in bone vascularization and development. For that aim, macromolecular dynamic contrast enhanced MRI was applied to examine in vivo vascular changes in long bones of 40-day-old growing PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. Ex vivo microMRI and microCT were applied to monitor the impact of PKB alpha/Akt1 gene dosage on trabecular bone formation during endochondral bone growth...
July 2010: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Samira Kabli, Shuning He, Herman P Spaink, Adam Hurlstone, Ewa Snaar Jagalska, Huub J M De Groot, A Alia
Zebrafish cancer models are fast gaining ground in cancer research. Most tumors in zebrafish develop late in life, when fish are no longer transparent, limiting in vivo optical imaging methods. Thus, noninvasive imaging to track tumor in adult zebrafish remains challenging. In this study, we applied magnetic resonance microimaging (microMRI) to track spontaneous melanomas in stable transgenic zebrafish models expressing an RAS oncoprotein and lacking P53 (mitf:Ras::mitf:GFP X p53(-/-)). Tumors in live adult zebrafish were observed at various locations using a T(2)-weighted fast spin echo sequence at 9...
June 2010: Zebrafish
ShaoKuan Zheng, Yang Xia
The multicomponent T(2) relaxation in bovine nasal cartilage (BNC) was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (microMRI) method using a CPMG-SE imaging sequence. All experimental data were analyzed by the non-negative least square (NNLS) procedure. Only one T(2) component was found in BNC by both experimental methods (about 113 and 170 ms before and after being enzymatically digested by trypsin). Several experimental and specimen-related factors were investigated in this study, and it was found that some of them could produce artificial multi-component T(2), including the use of the standard MSME imaging sequence at certain imaging gradients...
May 2010: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Richard E Norman, John G Flanagan, Sophie M K Rausch, Ian A Sigal, Inka Tertinegg, Armin Eilaghi, Sharon Portnoy, John G Sled, C Ross Ethier
Scleral thickness, especially near the region of the optic nerve head (ONH), is a potential factor of interest in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Our goal was to characterize the scleral thickness distribution and other geometric features of human eyes. Eleven enucleated human globes (7 normal and 4 ostensibly glaucomatous) were imaged using high-field microMRI, providing 80 microm isotropic resolution over the whole eye. The MRI scans were segmented to produce 3-D corneoscleral shells. Each shell was divided into 15 slices along the anterior-posterior axis of the eye, and each slice was further subdivided into the anatomical quadrants...
February 2010: Experimental Eye Research
Benjamin Y Durkee, Jamey P Weichert, Richard B Halberg
Microcomputed tomography colonography (mCTC) is a new method for detecting colonic tumors in living animals and estimating their volume, which allows investigators to determine the spontaneous fate of individually annotated tumors as well as their response to chemotherapeutics. This imaging platform was developed using the Min mouse, but is applicable to any murine model of human colorectal cancer. MicroCT is capable of 20 micron resolution, however, 100 microns is sufficient for this application. Scan quality is primarily dependent on animal preparation with the most critical parameters being proper anesthesia, bowel cleansing, and sufficient insufflation...
January 2010: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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