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"small animal imaging"

Xinyi Y Zhou, Zhi Wei Tay, Prashant Chandrasekharan, Elaine Y Yu, Daniel W Hensley, Ryan Orendorff, Kenneth E Jeffris, David Mai, Bo Zheng, Patrick W Goodwill, Steven M Conolly
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging ionizing radiation-free biomedical tracer imaging technique that directly images the intense magnetization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI offers ideal image contrast because MPI shows zero signal from background tissues. Moreover, there is zero attenuation of the signal with depth in tissue, allowing for imaging deep inside the body quantitatively at any location. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of MPI for robust, sensitive vascular imaging and cell tracking with high contrast and dose-limited sensitivity comparable to nuclear medicine...
May 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Xianzhi Guo, Yingchun Duan, Xiaolei Ye, Lina Hu, Tong Xu, Li Tong, Minghua Yu
δ‑Like ligand 4 (DLL4) has recently been reported to be involved in the process of cancer angiogenesis and considered to play a vital role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, while the role of DLL4 in cancer metastasis and growth has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the esophagus cancer cell line Eca109 was infected in vitro with a lentiviral vector loaded with dll4‑shRNA to obtain a stable cell line of DLL4 expression which was downregulated through puromycin screening...
May 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yong Hum Na, Yi-Fang Wang, Paul J Black, Christian Velten, Xin Qian, Shih-Chi Lin, John Adamovics, Cheng-Shie Wuu
PURPOSE: The precise dosimetric and geometric characteristics of small animal irradiators are essential to achieving reproducible dose delivery, especially in cases where image-guidance is utilized. Currently, radiochromic film is the established measurement tool used to evaluate beam characteristics for these systems. However, only 2D information can be acquired with film. This study characterized both the dosimetric and geometric properties of the small animal research radiation platform (SARRP, Xstrahl) for commissioning purposes using a 3D radiochromic dosimetry system with a sub-millimeter resolution optical computed tomography (OCT) scanner...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
Alexander Lin, Matthew A Kupinski, Todd E Peterson, Sepideh Shokouh, Lindsay C Johnson
PURPOSE: In traditional multi-pinhole SPECT systems, image multiplexing - the overlapping of pinhole projection images - may occur on the detector, which can inhibit quality image re-constructions due to photon-origin uncertainty. One proposed system to mitigate the effects of multiplexing is the synthetic-collimator SPECT system. In this system, two detectors, a silicon detector and a germanium detector, are placed at different distances behind the multi-pinhole aperture, allowing for image detection to occur at different magnifications and photon energies, resulting in higher overall sensitivity while maintaining high resolution...
May 7, 2018: Medical Physics
Akbar Anvari, Yannick Poirier, Amit Sawant
PURPOSE: Although small animal image-guided radiotherapy (SA-IGRT) systems are used increasingly in preclinical research, tools for performing routine quality assurance (QA) have not been optimized and are not readily available. Robust, efficient, and reliable QA tools are needed to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of SA-IGRT systems. Several investigators have reported custom-made phantoms and protocols for SA-IGRT systems QA. These are typically time and resource intensive and are therefore not well suited to the preclinical radiotherapy environment, in which physics support is limited and routine QA is performed by technical staff...
April 28, 2018: Medical Physics
Andrew Brannen, Matthew Eggert, Matthias Nahrendorf, Robert Arnold, Peter Panizzi
Pre-clinical monitoring of tumor growth and identification of distal metastasis requires a balance between accuracy and expediency. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is often used to track tumor growth but is primarily limited to planar 2-dimensional (2D) imaging. Consistent subject placement within a standard top-mounted, single-detector small animal imager is vital to reducing variability in repeated same-animal measures over time. Here, we describe a method for tracking tumor development using a multi-angle BLI and photo-acoustic workflow...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christin Neuber, Birgit Belter, Sebastian Meister, Frank Hofheinz, Ralf Bergmann, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch, Jens Pietzsch
Experimental evidence has associated receptor tyrosine kinase EphB4 with tumor angiogenesis also in malignant melanoma. Considering the limited in vivo data available, we have conducted a systematic multitracer and multimodal imaging investigation in EphB4-overexpressing and mock-transfected A375 melanoma xenografts. Tumor growth, perfusion, and hypoxia were investigated by positron emission tomography. Vascularization was investigated by fluorescence imaging in vivo and ex vivo. The approach was completed by magnetic resonance imaging, radioluminography ex vivo, and immunohistochemical staining for blood and lymph vessel markers...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stéphanie Bricq, Hiliwi Leake Kidane, Jorge Zavala-Bojorquez, Alexandra Oudot, Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, François Brunotte, Paul Michael Walker, Alexandre Cochet, Alain Lalande
PET images deliver functional data, whereas MRI images provide anatomical information. Merging the complementary information from these two modalities is helpful in oncology. Alignment of PET/MRI images requires the use of multi-modal registration methods. Most of existing PET/MRI registration methods have been developed for humans and few works have been performed for small animal images. We proposed an automatic tool allowing PET/MRI registration for pre-clinical study based on a two-level hierarchical approach...
