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Matthew T Houdek, Cody C Wyles, Mark S Collins, Benjamin M Howe, Andre Terzic, Atta Behfar, Rafael J Sierra
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have shown the benefits of injecting bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BmMSCs) after standard hip decompression in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the combination of BmMSCs and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injected into the femoral head after decompression has not been reported previously. This study reports the results in a preliminary series of patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with BmMSCs plus PRP...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
A Veerasamy, C Loch, L Adam, B J Howe, P A Brunton
PURPOSE: The study was conducted to identify possible factors and potential barriers that affect the retention and recruitment of clinical teaching staff at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, New Zealand. METHODOLOGY: A short questionnaire survey was distributed to 47 clinical teaching staff to understand the retention strategies and barriers. The collected quantitative and qualitative data were analysed and presented. FINDINGS: The response rate was 96%, with an equal distribution of female and male clinicians...
March 11, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Maria C Sorbo, Valeria Cento, Velia C Di Maio, Anita Y M Howe, Federico Garcia, Carlo F Perno, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
Nowadays, due to the development of potent Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents (DAAs) that specifically target NS3, NS5A and NS5B viral proteins, several new and highly efficacious options to treat chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are available. The natural presence of resistance associated substitutions (RASs), as well as their rapid emergence during incomplete drug-pressure, are intrinsic characteristics of HCV that greatly affect treatment outcome and the chances to achieve a virolgical cure. To date, a high number of RASs in NS3, NS5A, and NS5B have been associated in vivo and/or in vitro with reduced susceptibility to DAAs, but no comprehensive RASs list is available...
February 21, 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
C E M Griffiths, M Augustin, L Naldi, R Romiti, E Guevara-Sangines, T Howe, G Pietri, I Gilloteau, C Richardson, H Tian, S J Jo
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease, which often requires lifelong treatment. A strong partnership between the patient and healthcare practitioners should help to achieve effective treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess concordance of views between psoriasis patients and their treating dermatologists relative to psoriasis severity, presence of symptoms and satisfaction with disease control achieved. METHODS: We used data from the Growth from Knowledge (GfK) Disease Atlas real-world evidence programme, a syndicated, retrospective, cross-sectional survey among dermatologists and their systemic therapy eligible psoriasis patients, conducted across 9 countries...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Joshua C Tremblay, Connor A Howe, Philip N Ainslie, Kyra Ellen Pyke
Experimentally-induced oscillatory shear stress (OSS) and hypoxia reduce endothelial function in humans. Acute and sustained hypoxia may cause increases in resting OSS; however, whether this influences endothelial susceptibility to further increases in OSS is unknown. Healthy lowlanders (n=15, 30{plus minus}6 years [mean{plus minus}SD]) participated in three OSS interventions; two at sea level (normoxia and following 20-minutes of normobaric hypoxia [acute hypoxia, 11% O2 ]) and one 5-7 days after a 9-day ascent to 5050m (sustained hypoxia)...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yahya Shehabi, Rinaldo Bellomo, Suhaini Kadiman, Lian Kah Ti, Belinda Howe, Michael C Reade, Tien Meng Khoo, Anita Alias, Yu-Lin Wong, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Colin McArthur, Ian Seppelt, Steven A Webb, Maja Green, Michael J Bailey
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of a universal definition of light or deep sedation, the level of sedation that conveys favorable outcomes is unknown. We quantified the relationship between escalating intensity of sedation in the first 48 hours of mechanical ventilation and 180-day survival, time to extubation, and delirium. DESIGN: Harmonized data from prospective multicenter international longitudinal cohort studies SETTING:: Diverse mix of ICUs. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients expected to be ventilated for longer than 24 hours...
