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"preclinical imaging"

Francesca Iommelli, Viviana DE Rosa, Cristina Terlizzi, Silvana Del Vecchio
Preclinical imaging with radiolabeled probes became an integral part of the complex translational process that moves a newly developed compound from laboratory to clinical application. Imaging studies in animal tumor models may be undertaken to test a newly synthesized tracer, a newly developed drug or to interrogate, in the living organism, specific molecular and biological processes underlying tumor growth and progression. The present review will try to delineate the current status and future perspectives of preclinical imaging in oncology by providing examples from recent literature...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Giancarlo Vesce, Fabiana Micieli, Ludovica Chiavaccini
Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Adelaide Greco, Sandra Albanese, Luigi Auletta, Flavia De Carlo, Marco Salvatore, Candace M Howard, Pier P Claudio
Several advances have been made toward understanding the biology of cancer and most of them are due to robust genetic studies that led to the scientific recognition that although many patients have the same type of cancer their tumors may have harbored different molecular alterations. Personalized therapy and the development of advanced techniques of preclinical imaging and new murine models of disease are emerging concepts that are allowing mapping of disease markers in vivo and in some cases also receptor targeted therapy...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christopher G England, Lixin Rui, Weibo Cai
Lymphoma is a complex disease that arises from cells of the immune system with an intricate pathology. While lymphoma may be classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin, each type of tumor is genetically and phenotypically different and highly invasive tissue biopsies are the only method to investigate these differences. Noninvasive imaging strategies, such as immunoPET, can provide a vital insight into disease staging, monitoring treatment response in patients, and dose planning in radioimmunotherapy. ImmunoPET imaging with radiolabeled antibody-based tracers may also assist physicians in optimizing treatment strategies and enhancing patient stratification...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mikael Palner, Corinne Beinat, Sam Banister, Francesca Zanderigo, Jun Hyung Park, Bin Shen, Trine Hjoernevik, Jae Ho Jung, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim, Lawrence Fung, Frederick T Chin
BACKGROUND: The availability of GABAA receptor binding sites in the brain can be assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) using the radioligand, [(18)F]flumazenil. However, the brain uptake and binding of this PET radioligand are influenced by anesthetic drugs, which are typically needed in preclinical imaging studies and clinical imaging studies involving patient populations that do not tolerate relatively longer scan times. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of anesthesia on the binding of [(18)F]flumazenil to GABAA receptors in mice...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Stephan Wilke, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Steffen Fischer, Marianne Patt, Andreas Schildan, Jörg Patt, René Smits, Alexander Hoepping, Jörg Steinbach, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust
BACKGROUND: Both enantiomers of [(18)F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+)-[(18)F]flubatine compared to (-)-[(18)F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+)-[(18)F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (-)-[(18)F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Dustin R Osborne, Claudia Kuntner, Stuart Berr, David Stout
Routine quality control is a critical aspect of properly maintaining high-performance small animal imaging instrumentation. A robust quality control program helps produce more reliable data both for academic purposes and as proof of system performance for contract imaging work. For preclinical imaging laboratories, the combination of costs and available resources often limits their ability to produce efficient and effective quality control programs. This work presents a series of simplified quality control procedures that are accessible to a wide range of preclinical imaging laboratories...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Maria Georgiou, Eleftherios Fysikopoulos, Konstantinos Mikropoulos, Eirini Fragogeorgi, George Loudos
PURPOSE: Several preclinical imaging systems are commercially available, but their purchase and maintenance costs make them unaffordable for the majority of small- and medium-sized groups. Taking into account the needs of average users, we developed "γ-eye", a mouse-sized, benchtop γ-camera suitable for in vivo scintigraphic imaging. PROCEDURES: The γ-eye is based on two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, coupled to a CsI(Na) pixelated scintillator and a low-energy lead collimator with parallel hexagonal holes...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Christoph Tondera, Sandra Hauser, Anne Krüger-Genge, Friedrich Jung, Axel T Neffe, Andreas Lendlein, Robert Klopfleisch, Jörg Steinbach, Christin Neuber, Jens Pietzsch
Hydrogels based on gelatin have evolved as promising multifunctional biomaterials. Gelatin is crosslinked with lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester (LDI) and the molar ratio of gelatin and LDI in the starting material mixture determines elastic properties of the resulting hydrogel. In order to investigate the clinical potential of these biopolymers, hydrogels with different ratios of gelatin and diisocyanate (3-fold (G10_LNCO3) and 8-fold (G10_LNCO8) molar excess of isocyanate groups) were subcutaneously implanted in mice (uni- or bilateral implantation)...
2016: Theranostics
Lotte E J R Schyns, Isabel P Almeida, Stefan J van Hoof, Benedicte Descamps, Christian Vanhove, Guillaume Landry, Patrick V Granton, Frank Verhaegen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to investigate if quantitative dual energy CT (DECT) imaging is feasible for small animal irradiators with an integrated cone beam CT (CBCT) system. METHODS: The optimal imaging protocols were determined by analyzing different energy combinations and dose levels. The influence of beam hardening effects and the performance of a beam hardening correction were investigated. In addition, two systems from different manufacturers were compared in terms of errors in the extracted effective atomic numbers ([Formula: see text]) and relative electron densities ([Formula: see text]) for phantom inserts with known elemental compositions and relative electron densities...
