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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899176/ecosystem-uptake-and-transfer-of-sellafield-derived-radiocarbon-14-c-part-2-the-west-of-scotland
#1
Kieran M Tierney, Graham K P Muir, Gordon T Cook, Gillian MacKinnon, John A Howe, Johanna J Heymans, David J Hughes, Sheng Xu
Ecosystem uptake and transfer of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon ((14)C) were examined within the West of Scotland marine environment. The dissolved inorganic carbon component of seawater, enriched in (14)C, is transported to the West of Scotland where it is transferred through the marine food web. Benthic and pelagic biota with variable life-spans living in the North Channel and Clyde Sea show comparable (14)C activities. This suggests that mixing of (14)C within the Irish Sea results in a relatively constant northwards dispersal of activity...
November 26, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870065/photoacclimatory-and-photoprotective-responses-to-cold-versus-heat-stress-in-high-latitude-reef-corals
#2
Stefanie Pontasch, Paul L Fisher, Thomas Krueger, Sophie Dove, William Leggat, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Simon K Davy
Corals at the world's southernmost coral reef of Lord Howe Island (LHI) experience large temperature and light fluctuations and need to deal with periods of cold temperature (< 18 °C), but few studies have investigated how corals are able to cope with these conditions. Our study characterized the response of key photophysiological parameters, as well as photoacclimatory and photoprotective pigments (chlorophylls, xanthophylls and β-carotene), to short-term (5-day) cold stress (~ 15 °C; 7 °C below control) in three LHI coral species hosting distinct Symbiodinium ITS2 types, and compared the coral-symbiont response to that under elevated temperature (~ 29 °C; 7 °C above control)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863789/comparative-analysis-of-radioactive-iodine-versus-thyroidectomy-for-definitive-treatment-of-graves-disease
#3
Vincent T Wu, Allison W Lorenzen, Anna C Beck, Vincent J Reid, Sonia L Sugg, James R Howe, Janet H Pollard, Geeta Lal, Ronald J Weigel
BACKGROUND: Management of Graves disease includes antithyroid drugs, (131)I therapy, or thyroidectomy. Our aim was to review our institutional experience with definitive treatments for Graves disease. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing (131)I therapy (n = 295) or thyroidectomy (n = 103) for Graves disease (2003-2015). Demographic, clinical, pathology, and outcome data were collected from institutional databases. RESULTS: (131)I therapy patients were older (39...
November 15, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855202/identification-of-the-core-set-of-carbon-associated-genes-in-a-bioenergy-grassland-soil
#4
Adina Howe, Fan Yang, Ryan J Williams, Folker Meyer, Kirsten S Hofmockel
Despite the central role of soil microbial communities in global carbon (C) cycling, little is known about soil microbial community structure and even less about their metabolic pathways. Efforts to characterize soil communities often focus on identifying differences in gene content across environmental gradients, but an alternative question is what genes are similar in soils. These genes may indicate critical species or potential functions that are required in all soils. Here we identified the "core" set of C cycling sequences widely present in multiple soil metagenomes from a fertilized prairie (FP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853542/electrical-output-of-bryophyte-microbial-fuel-cell-systems-is-sufficient-to-power-a-radio-or-an-environmental-sensor
#5
Paolo Bombelli, Ross J Dennis, Fabienne Felder, Matt B Cooper, Durgaprasad Madras Rajaraman Iyer, Jessica Royles, Susan T L Harrison, Alison G Smith, C Jill Harrison, Christopher J Howe
Plant microbial fuel cells are a recently developed technology that exploits photosynthesis in vascular plants by harnessing solar energy and generating electrical power. In this study, the model moss species Physcomitrella patens, and other environmental samples of mosses, have been used to develop a non-vascular bryophyte microbial fuel cell (bryoMFC). A novel three-dimensional anodic matrix was successfully created and characterized and was further tested in a bryoMFC to determine the capacity of mosses to generate electrical power...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852011/a-new-chicken-genome-assembly-provides-insight-into-avian-genome-structure
#6
Wesley C Warren, LaDeana W Hillier, Chad Tomlinson, Patrick Minx, Milinn Kremitzki, Tina Graves, Chris Markovic, Nathan Bouk, Kim D Pruitt, Francoise Thibaud-Nissen, Valerie Schneider, Tamer A Mansour, C Titus Brown, Aleksey Zimin, Rachel Hawken, Mitch Abrahamsen, Alexis B Pyrkosz, Mireille Morisson, Valerie Fillon, Alain Vignal, William Chow, Kerstin Howe, Janet E Fulton, Marcia M Miller, Peter Lovell, Claudio V Mello, Morgan Wirthlin, Andrew S Mason, Richard Kuo, David W Burt, Jerry B Dodgson, Hans H Cheng
The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized...
