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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135081/adverse-childhood-experiences-aces-and-adiposity-in-adolescents-a-cross-cohort-comparison
#1
Ana Luiza G Soares, Alicia Matijasevich, Ana M B Menezes, Maria Cecília Assunção, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Laura D Howe, Helen Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adiposity in adolescents from two cohorts in different socioeconomic contexts. METHODS: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, United Kingdom) and the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) were used. Six ACEs were assessed in both cohorts up to age 15. At 15 years, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and at 18 years, BMI, fat mass index, and android fat percentage were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129367/injection-of-bulking-agents-for-laryngoplasty
#2
Samuel K Snyder, Peter Angelos, Sally E Carty, Gerard M Doherty, James R Howe, James A Lee, Steven K Libutti, Barbra S Miller, Sareh Parangi, Kepal N Patel, Rebecca C Sippel, Cord Sturgeon, Tracy S Wang, Linwah Yip, Martha A Zeiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122994/childhood-psychosocial-adversity-and-female-reproductive-timing-a-cohort-study-of-the-alspac-mothers
#3
Maria C Magnus, Emma L Anderson, Laura D Howe, Carol J Joinson, Ian S Penton-Voak, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. METHODS: We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102868/associations-of-adversity-in-childhood-and-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-mid-adulthood
#4
Emma L Anderson, Abigail Fraser, Rishi Caleyachetty, Rebecca Hardy, Debbie A Lawlor, Laura D Howe
Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess associations of various types of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. At study enrolment, women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=3612) retrospectively reported: lack of maternal care, maternal overprotection, parental mental illness, household dysfunction, sexual abuse, physical and emotional abuse, and neglect in childhood...
November 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069345/adaptive-evolution-under-extreme-genetic-drift-in-oxidatively-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Stephen F Christy, Riana I Wernick, Michael J Lue, Griselda Velasco, Dana K Howe, Dee R Denver, Suzanne Estes
A mutation-accumulation (MA) experiment with Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was conducted in which replicate, independently evolving lines were initiated from a low-fitness mitochondrial electron transport chain mutant, gas-1 . The original intent of the study was to assess the effect of ETC dysfunction involving elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on patterns of spontaneous germline mutation. In contrast to results of standard MA experiments, gas-1 MA lines evolved slightly higher mean fitness alongside reduced among-line genetic variance compared to their ancestor...
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062526/learning-to-work-together-lessons-from-a-reflective-analysis-of-a-research-project-on-public-involvement
#6
A Howe, E Mathie, D Munday, M Cowe, C Goodman, J Keenan, S Kendall, F Poland, S Staniszewska, P Wilson
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is very important, and funders and the NHS all expect this to happen. What this means in practice, and how to make it really successful, is therefore an important research question. This article analyses the experience of a research team using PPI, and makes recommendations on strengthening PPI in research. There were different PPI roles in our study - some people were part of the research team: some were on the advisory group; and there were patient groups who gave specific feedback on how to make research work better for their needs...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049141/review-of-setting-performance-standards-for-technical-and-nontechnical-competence-in-general-surgery-by-szasz-p-bonrath-em-louridas-m-fesco-ab-howe-b-fehr-a-ott-m-mack-la-harris-ka-grantcharov-tp-in-ann-surg-266-1-7-2017-and-beyond-measure-twice-new-performance
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025982/appropriate-use-criteria-for-somatostatin-receptor-pet-imaging-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
Thomas A Hope, Emily Bergsland, Murat Fani Bozkurt, Michael M Graham, Anthony P Heaney, Ken Herrmann, James R Howe, Matthew H Kulke, Pamela L Kunz, Josh Mailman, Lawrence May, David C Metz, Corina Millo, Sue O'Dorisio, Diane L Reidy-Lagunes, Michael C Soulen, Jonathan R Strosberg
Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (SSTR-PET) is an imaging modality for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that has demonstrated a significant improvement over conventional imaging (CI). SSTR-PET should replace In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy (OctreoScan) in all indications in which SSTR scintigraphy is currently being used. These appropriate use criteria (AUC) are intended to aid referring medical practitioners in the appropriate use of SSTR-PET for imaging of patients with NETs, and the indications were evaluated in well-differentiated NETs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982238/carbon-kinetic-isotope-effects-and-the-mechanisms-of-acid-catalyzed-decarboxylation-of-2-4-dimethoxybenzoic-acid-and-co2-incorporation-into-1-3-dimethoxybenzene
