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"small animal imaging"

Marie-Cécile Valéra, Bernard Payrastre, Olivier Lairez
Thromboembolic disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The progress in noninvasive imaging techniques has led to the development of radionuclide imaging based on SPECT and PET approaches to observe molecular and cellular processes that may underlie the onset and progression of disease. The advantages of using normal and genetically modified small animal research have spurred the development of dedicated small animal imaging systems. Animal models of venous and arterial thrombosis are largely used and have improved our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of thrombosis...
November 29, 2016: Platelets
P B A A van Driel, M C Boonstra, H A J M Prevoo, M van de Giessen, T J A Snoeks, Q R J G Tummers, S Keereweer, R A Cordfunke, A Fish, J D H van Eendenburg, B P F Lelieveldt, J Dijkstra, C J H van de Velde, P J K Kuppen, A L Vahrmeijer, C W G M Löwik, C F M Sier
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of resection margins during cancer surgery can be challenging, often resulting in incomplete tumour removal. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) aims to aid the surgeon to visualize tumours and resection margins during surgery. FGS relies on a clinically applicable imaging system in combination with a specific tumour-targeting contrast agent. In this study EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) is evaluated as target for FGS in combination with the novel Artemis imaging system...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
Anne-Marie Frelin-Labalme, Vincent Beaudouin
OBJECTIVES: Progress made in preclinical radiotherapy makes respiratory gating reachable. Nevertheless, technical means are still needed as well as accurate investigations of the effect of motion on small-animal treatment plans. METHODS: An animal-scaled dynamic phantom (0.3-11.1 mm motion peak-to-peak amplitude, 30-120 cycles per minute) was developed and characterized. It was used to evaluate respiratory monitoring and µPET/CT scans. The width and position variations of an (18)F solution were measured for various motions and gating configurations...
November 9, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Fiorella Carla Tesan, Mariano Gastón Portillo, Marcela Analía Moretton, Ezequiel Bernabeu, Diego Andrés Chiappetta, Maria Jimena Salgueiro, Marcela Beatriz Zubillaga
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, nanomedicines have raised as a powerful tool to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of different pathologies. Among the most well investigated biomaterials, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (also known as TPGS) has been on the spot for the last decade. We therefore designed a method to biologically characterize TPGS-based nanomicelles by labeling them with (99m)Tc. METHODS: Labeling process was performed by a direct method...
September 30, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Marta Tibiletti, Andrea Bianchi, Detlef Stiller, Volker Rasche
Blood perfusion in lung parenchyma is an important property for assessing lung function. In small animals, its quantitation is limited even with radioactive isotopes or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI techniques. In this study, the feasibility flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) for the quantification of blood flow in lung parenchyma in free breathing rats at 7 T has been investigated. In order to obtain sufficient signal from the short T2 * lung parenchyma, a 2D ultra-short echo time (UTE) Look-Locker read-out has been implemented...
November 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Dustin R Osborne, Claudia Kuntner, Stuart Berr, David Stout
Routine quality control is a critical aspect of properly maintaining high-performance small animal imaging instrumentation. A robust quality control program helps produce more reliable data both for academic purposes and as proof of system performance for contract imaging work. For preclinical imaging laboratories, the combination of costs and available resources often limits their ability to produce efficient and effective quality control programs. This work presents a series of simplified quality control procedures that are accessible to a wide range of preclinical imaging laboratories...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Pei-Cheng Lin, Jun-Yan He, Yu-Yin Le, Kai-Xin Du, Wei-Feng Zhu, Qing-Qin Peng, Ya-Ping Dong, Jin-Luan Li, Jun-Xin Wu
Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the HVGGSSV peptide, exploring radiation-guided delivery in a mouse model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods. Mice with CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma were assigned to two different groups treated with Cy7-NHS and Cy7-HVGGSSV, respectively. Meanwhile, each mouse received a single dose of 3 Gy radiation. Biological distribution of the recombinant peptide was assessed on an in vivo small animal imaging system. Results. The experimental group showed maximum fluorescence intensity in irradiated tumors treated with Cy7-labeled HVGGSSV, while untreated (0 Gy) control tumors showed lower intensity levels...
2016: BioMed Research International
Cherif Akladios, Mihaela Ignat, Didier Mutter, Marc Aprahamian
BACKGROUND: The 3Rs guideline is the gold standard for ethics in animal experimentation. Two of those rules, namely refinement and reduction, require further improvement. The objective of this study was to define pathways to better compliance with these prerequisites. Two methods which move us in this direction are: (1) using small animal imaging techniques for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) follow-up and (2) reduction of the number of control animals included in a study of PDAC progression under treatment...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Helena Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Despina Kokona, Sebastian Wolf, Andreas Ebneter, Martin S Zinkernagel
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) allows noninvasive visualization of retinal vessels in vivo. OCT-A was used to characterize the vascular network of the mouse retina and was compared with fluorescein angiography (FA) and histology. METHODS: In the present study, OCT-A based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system was used to investigate the vascular network in mice. Data was compared with FA and confocal microscopy of flat-mount histology stained with isolectin IB4...
