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SGLT-2 Inhibitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934557/a-safety-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#1
Baptist Gallwitz
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are oral antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic parameters and possess a very low intrinsic hypoglycemia risk and favorable cardiovascular data. Areas covered: An overview on the clinical studies investigating the combination therapy with the DPP-4i linagliptin and the SGLT-2i empagliflozin is given. The clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of free combinations as well as for their fixed dose combinations is presented...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894748/new-antihyperglycemic-drugs-and-heart-failure-synopsis-of-basic-and-clinical-data
#2
REVIEW
Dirk von Lewinski, Ewald Kolesnik, Markus Wallner, Michael Resl, Harald Sourij
The assessment of the cardiovascular safety profile of any newly developed antihyperglycemic drug is mandatory before registration, as a meta-analysis raised alarm describing a significant increase in myocardial infarction with the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone. The first results from completed cardiovascular outcome trials are already available: TECOS, SAVOR-TIMI, and EXAMINE investigated dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, ELIXA, LEADER, and SUSTAIN-6 investigated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and EMPA-REG OUTCOME and CANVAS investigated sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872070/hydrogen-bonded-structures-and-interaction-energies-in-two-forms-of-the-sglt-2-inhibitor-sotagliflozin
#3
Thomas Gelbrich, Verena Adamer, Marijan Stefinovic, Andrea Thaler, Ulrich J Griesser
The sotagliflozin molecule exhibits two fundamentally different molecular conformations in form 1 {systematic name: (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]-6-(methylsulfanyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol, C21H25ClO5S, (I)} and the monohydrate [C21H25ClO5S·H2O, (II)]. Both crystals display hydrogen-bonded layers formed by intermolecular interactions which involve the three -OH groups of the xyloside fragment of the molecule. The layer architectures of (I) and (II) contain a non-hydrogen-bonded molecule-molecule interaction along the short crystallographic axis (a axis) whose total PIXEL energy exceeds that of each hydrogen-bonded molecule-molecule pair...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871349/recent-insights-into-pharmacologic-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Scott L Purga, Mandeep Sidhu, Michael Farkouh, Joshua Schulman-Marcus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects nearly 30 million Americans and carries an increased risk of macrovascular complications of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. While aggressive cardiovascular risk factor reduction has long been advocated in patients with diabetes, clinical trials have only recently demonstrated that such reductions result in improved outcomes. This review discusses recent evidence for risk reduction strategies and therapies with a focus on the management of glycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840014/cardiovascular-benefits-of-the-newer-medications-for-treating-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Srikanth Yandrapalli, Wilbert S Aronow
Diabetes mellitus is growing in pandemic proportions and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common, accounting for about 90-95% of diagnosed diabetes in United States adults. Individuals with T2DM have a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with their non-diabetic counterparts, and CV mortality is responsible for around 80% of the mortality in T2DM. Emerging evidence suggest that in T2DM patients, hyperglycemia plays a little role in the progression of CV disease, and metabolic risk factors like insulin resistance, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia are the major culprits in the initiation and progression of CV disease...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827404/acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-on-sglt2-inhibitors-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#6
Girish N Nadkarni, Rocco Ferrandino, Alexander Chang, Aditya Surapaneni, Kinsuk Chauhan, Priti Poojary, Aparna Saha, Bart Ferket, Morgan E Grams, Steven G Coca
OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are new medications that improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the Food and Drug Administration has issued alerts regarding increased acute kidney injury (AKI) risk with canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. We aimed to assess the real-world risk of AKI in new SGLT2 inhibitor users in two large health care utilization cohorts of patients with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used longitudinal data from the Mount Sinai chronic kidney disease registry and the Geisinger Health System cohort...
August 21, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822958/therapeutic-molecules-against-type-2-diabetes-what-we-have-and-what-are-we-expecting
#7
REVIEW
Ashwini Kumar, Sudhanshu Kumar Bharti, Awanish Kumar
World Health Organization (WHO) has identified diabetes as one of the fastest growing non-communicable diseases with 422 million patients around the world in 2014. Diabetes, a metabolic disease, is characterized primarily by hyperglycemia which results in various macrovascular and microvascular complications like cardiovascular disease and neuropathies which can significantly deteriorate the quality of life. The body either does not manufactures enough insulin (type 1 diabetes or T1DM) or becomes insensitive to physiologically secreted insulin or both (type 2 diabetes or T2DM)...
April 9, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797524/systematic-review-of-metformin-monotherapy-and-dual-therapy-with-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-sglt-2-in-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Nagashekhara Molugulu, Lai Shu Yee, Yew Tze Ye, Tan Chew Khee, Lee Zhen Nie, Neoh Jia Yee, Tian Kar Yee, Tan Chee Liang, Prashant Kesharwani
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disorder and its treatment with only metformin often does not provide optimum glycemic control. Addition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2) will improve the glycemic control in patients on metformin alone. In this study, an attempt is made to investigate the combined therapy of SGLT-2 with metformin in managing T2DM in terms of lowering HbA1c and body weight and monotherapy using metformin alone in HbA1c and body weight reduction...
July 25, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794821/comparing-medication-adherence-and-persistence-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-using-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-or-sulfonylureas
#9
Kelly F Bell, Katherine Cappell, Michael Liang, Amanda M Kong
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with pharmacotherapy should be adherent to and persistent with their medications to experience glycemic control and prevent associated complications. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication adherence and persistence among patients with type 2 diabetes who are newly initiating a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor or a sulfonylurea. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study using the MarketScan claims databases...
