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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192280/iterative-reconstruction-of-sipm-light-response-functions-in-a-square-shaped-compact-gamma-camera
#1
Andrey Morozov, Francisco Alves, Joao Marcos, Raimundo Martins, Luis Pereira, Vladimir Solovov, Vitaly Chepel
Compact gamma cameras with a square-shaped monolithic scintillator crystal and an array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are actively being developed for applications in areas such as small animal imaging, cancer diagnostics and radiotracer guided surgery. Statistical methods of position reconstruction, which are potentially superior to the traditional centroid method, require accurate knowledge of the spatial response of each photomultiplier. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data obtained with a camera prototype, we show that the spatial response of all photomultipliers (light response functions) can be parameterized with axially symmetric functions obtained iteratively from flood field irradiation data...
February 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190474/salvianolic-acid-a-inhibits-calpain-activation-and-enos-uncoupling-during-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#2
Qaisar Mahmood, Guang-Fa Wang, Gang Wu, Huan Wang, Chang-Xin Zhou, Hong-Yu Yang, Zhi-Rong Liu, Feng Han, Kui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is obtained from Chinese herb Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge (Labiatae), has been reported to have the protective effects against cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the effectiveness of SAA against neurovascular injury and its effects on calpain activation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling. STUDY DESIGN: SAA or vehicle was given to C57BL/6 male mice for seven days before the occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60min...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164865/the-correction-of-time-and-temperature-effects-in-mr-based-3d-fricke-xylenol-orange-dosimetry
#3
Mattea L Welch, David Jaffray
<b>Purpose:</b> MR-based three-dimensional (3D) Fricke-xylenol orange (FXG) dosimeters can provide end-to-end quality assurance and validation protocols for pre-clinical radiation platforms. FXG dosimeters quantify ionizing irradiation using pre- and post-irradiation MR imaging methods that detect changes in spin-lattice relaxation rates (R<sub>1</sub> = T<sub>1</sub><sup>-1</sup>) caused by irradiation induced oxidation of Fe<sup>2+</sup>. Chemical changes in MR-based FXG dosimeters that occur over time and with changes in temperature can decrease dosimetric accuracy if they are not properly characterized and corrected...
February 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164461/flexible-polygon-mirror-based-laser-scanning-microscope-platform-for-multiphoton-in-vivo-imaging
#4
Y X Li, V Gautam, A Brüstle, I A Cockburn, V R Daria, C Gillespie, K Gaus, C Alt, W M Lee
Commercial microscopy systems make use of tandem scanning i.e. either slow or fast scanning. We constructed, for the first time, an advanced control system capable of delivering a dynamic line scanning speed ranging from 2.7 kHz to 27 kHz and achieve variable frame rates from 5 Hz to 50 Hz (512 × 512). The dynamic scanning ability is digitally controlled by a new customized open-source software named PScan1.0. This permits manipulation of scanning rates either to gain higher fluorescence signal at slow frame rate without increasing laser power or increase frame rates to capture high speed events...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146513/spatial-convolution-for-mirror-image-suppression-in-fourier-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
Miao Zhang, Lixin Ma, Ping Yu
We developed a spatial convolution approach for mirror image suppression in phase-modulated Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, and demonstrated it in vivo for small animal imaging. Utilizing the correlation among neighboring A-scans, the mirror image suppression process was simplified to a three-parameter convolution. By adjusting the three parameters, we can implement different Fourier domain sideband windows, which is important but complicated in existing approaches. By properly selecting the window size, we validated the spatial convolution approach on both simulated and experimental data, and showed that it is versatile, fast, and effective...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097211/new-generation-small-animal-positron-emission-tomography-system-for-molecular-imaging
#6
Shiva Abbaszadeh, Craig S Levin
The next generation of discoveries in molecular imaging requires positron emission tomography (PET) systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity to visualize and quantify low concentrations of molecular probes. The goal of this work is to assemble and explore such a system. We use cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) to achieve high spatial resolution, three-dimensional interaction positioning, and excellent energy resolution. The CZT crystals are arranged in an edge-on configuration with a minimum gap of [Formula: see text] in a four-sided panel geometry to achieve superior photon sensitivity...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048528/we-h-206-01-photoacoustic-tomography-multiscale-imaging-from-organelles-to-patients-by-ultrasonically-beating-the-optical-diffusion-limit
#7
L Wang
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048410/su-f-t-682-in-vivo-simulation-of-the-relative-biological-effectiveness-in-proton-therapy-using-a-monte-carlo-method
#8
H Oesten, S Loeck, S Helmbrecht, F Tillner, P Wohlfahrt, J Schuemann, A Luehr
PURPOSE: In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) - compared with conventional photon therapy - is routinely set to 1.1. However, experimental in vitro studies indicate evidence for the variability of the RBE. To clarify the impact on patient treatment, investigation of the RBE in a preclinical case study should be performed. METHODS: The Monte Carlo software TOPAS was used to simulate the radiation field of an irradiation setup at the experimental beamline of the proton therapy facility (OncoRay) in Dresden, Germany...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047869/we-h-206-02-recent-advances-in-multi-modality-molecular-imaging-of-small-animals
#9
B Tsui
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047205/we-h-206-03-promises-and-challenges-of-benchtop-x-ray-fluorescence-ct-xfct-for-quantitative-in-vivo-imaging
#10
S Cho
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046461/we-h-206-00-advances-in-preclinical-imaging
#11
Patrick La Riviere
Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998187/small-animal-image-guided-radiotherapy
#12
Kevin M Prise, Frank Verhaegen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958376/high-resolution-short-exposure-small-animal-laboratory-x-ray-phase-contrast-tomography
#13
Daniel H Larsson, William Vågberg, Andre Yaroshenko, Ali Önder Yildirim, Hans M Hertz
X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897087/nuclear-imaging-of-thrombosis-in-small-animal
#14
Marie-Cécile Valéra, Bernard Payrastre, Olivier Lairez
Thromboembolic disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The progress in noninvasive imaging techniques has led to the development of radionuclide imaging based on SPECT and PET approaches to observe molecular and cellular processes that may underlie the onset and progression of disease. The advantages of using normal and genetically modified small animal research have spurred the development of dedicated small animal imaging systems. Animal models of venous and arterial thrombosis are largely used and have improved our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of thrombosis...