August 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Coralie Le Deroff, Anne-Marie Frelin-Labalme, Xavier Ledoux
OBJECTIVES: Small animal image guided irradiators have recently been developed to mimic the delivery techniques of clinical radiotherapy. A dosimeter adapted to millimetric beams of medium energy X-rays is then required. This work presents the characterization of a dosimeter prototype for this particular application. METHODS: A scintillating optical fiber dosimeter (called DosiRat) has been implemented to perform real-time dose measurements with the dedicated small animal X-Rad 225Cx irradiator...
August 24, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Tiffany C Kwong, Mitchell Hsing, Yuting Lin, David Thayer, Mehmet Burcin Unlu, Min-Ying Su, Gultekin Gulsen
Insight into the vasculature of the tumor in small animals has the potential to impact many areas of cancer research. The heterogeneity of the vasculature of a tumor is directly related to tumor stage and disease progression. In this small scale animal study, we investigated the feasibility of differentiating tumors with different levels of vasculature heterogeneity in vivo using a previously developed hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system for small animal imaging...
July 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Mark A Hill, Borivoj Vojnovic
Image-guided small animal irradiators have the potential to make a significant impact on facilitating the translation of radiobiological research into the clinic. To fully exploit the improved precision in dose delivery to the target/tumour while minimising dose to surrounding tissues, minimal positional error in the target is required. However, for many sites within the thorax and abdomen, respiratory motion may be a critical factor in limiting accuracy of beam delivery and until now, very little attention has been paid to the impact and management of this motion...
July 7, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Jorge Cabello, Sibylle I Ziegler
The combination of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has attracted the attention of researchers in the last approximately 20 years in small animal imaging, and more recently in clinical research. The combination of PET/MRI allows researchers to explore clinical and research questions in a wide number of fields, some of which are briefly mentioned here. An important number of groups have developed different concepts to tackle the problems that PET instrumentation poses to the exposition of electromagnetic fields...
July 4, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Qi Li, Yajie Wang, Hongbin Xiao, Yujie Li, Xiaoxi Kan, Xiaomin Wang, Ganlin Zhang, Zhixin Wang, Qing Yang, Xi Chen, Xiaogang Weng, Ying Chen, Bingbing Zhou, Yan Guo, Xucen Liu, Xiaoxin Zhu
Metastasis is the leading lethal factor severely restraining the effectiveness of clinical treatment. TGF-beta is the key regulator for metastasis and influences paradoxically on cancer progression. The known TGF-beta blockers exert little selectivity on its functions, indiscriminately causing the anti-metastatic and pro-growth effects. Under such circumstances, specifically rebalancing the oncological function of TGF-beta provides a crucial oncotarget against metastasis. In our study, we established the screening platform targeting cell motility and identified a potential flavonoid, Chamaejasmenin B (ICJ), extracted from Stellera chamaejasme L...
June 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Jingfei Liu, Josquin Foiret, Douglas N Stephens, Olivier Le Baron, Katherine W Ferrara
A 1.5 MHz prolate spheroidal therapeutic array with 128 circular elements was designed to accommodate standard imaging arrays for ultrasonic image-guided hyperthermia. The implementation of this dual-array system integrates real-time therapeutic and imaging functions with a single ultrasound system (Vantage 256, Verasonics). To facilitate applications involving small animal imaging and therapy the array was designed to have a beam depth of field smaller than 3.5 mm and to electronically steer over distances greater than 1 cm in both the axial and lateral directions...
July 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ayelet Akselrod-Ballin, Hagit Dafni, Yoseph Addadi, Inbal Biton, Reut Avni, Yafit Brenner, Michal Neeman
Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Scott C Davis, Kenneth M Tichauer
Diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) has been developed to image the spatial distribution of fluorescence-tagged tracers in living tissue. This capability facilitates the recovery of any number of functional parameters, including enzymatic activity, receptor density, blood flow, and gene expression. However, deploying DFT effectively is complex and often requires years of know-how, especially for newer mutlimodal systems that combine DFT with conventional imaging systems. In this chapter, we step through the process of using MRI-DFT imaging of a receptor-targeted tracer in small animals...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Weizhou Hou, Steve H Thorne
The capacity to combine noninvasive whole animal imaging of genetic reporters and exogenously added probes in a single animal makes fluorescence imaging a powerful tool for investigating molecular events in live animals in preclinical research. However, the adsorption and diffraction properties of light passing through tissues mean that the choice of reporters, models, and imaging systems needs to be carefully considered. Here, we describe approaches to design and run experiments incorporating noninvasive whole animal fluorescence imaging into small animal imaging studies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jakob C Larsson, Ulf Lundström, Hans M Hertz
PURPOSE: High-spatial-resolution x-ray imaging in the few-ten-keV range is becoming increasingly important in several applications, such as small-animal imaging and phase-contrast imaging. The detector properties critically influence the quality of such imaging. Here the authors present a quantitative comparison of scintillator-based detectors for this energy range and at high spatial frequencies. METHODS: The authors determine the modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency for Gadox, needle CsI, and structured CsI scintillators of different thicknesses and at different photon energies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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