June 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774208/moving-beyond-subcutaneous-insulin-the-application-of-adjunctive-therapies-to-the-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes
#10
Kathleen H Ang, Jennifer L Sherr
With the discovery of insulin nearly a century ago, the diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) transformed from a death sentence to a chronic medical condition. Despite the advances that have been made, the vast majority of those living with T1D still struggle to achieve targeted control. Yet, a plethora of agents have been developed to treat those with Type 2 Diabetes. Exploration of how these agents may benefit those with T1D has been an area of intense investigation, especially due to the overweight/obesity epidemic, which now afflicts more than 60% of those living with T1D...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771923/dapagliflozin-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-cvd-real-nordic-when-compared-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-therapy-a-multinational-observational-study
#11
Frederik Persson, Thomas Nyström, Marit E Jørgensen, Bendix Carstensen, Hanne L Gulseth, Marcus Thuresson, Peter Fenici, David Nathanson, Jan W Eriksson, Anna Norhammar, Johan Bodegard, Kåre I Birkeland
AIMS: To compare the sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor dapagliflozin with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors with regard to risk associations with major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE; non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular mortality), hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), atrial fibrillation and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a real-world setting. METHODS: All patients with T2D prescribed glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) during 2012 to 2015 were identified in nationwide registries in Denmark, Norway and Sweden...
August 3, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770629/ipragliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-reduces-intrahepatic-lipid-content-and-abdominal-visceral-fat-volume-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Akio Ohta, Hiroyuki Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Yosuke Sasaki, Yuta Nakamura, Tomoko Nakagawa, Yoshio Nagai, Yasushi Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: We recently investigated the effect of ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2I), in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes by a 24-week. SGLT-2Is also have an anti-obesity effect, and reduction of body fat has been demonstrated by indirect methods. However, evaluation of the effect on the total visceral fat volume and intrahepatic lipid content has not been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (SFV) and visceral fat volume (VFV) by whole abdominal CT scanning, the intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the fat mass index (FI) and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 patients from our previous study...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743130/sglt-2-inhibition-a-potential-new-treatment-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#13
Robert D Toto
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure. Treatments with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system have proven beneficial in slowing kidney disease progression among those with diabetes; their benefit is limited and they do not stop disease progression. Despite multiple clinical trials of various interventions including dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system over the past 15 years, no new therapies have emerged to slow kidney disease progression in diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of antiglycemic drugs that have been shown to lower blood glucose by inhibition of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730750/improving-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-glycaemic-outcomes-is-possible-without-spending-more-on-medication-lessons-from-the-uk-national-diabetes-audit
#14
Adrian H Heald, Mark Livingston, Nagaraj Malipatil, Michal Becher, Joyce Craig, Mike Stedman, Anthony A Fryer
OBJECTIVES: There is continuing discussion globally about how to optimise outcomes for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. In the UK, national (NICE) guidance was updated in 2016 (NG28). We aimed to determine the factors at a GP practice level that relate to glycaemic control outcome. METHODS: Data was accessed from 4,050 GP practices (GPP) (50% of total) covering 1.6 million T2DM patients in the UK National Diabetes Audit 2013-14 and 2014-15. This reported T2DM population characteristics, services and outcomes, including % total glycaemic control (TGC) (at 67...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708480/optimizing-diabetes-treatment-in-the-presence-of-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Mary Angelynne Esquivel, M Cecilia Lansang
Evidence of a neurophysiologic mechanism that involves hormones from adipocytes, pancreatic islet cells, and the gastrointestinal tract implicated in both obesity and diabetes has led to a search for drugs that not only either target obesity and diabetes or reduce hemoglobin A1c, but also have weight loss as a potential side effect. The authors review medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (including pramlintide, also approved for type 1 diabetes) that also have weight loss as a side effect...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677333/review-article-new-treatments-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
S A Townsend, P N Newsome
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the fastest growing cause of liver disease in the Western world, yet there is no approved pharmacotherapy. While lifestyle modifications remain the mainstay of treatment, only a proportion of individuals are able to make or sustain them, and so more treatment options are required. AIM: To review the potential benefit of drugs used in clinical practice, those entering phase II trials, and compounds being investigated in pre-clinical studies...
July 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667491/sglt-2-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-implications-for-the-kidneys
#17
REVIEW
Frederik H Verbrugge, Pieter Martens, Wilfried Mullens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the renal effects of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and their potential implications in heart failure pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients with diabetes and established atherosclerosis, the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin versus placebo significantly reduced the rate of heart failure admissions with 35%. Moreover, empagliflozin slowed kidney disease progression and reduced the need for renal replacement therapy...
August 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665967/effects-of-canagliflozin-on-weight-loss-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Wenjun Ji, Mei Zhao, Meng Wang, Wenhui Yan, Yuan Liu, Shuting Ren, Jun Lu, Bing Wang, Lina Chen
Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weight, liver weight, liver morphology, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656707/efficacy-and-safety-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-versus-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-as-monotherapy-or-add-on-to-metformin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Zhiying Wang, Jiahui Sun, Ruobing Han, Dongzhu Fan, Xinyi Dong, Zenghui Luan, Rongwu Xiang, Mingyi Zhao, Jingyu Yang
AIMS: To compare the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) as monotherapy or add-on to metformin (Met) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov sites were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy and safety of DPP-4is and SGLT-2is in patients with T2DM. Risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used to evaluate outcomes...
June 28, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647919/role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure
#20
REVIEW
Frederik H Verbrugge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of glucose-lowering drugs in diabetic patients, with a particular focus on the role of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and their promising potential as a heart failure treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has emerged as the first glucose-lowering drug to lower cardiovascular mortality in diabetes with an unprecedented 38% relative risk reduction...
August 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
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