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Deepak Jayarajan, Preeti Jacob
Substance use disorders in children and adolescents are a significant cause of concern as they can have long term implications in practically every sphere. The etiological factors that contribute to substance use disorders are complex and the formulation must amalgamate and synthesize all the different factors including the predisposing, perpetuating, precipitating and protective factors in order to plan management. Interventions must stem from this comprehensive formulation and must be child-focused, multidisciplinary, multisystemic, with strong family participation and community involvement...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Mario Malerba, Matteo Nardin, Giuseppe Santini, Nadia Mores, Alessandro Radaeli, Paolo Montuschi
Maintenance pharmacological treatment for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on inhaled drugs, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMA), long-acting β2 -adrenoceptor agonists (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Inhaled pharmacological treatment can improve patients' daily symptoms and reduce decline of pulmonary function and acute exacerbation rate. Treatment with all three inhaled drug classes is reserved for selected, more severe, patients with COPD when symptoms are not sufficiently controlled by dual LABA/LAMA therapy and exacerbations are frequent...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Nicola A Hanania, Paola Rogliani
Our understanding of whether and/or how ethnicity influences pharmacological response to asthma therapies is still very scarce. A possible explanation for the increased asthma treatment failures observed in ethnic and racial minorities receiving asthma therapies is that some of these groups may have a pharmacogenomic predisposition to either nonresponse or to adverse response with a specific class of drugs. However, the effects of ethnicity on pharmacological response to asthma therapies are also, and mainly, determined by socioeconomic and environmental factors to a varying extent, depending on the ethnic groups...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Zahra Shahpiri, Mohammad Reza Mehri, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Mahdi Rezaei, Azade Raeesdana, Roja Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
C Rehn, E Odouard, F Poncet, P Cochat, V Breant, X Dode
BACKGROUND AND GOAL OF THIS STUDY: Few available galenic formulations of drugs have pediatric doses, so that many of them are used off label in children. The influence of such pharmaceutical formulation on therapeutic adherence was evaluated in a systematic review of the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This search was performed in 4 data bases: Medline, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Science Direct. Included articles were in French or English and focused on therapeutic adherence and route of administration...
March 1, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
María José Fernández-Megía, Isabel Font Noguera, Matilde Merino Sanjuán, José Luis Poveda Andrés
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of sentinel patient program to monitoring the  quality pharmacoterapeutic process in the hospitalized patient through  medication errors. METHOD: Design: Observational, prospective and transversal study. Ambit: General hospital of 1,000 beds. PERIOD: From May 2011 to June 2016.  Sample: Patients with treatment prescribe within 24 hours of being admitted  with 4 or more medications. VARIABLES: Medication error, drugs prescribed,  medications and doses dispensing, drugs administered...
March 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Mariana P Barcellos, Cleydson B R Santos, Leonardo B Federico, Paulo Fernando de Almeida, Carlos H T P da Silva, Carlton A Taft
We have used docking (GLIDE), pharmacophore modeling (Discovery Studio), long trajectory molecular dynamics (Discovery Studio) and ADMET/Tox (QikProp and DEREK) to investigate PAD4 in order to determine potential novel inhibitors and hits. We have carried out virtual screening in the ZINC natural compounds database. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of the best hits were assessed using databases implemented in softwares that create models based on chemical structures taking into account consideration about the toxicophoric groups...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Mark McEvoy, David C Harris, Arduino A Mangoni, Julia Z Sarant
OBJECTIVE: Age-related hearing loss is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk, suggesting a vascular etiology. Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that cause endothelial dysfunction and increase cardiovascular disease risk. This study is the first to examine the hypothesis that higher serum concentrations of methylarginines are associated with greater hearing loss prevalence. STUDY DESIGN/PATIENTS: Cross-sectional audiometric data on hearing levels, and serum methylarginines were collected from a population-based sample of 630 older community-dwelling adults...
February 23, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Mark D Namba, Seven E Tomek, M Foster Olive, Joshua S Beckmann, Cassandra D Gipson
In drug addiction, cues previously associated with drug use can produce craving and frequently trigger the resumption of drug taking in individuals vulnerable to relapse. Environmental stimuli associated with drugs or natural reinforcers can become reliably conditioned to increase behavior that was previously reinforced. In preclinical models of addiction, these cues enhance both drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking. In this review, we will dissociate the roles of conditioned stimuli as reinforcers from their modulatory or discriminative functions in producing drug-seeking behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Jacqueline E Paniccia, Anny Gano, Andrew Vore, Terrence Deak
Acute alcohol intoxication induces significant alterations in brain cytokines. Since stress challenges also profoundly impact central cytokine expression, these experiments examined the influence of acute and chronic stress on ethanol-induced brain cytokine responses. In Experiment 1, adult male rats were exposed to acute footshock. After a post-stress recovery interval of 0, 2, 4, or 24 h, rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg; intragastric), with trunk blood and brains collected 3 h later. In non-stressed controls, acute ethanol increased expression of Il-6 and IκBα in the hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sarah E Maggio, Meredith A Saunders, Thomas A Baxter, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A Prendergast, Guangrong Zheng, Peter Crooks, Linda P Dwoskin, Rachel D Slack, Amy H Newman, Richard L Bell, Michael T Bardo
RATIONALE: Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. OBJECTIVES: Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs...