#9
Adelle A Vandersteen, Graeme W Howe, Barbara Sherwood Lollar, Ronald Kluger
The rate of decarboxylation of 2,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid (1) is accelerated in parallel to the extent that the carboxyl group acquires a second proton (1H(+)). However, the conjugate acid would resist C-C bond breaking as that would lead to formation of doubly protonated CO2. An alternative via formation of a higher-energy protonated phenyl tautomer (2H(+)) prior to C-C bond breaking would produce protonated CO2, an energetically inaccessible species that can be avoided by transfer of the carboxyl proton to water in the same step...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969667/general-practitioner-use-of-a-c-reactive-protein-point-of-care-test-to-help-target-antibiotic-prescribing-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-the-pace-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Janine Bates, Nick A Francis, Patrick White, David Gillespie, Emma Thomas-Jones, Rachel Breen, Nigel Kirby, Kerry Hood, Micaela Gal, Rhiannon Phillips, Gurudutt Naik, Jochen Cals, Carl Llor, Hasse Melbye, Mandy Wootton, Evgenia Riga, Ann Cochrane, Robin Howe, Deborah Fitzsimmons, Bernadette Sewell, Mohammed Fasihul Alam, Christopher C Butler
BACKGROUND: Most patients presenting with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in primary care are prescribed an antibiotic, which may not always be appropriate and may cause harm. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase biomarker that can be rapidly measured at the point of care and may predict benefit from antibiotic treatment in AECOPD. It is not clear whether the addition of a CRP point-of-care test (POCT) to clinical assessment leads to a reduction in antibiotic consumption without having a negative impact on COPD health status...
September 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938764/nutrient-composition-and-retention-in-whole-turkeys-with-and-without-added-solution
#11
J R Williams, J M Roseland, Q V Nguyen, J C Howe, K Y Patterson, P R Pehrsson, L D Thompson
Whole turkeys sold in retail outlets are typically processed with added solutions to improve their taste and tenderness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient composition of whole turkeys with and without added solution, and to update the nutrient profile of turkey for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Eleven pairs of turkeys with added solution were obtained from statistically representative retail outlets using a nationwide sampling plan developed for USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; 4 pairs of turkeys without added solution were purchased from local food outlets...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935328/valve-in-valve-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-a-novel-approach-to-treat-paravalvular-leak
#12
Pranav Loyalka, Kelsey B Montgomery, Tom C Nguyen, Richard W Smalling, Melissa Howe, Keshava Rajagopal
Enlarging or "cracking" a surgical stented bioprosthetic valve during valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) increases orifice area, reducing transvalvular energy losses. We demonstrate that TAVI with valve cracking can be used to treat paravalvular leak (PVL) while providing optimal aortic valve physiology. A 61-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement with a stented bioprosthesis presented with heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe prosthetic aortic valve stenosis with PVL and severe regurgitation...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933161/identifying-the-structural-basis-for-the-increased-stability-of-the-solid-electrolyte-interphase-formed-on-silicon-with-the-additive-fluoroethylene-carbonate
#13
Yanting Jin, Nis-Julian H Kneusels, Pieter C M M Magusin, Gunwoo Kim, Elizabeth Castillo-Martínez, Lauren E Marbella, Rachel N Kerber, Duncan J Howe, Subhradip Paul, Tao Liu, Clare P Grey
To elucidate the role of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as an additive in the standard carbonate-based electrolyte for Li-ion batteries, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed during electrochemical cycling on silicon anodes was analyzed with a combination of solution and solid-state NMR techniques, including dynamic nuclear polarization. To facilitate characterization via 1D and 2D NMR, we synthesized (13)C-enriched FEC, ultimately allowing a detailed structural assignment of the organic SEI. We find that the soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-like linear oligomeric electrolyte breakdown products that are observed after cycling in the standard ethylene carbonate-based electrolyte are suppressed in the presence of 10 vol% FEC additive...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923122/feed-in-summer-rest-in-winter-microbial-carbon-utilization-in-forest-topsoil
#14
Lucia Žifčáková, Tomáš Větrovský, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Adina Howe, Petr Baldrian