November 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842504/epcam-as-multi-tumour-target-for-near-infrared-fluorescence-guided-surgery
#15
P B A A van Driel, M C Boonstra, H A J M Prevoo, M van de Giessen, T J A Snoeks, Q R J G Tummers, S Keereweer, R A Cordfunke, A Fish, J D H van Eendenburg, B P F Lelieveldt, J Dijkstra, C J H van de Velde, P J K Kuppen, A L Vahrmeijer, C W G M Löwik, C F M Sier
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of resection margins during cancer surgery can be challenging, often resulting in incomplete tumour removal. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) aims to aid the surgeon to visualize tumours and resection margins during surgery. FGS relies on a clinically applicable imaging system in combination with a specific tumour-targeting contrast agent. In this study EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) is evaluated as target for FGS in combination with the novel Artemis imaging system...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826982/development-of-a-dynamic-phantom-and-investigation-of-mobile-target-imaging-and-irradiation-in-preclinical-small-animal-research
#16
Anne-Marie Frelin-Labalme, Vincent Beaudouin
OBJECTIVE: Progress made in preclinical radiotherapy makes respiratory gating reachable. Nevertheless, technical means are still needed, as well as accurate investigations of the effect of motion on small animal treatment plans. METHODS: An animal-scaled dynamic phantom (0.3-11.1-mm motion peak-to-peak amplitude, 30-120 cycles per minute) was developed and characterized. It was used to evaluate respiratory monitoring and high resolution imaging (μPET/CT scans)...
January 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821346/radiolabeling-and-biological-characterization-of-tpgs-based-nanomicelles-by-means-of-small-animal-imaging
#17
Fiorella Carla Tesan, Mariano Gastón Portillo, Marcela Analía Moretton, Ezequiel Bernabeu, Diego Andrés Chiappetta, Maria Jimena Salgueiro, Marcela Beatriz Zubillaga
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, nanomedicines have raised as a powerful tool to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of different pathologies. Among the most well investigated biomaterials, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (also known as TPGS) has been on the spot for the last decade. We therefore designed a method to biologically characterize TPGS-based nanomicelles by labeling them with (99m)Tc. METHODS: Labeling process was performed by a direct method...
January 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809405/pulmonary-perfusion-quantification-with-flow-sensitive-inversion-recovery-fair-ute-mri-in-small-animal-imaging
#18
Marta Tibiletti, Andrea Bianchi, Detlef Stiller, Volker Rasche
Blood perfusion in lung parenchyma is an important property for assessing lung function. In small animals, its quantitation is limited even with radioactive isotopes or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI techniques. In this study, the feasibility flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) for the quantification of blood flow in lung parenchyma in free breathing rats at 7 T has been investigated. In order to obtain sufficient signal from the short T2 * lung parenchyma, a 2D ultra-short echo time (UTE) Look-Locker read-out has been implemented...
November 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779702/extract-of-caulis-spatholobi-a-novel-blocker-targeting-tumor-cell%C3%A2-induced-platelet-aggregation-inhibits-breast-cancer-metastasis
#19
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
December 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738785/guidance-for-efficient-small-animal-imaging-quality-control
#20
Dustin R Osborne, Claudia Kuntner, Stuart Berr, David Stout
Routine quality control is a critical aspect of properly maintaining high-performance small animal imaging instrumentation. A robust quality control program helps produce more reliable data both for academic purposes and as proof of system performance for contract imaging work. For preclinical imaging laboratories, the combination of costs and available resources often limits their ability to produce efficient and effective quality control programs. This work presents a series of simplified quality control procedures that are accessible to a wide range of preclinical imaging laboratories...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
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