November 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849036/enterovirus-71-infection-of-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-undergoes-a-non-lytic-exit-pathway
#7
Issac Horng Khit Too, Huimin Yeo, October Michael Sessions, Benedict Yan, Eshele Anak Libau, Josephine L C Howe, Ze Qin Lim, Shalini Suku-Maran, Wei-Yi Ong, Kaw Bing Chua, Boon Seng Wong, Vincent T K Chow, Sylvie Alonso
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, is regarded as the most important neurotropic virus worldwide. EV71 is believed to replicate in muscles and infect motor neurons to reach the central nervous system (CNS). To further investigate the mechanisms involved, we have employed the motor neuron cell line NSC-34. NSC-34 cells were permissive to EV71 and virus production yields were strain-dependent with differential efficacy at the entry, replication and egress steps. Furthermore, unlike all the other cell lines previously reported, EV71-infected NSC-34 cells neither displayed cytopathic effect nor underwent apoptosis...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798266/focally-perfused-succinate-potentiates-brain-metabolism-in-head-injury-patients
#8
Ibrahim Jalloh, Adel Helmy, Duncan J Howe, Richard J Shannon, Peter Grice, Andrew Mason, Clare N Gallagher, Matthew G Stovell, Susan van der Heide, Michael P Murphy, John D Pickard, David K Menon, T Adrian Carpenter, Peter J Hutchinson, Keri Lh Carpenter
Following traumatic brain injury, complex cerebral energy perturbations occur. Correlating with unfavourable outcome, high brain extracellular lactate/pyruvate ratio suggests hypoxic metabolism and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated whether focal administration of succinate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate interacting directly with the mitochondrial electron transport chain, could improve cerebral metabolism. Microdialysis perfused disodium 2,3-(13)C2 succinate (12 mmol/L) for 24 h into nine sedated traumatic brain injury patients' brains, with simultaneous microdialysate collection for ISCUS analysis of energy metabolism biomarkers (nine patients) and nuclear magnetic resonance of (13)C-labelled metabolites (six patients)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770579/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-treated-with-anakinra
#9
Daniel L Kenney-Jung, Annamaria Vezzani, Robert J Kahoud, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Mai-Lan Ho, Theresa Wampler Muskardin, Elaine C Wirrell, Charles L Howe, Eric T Payne
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating epileptic encephalopathy with limited treatment options and an unclear etiology. Anakinra is a recombinant version of the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist used to treat autoinflammatory disorders. This is the first report of anakinra for treatment of a child with super-refractory status epilepticus secondary to FIRES. Anakinra was well tolerated and effective. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis revealed elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines before treatment that normalized on anakinra, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for neuroinflammation in FIRES...
October 22, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770561/short-duration-treatment-with-elbasvir-grazoprevir-and-sofosbuvir-for-hepatitis-c-a-randomized-trial
#10
Eric Lawitz, Fred Poordad, Julio A Gutierrez, Jennifer T Wells, Carmen E Landaverde, Barbara Evans, Anita Howe, Hsueh-Cheng Huang, Jerry Jing Li, Peggy Hwang, Frank J Dutko, Michael Robertson, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Barbara Haber
Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Combining DAAs with different mechanisms may allow for shorter treatment durations that are effective across multiple genotypes. The aim of the C-SWIFT study was to identify the minimum effective treatment duration across multiple genotypes. C-SWIFT was an open-label, single-center trial in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype (GT)1 or 3 infection. All patients received elbasvir (EBR) 100 mg/grazoprevir (GZR) 50 mg with sofosbuvir (SOF) 400 mg for 4-12 weeks...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768313/sesterterpenoids-isolated-from-the-sponge-phorbas-sp-activate-latent-hiv-1-provirus-expression
#11
Meng Wang, Ian Tietjen, Min Chen, David E Williams, Julie Daoust, Mark A Brockman, Raymond J Andersen
Eight new sesterterpenoids, alotaketals D (8) and E (9), ansellones D (10), E (11), F (12), and G (13), anvilones A (14), and B (15), have been isolated from extracts of the marine sponge Phorbas sp. collected in Howe Sound British Columbia and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data. Ansellone F (12) contains a rare 1,2-3,4 bis epoxy decalin substructure. Anvilones A (14) and B (15) have the unprecedented tetracylic anvilane terpenoid carbon skeleton. Using a cell culture model of latent HIV-1 infection, ansellone A (3), alotaketal D (8), and anvilone A (14) were found to induce HIV proviral gene expression similar to a control compound prostratin (1), while the known sesterterpenoid alotaketal C (2), isolated from the same extract, was more potent and gave a stronger response than prostratin (1)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750375/immunogenicity-of-antigen-conjugated-biodegradable-polydiacetylene-liposomes-administered-mucosally
#12
Jasmyn S Abrams, Savannah E Howe, Nathalie Becerra, Punit Kohli, Vjollca Konjufca
In this work we report a protocol for synthesizing nano-size ovalbumin-functionalized polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes (LP-Ova). We show that LP-Ova administered per-orally (p.o.) and subcutaneously (s.c.), without the use of adjuvants, induces high serum IgG1 titers. As reported previously using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs), p.o.-primed mice developed high titers of IgG2c and intestinal IgA following s.c. boosting immunization with LP-Ova. In contrast, mice that received a single s.c. immunization with LP-Ova did not develop serum IgG2c or intestinal IgA antibodies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738747/variability-of-ischiofemoral-space-dimensions-with-changes-in-hip-flexion-an-mri-study
#13
Adam C Johnson, John H Hollman, Benjamin M Howe, Jonathan T Finnoff
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine if ischiofemoral space (IFS) dimensions vary with changes in hip flexion as a result of placing a bolster behind the knees during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A secondary aim was to determine if IFS dimensions vary between supine and prone hip neutral positions. DESIGN: The study employed a prospective design. SETTING: Sports medicine center within a tertiary care institution. PARTICIPANTS: Five male and five female adult subjects (age mean = 29...