February 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Sara E Parli, Carolyn Pfeifer, Douglas R Oyler, Barbara Magnuson, Levi D Procter
Enterocutaneous fistulae (ECF) and enteroatmospheric fistulae (EAF) are difficult complications that primarily arise after abdominal surgical procedures. Development of an ECF or EAF carries significant mortality and morbidity. Effective management of patients with these disease states requires a multidisciplinary approach, which includes surgical, pharmacotherapeutic, and nutritional interventions. This review focuses on the medical and nutritional management of ECF/EAF, providing background on drug agents and nutritional strategies that may be helpful in reducing effluent volume, optimizing fistula healing, and maintaining nutritional health...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Sara Meirinho, Ricardo Relvas, Gilberto Alves
BACKGROUND: Epistaxis is an active nose bleeding with a population occurrence of approximately 60%. Although epistaxis is a common clinical complaint, the majority of the cases are benign and caused by local induced factors (e.g., trauma and local inflammation). Nevertheless, it is also recognised that epistaxis can be induced after some drugs intake. AIMS: Due to the increasing use of drugs or drug combinations that potentially may induce epistaxis, this review aims to alert healthcare professionals for this often neglected adverse drug effect and its possible complications...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Safety
Fabiana Angelo Marques, Nayara Cristina Perez Albuquerque, Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Priscila Freitas-Lima, André Oliveira Baldoni, Veriano Alexandre Júnior, Américo Ceiki Sakamoto, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes Oliveira, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Topiramate (TPM) is a second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED), acting on drug-resistant epilepsy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the dose, use of other AEDs on TPM plasma concentration (C p ), and frequency of epileptic seizures. A cross-sectional analytical study was developed with patients aged 18-60 years, for diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy, using TPM in monotherapy or associated with other AEDs. The following variables were analyzed: age, frequency of epileptic seizures, pharmacotherapeutic regimen with its respective doses, adherence to medication treatment, and adverse events score...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Lidwien C Lemmens, Gepke O Delwel, Renske J Hoefman, Judith D de Jong, Marjolein Weda
Frail elderly with polypharmacy are at greater risk of preventable medication-related health damage. To improve medication safety, the healthcare field prepared, in consultation with the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate, a number of guidelines and standards containing conditions for safe prescribing. According to these standards the active involvement of patients by health care professionals is essential for good pharmacotherapeutic care. However, two studies with patients show that there is still room for improvement...
February 6, 2018: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
Jonathan Jia Yuan Ong, Diana Yi-Ting Wei, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a common and disabling neurological disorder, with a significant socioeconomic burden. Its pathophysiology involves abnormalities in complex neuronal networks, interacting at different levels of the central and peripheral nervous system, resulting in the constellation of symptoms characteristic of a migraine attack. Management of migraine is individualised and often necessitates the commencement of preventive medication. Recent advancements in the understanding of the neurobiology of migraine have begun to account for some parts of the symptomatology, which has led to the development of novel target-based therapies that may revolutionise how migraine is treated in the future...
February 2, 2018: Drugs
Catherine Terret, Chiara Russo
As its incidence increases with age, breast cancer in elderly patients takes on a growing importance in clinical oncology practice. Management decisions are challenging because there is a lack of high-quality evidence in this heterogeneous population. Epidemiological studies have shown that breast cancer mortality does not decrease substantially in the older population compared with younger adults. Recent data suggest a phenotype somewhat different from that of younger patients, also confirmed at the molecular level...
January 31, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Donytra Arby Wardhana, Koji Ikeda, Agian Jeffilano Barinda, Dhite Bayu Nugroho, Kikid Rucira Qurania, Keiko Yagi, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
Adipose tissue dysfunction is causally implicated in the impaired metabolic homeostasis associated with obesity; however, detailed mechanisms underlying dysregulated adipocyte functions in obesity remain to be elucidated. Here we searched for genes that provide a previously unknown mechanism in adipocyte metabolic functions and identified family with sequence similarity 13, member A (Fam13a) as a factor that modifies insulin signal cascade in adipocytes. Fam13a was highly expressed in adipose tissue, predominantly in mature adipocytes, and its expression was substantially reduced in adipose tissues of obese compared with lean mice...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kiersten Giusto, Charles R Ashby
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation, occurs in up to 18 percent of births worldwide and accounts for the majority of perinatal morbidity and mortality. While the single most common cause of PTB has been identified as inflammation, safe and effective pharmacotherapy to prevent PTB has yet to be developed. METHODS: Our group has used an in vivo model of inflammation driven PTB, biochemical methods, pharmacological approaches, a novel endothelin receptor antagonist that we synthesized and RNA knockdown to help establish the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in inflammation-associated PTB...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mark Egli
Animal models provide rapid, inexpensive assessments of an investigational drug's therapeutic potential. Ideally, they support the plausibility of therapeutic efficacy and provide a rationale for further investigation. Here, I discuss how the absence of clear effective-ineffective categories for alcohol use disorder (AUD) medications and biases in the clinical and preclinical literature affect the development of predictive preclinical alcohol dependence (AD) models. Invoking the analogical argument concept from the philosophy of science field, I discuss how models of excessive alcohol drinking support the plausibility of clinical pharmacotherapy effects...
January 28, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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