BACKGROUND: Evergreen coniferous forests contain high stocks of organic matter. Significant carbon transformations occur in litter and soil of these ecosystems, making them important for the global carbon cycle. Due to seasonal allocation of photosynthates to roots, carbon availability changes seasonally in the topsoil. The aim of this paper was to describe the seasonal differences in C source utilization and the involvement of various members of soil microbiome in this process. RESULTS: Here, we show that microorganisms in topsoil encode a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863666/practical-methods-for-generating-alternating-magnetic-fields-for-biomedical-research
#15
Michael G Christiansen, Christina M Howe, David C Bono, David J Perreault, Polina Anikeeva
Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860174/ubc-nepal-expedition-acute-alterations-in-sympathetic-nervous-activity-do-not-influence-brachial-artery-endothelial-function-at-sea-level-and-high-altitude
#16
Michael M Tymko, Joshua C Tremblay, Craig D Steinback, Jonathan P Moore, Alex B Hansen, Alexander Patrician, Connor A Howe, Ryan L Hoiland, Daniel J Green, Philip N Ainslie
Evidence indicates that increases in sympathetic nervous activity (SNA), and acclimatization to high-altitude (HA), may reduce endothelial function as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); however, it is unclear whether such changes in FMD are due to direct vascular constraint, or consequential altered hemodynamics (e.g. shear stress) associated with increased SNA as a consequence of exposure to HA. We hypothesized that: 1) at rest, SNA would be elevated and FMD would be reduced at HA compared to sea-level (SL); and 2) at SL and HA, FMD would be reduced when SNA was acutely increased, and elevated when SNA was acutely decreased...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820271/cam-deformities-and-limited-hip-range-of-motion-are-associated-with-early-osteoarthritic-changes-in-adolescent-athletes-a-prospective-matched-cohort-study
#17
Cody C Wyles, Germán A Norambuena, Benjamin M Howe, Dirk R Larson, Bruce A Levy, Brandon J Yuan, Robert T Trousdale, Rafael J Sierra
BACKGROUND: The natural history of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains incompletely understood. In particular, there is limited documentation of joint damage in adolescent patients with limited range of motion (LROM) of the hip, which is commonly associated with FAI. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and clinical examinations over 5 years in a group of athletes from a wide variety of sports with asymptomatic LROM of the hip compared with matched controls...
November 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819184/black-phosphorus-ink-formulation-for-inkjet-printing-of-optoelectronics-and-photonics
#18
Guohua Hu, Tom Albrow-Owen, Xinxin Jin, Ayaz Ali, Yuwei Hu, Richard C T Howe, Khurram Shehzad, Zongyin Yang, Xuekun Zhu, Robert I Woodward, Tien-Chun Wu, Henri Jussila, Jiang-Bin Wu, Peng Peng, Ping-Heng Tan, Zhipei Sun, Edmund J R Kelleher, Meng Zhang, Yang Xu, Tawfique Hasan
Black phosphorus is a two-dimensional material of great interest, in part because of its high carrier mobility and thickness dependent direct bandgap. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits material deposition options for device fabrication. Here we show a black phosphorus ink that can be reliably inkjet printed, enabling scalable development of optoelectronic and photonic devices. Our binder-free ink suppresses coffee ring formation through induced recirculating Marangoni flow, and supports excellent consistency (< 2% variation) and spatial uniformity (< 3...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769608/cyphastrea-salae-a-new-species-of-hard-coral-from-lord-howe-island-australia-scleractinia-merulinidae
#19
Andrew H Baird, Mia O Hoogenboom, Danwei Huang
A new zooxanthellate reef-dwelling scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea salaesp. n. (Scleractinia, Merulinidae), is described from Lord Howe Island Australia. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from the only other congeneric species on Lord Howe Island, C. microphthalma, by the number of primary septa (12 vs. 10) and the much taller corallites (mean ± SE: 1.0 ± 0.07 mm v 0.4 ± 0.04 mm). The relationship of C. salae to four of the other eleven currently accepted species in the genus was explored through analyses of nuclear (28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (noncoding intergenic region) gene sequences...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763722/glutamate-metabolism-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-as-revealed-by-dynamic-proton-mrs-following-the-infusion-of-u-13-c-glucose
#20
Brenda L Bartnik-Olson, Daniel Ding, John Howe, Amul Shah, Travis Losey
Focal metabolic dysfunction commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is associated with the development of medical intractability and neurocognitive deficits. It has not been established if this dysfunction is due to cell loss or biochemical dysfunction in metabolic pathways. To explore this question, dynamic (1)H MRS following an infusion of [U(13)- C] glucose was performed to measure glutamate (Glu) metabolism. Subjects (n=6) showed reduced Glu levels (p<0.01) in the ipsilateral mesial temporal lobe (MTL) compared with controls (n=4)...
July 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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