March 1, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Eugene McCloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C Harvey, Lee Shepstone, Elizabeth Lenaghan, Ric Fordham, Ian Harvey, Amanda Howe, Cyrus Cooper, Shane Clarke, Neil Gittoes, Alison Heawood, Richard Holland, Tarnya Marshall, Terence W O'Neill, Tim J Peters, Niamh Redmond, David Torgerson, John A Kanis
The SCreening for Osteoporosis in Older women for the Prevention of fracture [SCOOP] study was a community-based screening intervention, in women aged 70 to 85 years in the UK. In the screening arm, licensed osteoporosis treatments were recommended in women identified to be at high risk of hip fracture using the FRAX risk assessment tool (including BMD measurement). In the control arm, standard care was provided. Screening led to a 28% reduction in hip fractures over 5 years. In this planned post hoc analysis, we wished to examine for interactions between screening effectiveness on fracture outcome (any, osteoporotic and hip fractures) on the one hand and baseline FRAX 10-year probability of hip fracture on the other...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
David A Turner, Rebekah Fong Soe Khioe, Lee Shepstone, Elizabeth Lenaghan, Cyrus Cooper, Neil Gittoes, Nicholas C Harvey, Richard Holland, Amanda Howe, Eugene McCloskey, Terence W O'Neill, David Torgerson, Richard Fordham
The SCOOP study was a two-arm randomized controlled trial conducted in the UK in 12,483 eligible women aged 70 to 85 years. It compared a screening program using the FRAX® risk assessment tool in addition to bone mineral density (BMD) measures versus usual management. The SCOOP study found a reduction in the incidence of hip fractures in the screening arm, but there was no evidence of a reduction in the incidence of all osteoporosis-related fractures. To make decisions about whether to implement any screening program, we should also consider whether the program is likely to be a good use of health care resources, ie, is it cost-effective? The cost per gained quality adjusted life year of screening for fracture risk has not previously been demonstrated in an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Thomas Brown, Françoise S Howe, Struan C Murray, Meredith Wouters, Philipp Lorenz, Emily Seward, Scott Rata, Andrew Angel, Jane Mellor
Antisense transcription is widespread in genomes. Despite large differences in gene size and architecture, we find that yeast and human genes share a unique, antisense transcription-associated chromatin signature. We asked whether this signature is related to a biological function for antisense transcription. Using quantitative RNA-FISH, we observed changes in sense transcript distributions in nuclei and cytoplasm as antisense transcript levels were altered. To determine the mechanistic differences underlying these distributions, we developed a mathematical framework describing transcription from initiation to transcript degradation...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
Christopher C F Howe, Ahmed Alshehri, David Muggeridge, Alexander B Mullen, Marie Boyd, Owen Spendiff, Hannah J Moir, David G Watson
Metabolomic profiling of nine trained ultramarathon runners completing an 80.5 km self-paced treadmill-based time trial was carried out. Plasma samples were obtained from venous whole blood, collected at rest and on completion of the distance (post-80.5 km). The samples were analyzed by using high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with both hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The extracted putatively identified features were modeled using Simca P 14.1 software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden)...
February 13, 2018: Metabolites
Miriam S Reuter, Susan Walker, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Joe Whitney, Iris Cohn, Neal Sondheimer, Ryan K C Yuen, Brett Trost, Tara A Paton, Sergio L Pereira, Jo-Anne Herbrick, Richard F Wintle, Daniele Merico, Jennifer Howe, Jeffrey R MacDonald, Chao Lu, Thomas Nalpathamkalam, Wilson W L Sung, Zhuozhi Wang, Rohan V Patel, Giovanna Pellecchia, John Wei, Lisa J Strug, Sherilyn Bell, Barbara Kellam, Melanie M Mahtani, Anne S Bassett, Yvonne Bombard, Rosanna Weksberg, Cheryl Shuman, Ronald D Cohn, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Sarah Bowdin, Matthew R Hildebrandt, Wei Wei, Asli Romm, Peter Pasceri, James Ellis, Peter Ray, M Stephen Meyn, Nasim Monfared, S Mohsen Hosseini, Ann M Joseph-George, Fred W Keeley, Ryan A Cook, Marc Fiume, Hin C Lee, Christian R Marshall, Jill Davies, Allison Hazell, Janet A Buchanan, Michael J Szego, Stephen W Scherer
BACKGROUND: The Personal Genome Project Canada is a comprehensive public data resource that integrates whole genome sequencing data and health information. We describe genomic variation identified in the initial recruitment cohort of 56 volunteers. METHODS: Volunteers were screened for eligibility and provided informed consent for open data sharing. Using blood DNA, we performed whole genome sequencing and identified all possible classes of DNA variants. A genetic counsellor explained the implication of the results to each participant...