February 7, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Robert H Wilson, Christian Crouzet, Mohammad Torabzadeh, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Babak Jamasian, Dishant Donga, Juan Alcocer, Shuhab M Zaher, Bernard Choi, Yama Akbari, Bruce J Tromberg
Quantifying rapidly varying perturbations in cerebral tissue absorption and scattering can potentially help to characterize changes in brain function caused by ischemic trauma. We have developed a platform for rapid intrinsic signal brain optical imaging using macroscopically structured light. The device performs fast, multispectral, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), detecting backscattered light from three-phase binary square-wave projected patterns, which have a much higher refresh rate than sinusoidal patterns used in conventional SFDI...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
Gemma M Dias, Caterina F Ramogida, Julie Rousseau, Nicholas A Zacchia, Cornelia Hoehr, Paul Schaffer, Kuo-Shyan Lin, François Bénard
INTRODUCTION: Zirconium-89 (89 Zr, t1/2 =78.4h) liquid target (LT) production offers an approach to introduce this positron-emitting isotope to cyclotron centres without the need for a separate solid target (ST) production set up. We compared the production, purification, and antibody radiolabeling yields of89 Zr-(LT) and89 Zr-(ST), and assessed the feasibility of89 Zr-(LT) for preclinical PET/CT. METHODS: 89 Zr-(ST) production was performed with an89 Y foil on a TR 19 cyclotron at 13...
March 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Mihaela Ghita, Stephen J McMahon, Hannah F Thompson, Conor K McGarry, Raymond King, Sarah O S Osman, Jonathan L Kane, Amanda Tulk, Giuseppe Schettino, Karl T Butterworth, Alan R Hounsell, Kevin M Prise
BACKGROUND: Preclinical radiation biology has become increasingly sophisticated due to the implementation of advanced small animal image guided radiation platforms into laboratory investigation. These small animal radiotherapy devices enable state-of-the-art image guided therapy (IGRT) research to be performed by combining high-resolution cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging with an isocentric irradiation system. Such platforms are capable of replicating modern clinical systems similar to those that integrate a linear accelerator with on-board CBCT image guidance...
December 28, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Tasuku Kiyuna, Yasunori Tome, Fuminari Uehara, Takashi Murakami, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhao, Fuminori Kanaya, Robert M Hoffman
BACKGROUND: We previously developed a color-coded imaging model that can quantify the length of nascent blood vessels using Gelfoam® implanted in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) nude mice. In this model, nascent blood vessels selectively express GFP. We also previously showed that osteosarcoma cells promote angiogenesis in this assay. We have also previously demonstrated the tumor-targeting bacteria Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) can inhibit or regress all tested tumor types in mouse models...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
Ali Hariri, Jeanne Lemaster, Junxin Wang, AnanthaKrishnan S Jeevarathinam, Daniel L Chao, Jesse V Jokerst
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive, high-resolution hybrid imaging modality that combines optical excitation and ultrasound detection. PAI can image endogenous chromophores (melanin, hemoglobin, etc.) and exogenous contrast agents in different medical applications. However, most current equipment uses sophisticated and complicated OPO lasers with tuning and stability features inconsistent with broad clinical deployment. As the number of applications of PAI in medicine increases, there is an urgent need to make the imaging equipment more compact, portable, and affordable...