September 28, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Claire Provost, Aurélie Prignon, Alex Cazes, Valérie Combaret, Olivier Delattre, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Françoise Montravers, Jean-Noël Talbot
BACKGROUND/AIM: Somatostatine receptors subtype 2 (SSTR2) are regarded as a potential target in neuroblastoma (NB) for imaging and promising therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the SSTR2 status by (68)Ga-[tetraxetan-D-Phe1, Tyr3]-octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTATOC) positron-emission tomography (PET) and the tumour metabolic activity by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in different experimental models of NB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three cell lines of human NB with different levels of expression of SSTR2 were grafted into nude mice...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Mustafa Diken, Stefanie Pektor, Matthias Miederer
Preclinical imaging has become a powerful method for investigation of in vivo processes such as pharmacokinetics of therapeutic substances and visualization of physiologic and pathophysiological mechanisms. These are important aspects to understand diseases and develop strategies to modify their progression with pharmacologic interventions. One promising intervention is the application of specifically tailored nanoscale particles that modulate the immune system to generate a tumor targeting immune response...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Xenios Milidonis, Ross J Lennen, Maurits A Jansen, Susanne Mueller, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, William M Holmes, Emily S Sena, Malcolm R Macleod, Ian Marshall
It has recently been suggested that multicenter preclinical stroke studies should be carried out to improve translation from bench to bedside, but the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners routinely used in experimental stroke has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to assess and compare geometric accuracy of preclinical scanners and examine the longitudinal stability of one scanner using a simple quality assurance (QA) protocol. Six 7 Tesla animal scanners across six different preclinical imaging centers throughout Europe were used to scan a small structural phantom and estimate linear scaling errors in all orthogonal directions and volumetric errors...
2016: PloS One
Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Nathanael Wüst, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Marianne Patt, Philipp M Meyer, Steffen Fischer, Cornelius K Donat, Bernhard Wünsch, Swen Hesse, Jörg Steinbach, Peter Brust, Osama Sabri
The enantiomers of [(18)F]fluspidine, recently developed for imaging of σ₁ receptors, possess distinct pharmacokinetics facilitating their use in different clinical settings. To support their translational potential, we estimated the human radiation dose of (S)-(-)-[(18)F]fluspidine and (R)-(+)-[(18)F]fluspidine from ex vivo biodistribution and PET/MRI data in mice after extrapolation to the human scale. In addition, we validated the preclinical results by performing a first-in-human PET/CT study using (S)-(-)-[(18)F]fluspidine...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Emiri T Mandeville, Cenk Ayata, Yi Zheng, Joseph B Mandeville
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a critical clinical tool for diagnosing focal ischemic stroke severity, staging treatment, and predicting outcome. Imaging during the acute phase focuses on tissue viability in the stroke vicinity, while imaging during recovery requires the evaluation of distributed structural and functional connectivity. Preclinical MRI of experimental stroke models provides validation of non-invasive biomarkers in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms, while also providing a translational platform for evaluation of prospective therapies...
August 31, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Karl T Butterworth, Mihaela Ghita, Stephen J McMahon, Conor K Garry, Robert J Griffin, Alan R Hounsell, Kevin M Prise
OBJECTIVES: Radiotherapy is planned to achieve the optimal physical dose distribution to the target tumour volume whilst minimising dose to the surrounding normal tissue. Recent in vitro experimental evidence has demonstrated an important role for intercellular communication in radiobiological responses following non-uniform exposures. This study aimed to model the impact of these effects in the context of techniques involving highly modulated radiation fields or spatially fractionated treatments such as GRID therapy...
August 24, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Troels Juul, Fredrik Palm, Per Mose Nielsen, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Christoffer Laustsen
PURPOSE: It has been demonstrated that hyperpolarized (13) C MR is a useful tool to study cultured cells. However, cells in culture can alter phenotype, which raises concerns regarding the in vivo significance of such findings. Here we investigate if metabolic phenotyping using hyperpolarized (13) C MR is suitable for cells isolated from kidney tissue, without prior cell culture. METHODS: Isolation of tubular cells from freshly excised kidney tissue and treatment with either ouabain or antimycin A was investigated with hyperpolarized MR spectroscopy on a 9...
August 16, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Dawei Jiang, Christopher G England, Weibo Cai
Besides being the carrier of genetic information, DNA is also an excellent biological organizer to establish well-designed nanostructures in the fields of material engineering, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. DNA-based materials represent a diverse nanoscale system primarily due to their predictable base pairing and highly regulated conformations, which greatly facilitate the construction of DNA nanostructures with distinct shapes and sizes. Integrating the emerging advancements in bioconjugation techniques, DNA nanostructures can be readily functionalized with high precision for many purposes ranging from biosensors to imaging to drug delivery...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Samuel Calderwood, Thomas Lee Collier, Véronique Gouverneur, Steven H Liang, Neil Vasdev
Spirocyclic hypervalent iodine(III) ylides have proven to be synthetically versatile precursors for efficient radiolabelling of a diverse range of non-activated (hetero)arenes, highly functionalised small molecules, building blocks and radiopharmaceuticals from [(18)F]fluoride ion. Herein, we report the implementation of these reactions onto a continuous-flow microfluidic platform, thereby offering an alterative and automated synthetic procedure of a radiopharmaceutical, 3-[(18)F]fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([(18)F]FPEB) and a routinely used building block for click-radiochemistry, 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzyl azide...
October 2015: Journal of Fluorine Chemistry
Tom Anderson
Imaging phantoms play a valuable role in quality control and quality assurance of medical imaging systems. However, for use in the relatively new field of small-animal preclinical imaging, only a very few have been described in the literature, and even less or none at all are available commercially. Yet, preclinical small animal phantoms offer the possibility of reducing the need for live animals for test and measurement purposes. Human scale cardiac phantoms, both reported in the literature and available commercially, are typically complex devices...
July 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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