October 14, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734894/genomic-evidence-for-plant-parasitic-nematodes-as-the-earliest-wolbachia-hosts
#14
Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729271/selective-inhibition-of-sarcocystis-neurona-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-1-for-equine-protozoal-myeloencephalitis-therapy
#15
Kayode K Ojo, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Shiv K Verma, Suzanne Scheele, Amy E DeRocher, Michelle Yeargan, Ryan Choi, Tess R Smith, Kasey L Rivas, Matthew A Hulverson, Lynn K Barrett, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Marilyn Parsons, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel K Howe, Wesley C Van Voorhis
Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689618/assistive-technology-for-cognition-and%C3%A2-health-related-quality-of-life-in%C3%A2-huntington-s-disease
#16
Marleen R van Walsem, Emilie I Howe, Jan C Frich, Nada Andelic
BACKGROUND: Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be defined as external devices aimed at supporting cognitive function. Studies in neurological populations suggest that use of ATC is a promising strategy to ameliorate negative effects of cognitive impairment and improve Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL). There is a lack of studies on the effects of ATC in HD. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the use of ATC in patients with HD, and to investigate the association between ATC and HRQoL...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682718/accuracy-of-staging-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-tongue-should-incisional-biopsy-be-done-before-or-after-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Thomas E Howe, Syed A Khurram, Keith Hunter, Lisette H C Martin, Alastair M Fry
Accurate staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) is essential. Some clinicians delay diagnostic biopsy until after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively studied the clinical records and histopathological databases of 58 patients with SCC of the tongue; 39 had biopsy before MRI and 19 afterwards. In the group who had the biopsy first, eight were up-staged, nine were down-staged, and in 22 the T stage was accurate. In those who had MRI first, the corresponding figures were two, six, and 11, respectively...
September 24, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27675141/improving-accuracy-of-delivery-for-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-by-maximizing-gantry-speed
#18
A Odom, T R Denton, L Shields, J Howe, D Dellamonica, M Gagai, C Bond, C Dedich, A C Spalding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670563/repair-of-pectus-excavatum-in-an-adult-an-example-of-disease-progression
#19
Harold Howe, Gautam Bhatia, Christopher C Wright, Barry R Davis, Robert L Gates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663502/ld-hub-a-centralized-database-and-web-interface-to-perform-ld-score-regression-that-maximizes-the-potential-of-summary-level-gwas-data-for-snp-heritability-and-genetic-correlation-analysis
#20
Jie Zheng, A Mesut Erzurumluoglu, Benjamin L Elsworth, John P Kemp, Laurence Howe, Philip C Haycock, Gibran Hemani, Katherine Tansey, Charles Laurin, Beate St Pourcain, Nicole M Warrington, Hilary K Finucane, Alkes L Price, Brendan K Bulik-Sullivan, Verneri Anttila, Lavinia Paternoster, Tom R Gaunt, David M Evans, Benjamin M Neale
MOTIVATION: LD score regression is a reliable and efficient method of using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary-level results data to estimate the SNP heritability of complex traits and diseases, partition this heritability into functional categories, and estimate the genetic correlation between different phenotypes. Because the method relies on summary level results data, LD score regression is computationally tractable even for very large sample sizes. However, publicly available GWAS summary-level data are typically stored in different databases and have different formats, making it difficult to apply LD score regression to estimate genetic correlations across many different traits simultaneously...
September 22, 2016: Bioinformatics
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