February 5, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Diao Li, Henri Jussila, Yadong Wang, Guohua Hu, Tom Albrow-Owen, Richard C T Howe, Zhaoyu Ren, Jintao Bai, Tawfique Hasan, Zhipei Sun
Ultrafast lasers with tunable parameters in wavelength and time domains are the choice of light source for various applications such as spectroscopy and communication. Here, we report a wavelength and pulse-duration tunable mode-locked Erbium doped fiber laser with single wall carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber. An intra-cavity tunable filter is employed to continuously tune the output wavelength for 34 nm (from 1525 nm to 1559 nm) and pulse duration from 545 fs to 6.1 ps, respectively. Our results provide a novel light source for various applications requiring variable wavelength or pulse duration...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
K K Patel, L Howe, N Haack, C Heuer, G W Asher, P R Wilson
This paper investigates Leptospira borgpeterseni serovar Hardjobovis and L. interrogans serovar Pomona as potential causes of sub-optimum pregnancy rates and mid-term abortion in farmed red deer. Rising two-year-old (R2, n = 22,130) and mixed-age (MA, n = 36,223) hinds from 87 and 71 herds, respectively, throughout New Zealand were ultrasound scanned early in gestation (Scan-1) and a sub-sample re-scanned (Scan-2) 55-89 days later and mid-term daily abortion rate calculated. A sub-sample of sera from pregnant and non-pregnant hinds at both scans, both with (case herds) and without aborted hinds was tested for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test with titre cut-point ≥1:48 as positive...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Novel N Chegou, Jayne S Sutherland, Anna-Ritah Namuganga, Paul Lam Corstjens, Annemieke Geluk, Gebremedhin Gebremichael, Joseph Mendy, Stephanus Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Gian D van der Spuy, Magdalena Kriel, Andre G Loxton, Belinda Kriel, Felanji Simukonda, Yonas Bekele, Jacob A Sheehama, Josefina Nelongo, Marieta van der Vyver, Atsbeha Gebrexabher, Habteyes Hailu, Maria M Esterhuyse, Ida Rosenkrands, Claus Aagard, Martin Kidd, Desta Kassa, Adane Mihret, Rawleigh Howe, Jacqueline M Cliff, Amelia C Crampin, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Gerhard Walzl
We investigated host-derived biomarkers that were previously identified in QuantiFERON supernatants, in a large pan-African study. We recruited individuals presenting with symptoms of pulmonary TB at seven peripheral healthcare facilities in six African countries, prior to assessment for TB disease. We then evaluated the concentrations of 12 biomarkers in stored QuantiFERON supernatants using the Luminex platform. Based on laboratory, clinical and radiological findings and a pre-established algorithm, participants were classified as TB disease or other respiratory diseases(ORD)...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sofia R Bartlett, Jason Grebely, Auda A Eltahla, Jacqueline D Reeves, Anita Y M Howe, Veronica Miller, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Rowena A Bull, Mark W Douglas, Gregory J Dore, Patrick Harrington, Andrew R Lloyd, Brendan Jacka, Gail V Matthews, Gary P Wang, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Jordan J Feld, Janke Schinkel, Federico Garcia, Johan Lennerstrand, Tanya L Applegate
The significance of the clinical impact of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) on treatment failure is unclear. No standardized methods or guidelines for detection of DAA RASs in HCV exist. To facilitate further evaluations of the impact of DAA RASs in HCV, we conducted a systematic review of RAS sequencing protocols, compiled a comprehensive public library of sequencing primers, and provided expert guidance on the most appropriate methods to screen and identify RASs...
July 2017: Hepatology Communications
Bradley R Jones, Anita Y M Howe, P Richard Harrigan, Jeffrey B Joy
New, costly, fast acting, therapies targeting the non-structural proteins 5A and 5B (NS5A and NS5B) regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome are curative in the majority of cases. Variants with certain mutations in the NS5A and NS5B regions of HCV have been shown to reduce susceptibility to direct-acting NS5A and NS5B therapy and are found in treatment naïve patients. Despite this, the ease with which these variants evolve is poorly known, as are their evolutionary and geographic origins. To address this crucial gap we inferred the evolutionary and geographic origins of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in the HCV NS5A and NS5B regions of subtypes 1a, 1b, and 3a sequences available from global databases...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Adam S Howe, Vinaya Vasudevan, Michael Kongnyuy, Kevin Rychik, Lisa A Thomas, Maria Matuskova, Steven C Friedman, Jordan S Gitlin, Edward F Reda, Lane S Palmer
Background: Testicular torsion is surgical emergency. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion is essential for testicular viability. At surgical exploration, the spermatic cord is seen twisted a variable number of times around its longitudinal axis. There is scant data regarding the degree of twisting and its association with testis outcomes. The purpose of our study is to explore how the degree of torsion factors into testicular outcome using follow-up data. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of adolescent males who presented with testicular torsion to our institution, looking at duration of pain symptoms, degree of torsion documented in the operative note, procedure performed (orchiopexy versus orchiectomy), and follow-up clinic data for whether testicular atrophy after orchiopexy was present...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
C E M Griffiths, S J Jo, L Naldi, R Romiti, E Guevara-Sangines, T Howe, G Pietri, I Gilloteau, C Richardson, H Tian, M Augustin
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, characterised by symptoms that include itching and skin pain and is often associated with comorbidities. Patients have a substantial detriment to quality of life (QoL) and work productivity with associated cost burden. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental burden of comorbidities, itch, and affected body areas among systemic eligible patients with psoriasis, using a multinational survey of dermatologists and their psoriasis patients...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Richard C Blagrove, Louis P Howe, Emily J Cushion, Adam Spence, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar, Philip R Hayes
PURPOSE: Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However the effects on adolescent (<18 years) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. METHODS: Participants (n=25, 13 female, 17...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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