March 2018: Photoacoustics
Payvand Taherparvar, Alireza Sadremomtaz
GATE is currently considered in scintigraphic imaging as a powerful tool to develop, design and optimize nuclear medicine modalities. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a pixelated gamma camera which is dedicated to high resolution of small animals imaging. It consists of a CsI(Na) crystal array coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The simulation model includes photon tracking through low energy high resolution hexagonal parallel holes collimator, CsI(Na) pixelated crystal, back-compartment, and camera shielding...
March 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Jeffrey A Ketterling, Orlando Aristizábal, Billy Y S Yiu, Daniel H Turnbull, Colin K L Phoon, Alfred C H Yu, Ronald H Silverman
Real-time imaging of the embryonic murine cardiovascular system is challenging due to the small size of the mouse embryo and rapid heart rate. High-frequency, linear-array ultrasound systems designed for small-animal imaging provide high-frame-rate and Doppler modes but are limited in regards to the field of view that can be imaged at fine-temporal and -spatial resolution. Here, a plane-wave imaging method was used to obtain high-speed image data from in utero mouse embryos and multi-angle, vector-flow algorithms were applied to the data to provide information on blood flow patterns in major organs...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joshua J Yim, Martina Tholen, Alwin Klaassen, Jonathan Sorger, Matthew Bogyo
Molecularly targeted optical contrast agents have the potential to enable surgeons to visualize specific molecular markers that can help improve surgical precision and thus outcomes. Fluorescently quenched substrates can be used to highlight tumor lesions by targeting proteases that are highly abundant in the tumor microenvironment. However, the majority of these and other molecularly targeted optical contrast agents are labeled with reporter dyes that are not ideally matched to the properties of clinical camera systems, which are typically optimized for detection of indocyanine-green (ICG)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Song Yeul Lee, Min Lin, Aeju Lee, Yong Il Park
Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles exhibit unique optical properties, such as a long luminescence lifetime (up to several milliseconds), sharp emission peaks, and upconversion luminescence over the range of wavelengths from near-infrared to visible. Exploiting these optical properties, lanthanide-doped nanoparticles have been widely utilized for cellular and small animal imaging with the absence of background autofluorescence. In addition, these nanoparticles have advantages of high signal-to-noise ratio for highly sensitive and selective diagnostic detection...
November 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
Y Y Liu, C Wang, P F Luo, Z F Xia
Objective: To establish 3-{4-[2-hydroxyl-(1-methylethylamino) propoxy] phenyl} propionic acid cetylesters (PAC) modified nanoparticles, and preliminarily explore its cardiomyocyte-targeting function and protection effects on myocardium. Methods: (1) HL-1 myocardial cells were divided into cyanidin-3 (Cy3) marked non-targeted small interference RNA (Cy3-siNC) group and Cy3 marked small interference RNA designed for the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65 gene (Cy3-si435) group according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Kathyayini Sivasubramanian, Vijitha Periyasamy, Manojit Pramanik
Translation of photoacoustic imaging into the clinic is a major challenge. Handheld real-time clinical photoacoustic imaging systems are very rare. Here, we report a combined photoacoustic and clinical ultrasound imaging system by integrating an ultrasound probe with light delivery for small animal imaging. We demonstrate this by showing sentinel lymph node imaging in small animals along with minimally invasive real-time needle guidance. A clinical ultrasound platform with access to raw channel data allows the integration of photoacoustic imaging leading to a handheld real-time clinical photoacoustic imaging system...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lili Zhao, Jiehui Jiang, Yuexia Shu, Zhuangzhi Yan, Xin Liu
Cone-beam X-ray luminescence optical tomography (CB-XLOT) plays an important role in in vivo small animal imaging study, which can non-invasively image the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of x-ray-excitable nanophosphors deeply embedded in imaged object. However, CB-XLOT suffers from a low spatial resolution due to the ill-posed nature of optical reconstruction. To alleviate the ill-posedness of reconstruction and improve the imaging performance of XLOT, in this paper, we propose an iterative weighted L1 minimization method which is achieved by incorporating YALL1 (Your algorithm for L1 norm problems)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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