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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790355/-pathophysiology-of-pain-and-its-clinical-application
#1
Richard Rokyta
The article describes the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic pain. Some common mechanisms of chronic pain, including somatic and visceral pains, are highlighted. There are also some painful syndromes and their pathophysiological mechanisms with a direct relationship to their treatment. In addition to the basic pharmacotherapeutic options resulting from the pathophysiology of pain, new possibilities of pain therapy are also mentioned, especially the neuromodulatory and neurostimulatory methods again from the point of view of pathophysiological principles...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789046/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-the-elderly-a-review-of-the-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants
#2
Laressa Bethishou, Tania Gregorian, Kimberly Won, Kristina Lopez, Laura V Tsu
Objective To provide an up-to-date review of the available evidence regarding pharmacotherapeutic management of venous thromboembolic events in the geriatric population. Data Sources A PubMed search of articles published through August 2017 was performed using a combination of the following words: apixaban, betrixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, enoxaparin, geriatric, heparin, idaricizumab, rivaroxaban, and venous thromboembolism. Study Selection/data Extraction Relevant original research, review articles, and guidelines were assessed for the management of elderly patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE)...
May 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788886/novel-pharmacotherapeutic-approaches-in-treatment-of-alcohol-addiction
#3
Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamad, Jaya Kumar, Shihab Udin Ahmad, Isa Naina Mohamed
In the past two decades, the search for novel pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol addiction been a global endeavour. This has resulted in several drugs that have been approved and successfully marketed for public use while some are still in the testing phase. These pharmacological agents, though effective for the treatment of alcoholism, are not without shortcomings; such as abuse potential, serious mental and physical adverse effects, interaction with alcohol and also poor metabolism and excretion. As more is being understood about the neurobiology of alcohol addiction as well as the unique pharmacological action of these drugs, new agents are evaluated for potential benefits when used as a adjunct in combination therapy...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776685/are-there-pharmacotherapeutic-options-for-underactive-bladder
#4
Nadir I Osman, Christopher R Chapple
Currently, underactive bladder, the symptom-based correlate of the urodynamic diagnosis of detrusor underactivity, has no effective drug treatments. Use of sympathomimetics, targeting cholinergic receptors, is not supported by current evidence. Several potential targets are the subject of ongoing investigation.
May 15, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772526/marine-derived-bioactive-compounds-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Sreeja Lakshmi, Parvathi Prakash, Musthafa M Essa, Walid M Qoronfleh, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song, Suresh Kumar, Preetham Elumalai
Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies using drugs are symbolic in nature as they treat disease manifestation though are found effective in treating cognition...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772338/hyaluronic-acid-an-efficient-biomacromolecule-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-skin-and-joint-diseases-a-review-of-recent-developments-and-critical-appraisal-of-preclinical-and-clinical-investigations
#6
REVIEW
Li Hui Chen, Jian Feng Xue, Zhi Yong Zheng, Muhammad Shuhaidi, Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain
Hyaluronic acid (HA) plays multifaceted role in regulating various biological processes and maintaining homeostasis into the body. Numerous researches evidenced the biomedical implications of HA in skin repairmen, cancer prognosis, wound healing, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation. The present review was aimed to summarize and critically appraise the recent developments and efficacy of HA for treatment of inflammatory skin and joint diseases. A thorough analysis of the literature revealed that HA based formulations (i...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768603/-satisfaction-of-chagas-disease-patients-attended-at-a-pharmaceutical-care-service-in-the-state-of-cear%C3%A3-brazil
#7
Alanna Carla da Costa, Darlan da Silva Cândido, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros Vasconcelos Fidalgo, José Damião da Silva Filho, Carlos Eduardo Menezes Viana, Monise Anne Lima, Mônica Coelho Andrade, Maria de Fátima Oliveira
In 2005, a pharmaceutical care service was created in the State of Ceará to provide pharmacotherapeutic follow-up for individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease). After 10 years of operation, an evaluation was conducted to assess the degree of satisfaction of patients treated under the service. This prospective study used a questionnaire comprising the following sections: socioeconomic data; infrastructure, facilities and operations; pharmaceutical care; and importance of the service. Seventy patients of both sexes and over 18 years of age were interviewed between August 2014 and May 2015...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759903/potential-adverse-drug-events-and-nephrotoxicity-related-to-prophylaxis-with-omeprazole-for-digestive-disorders-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Fabiana Rossi Varallo, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Alice Rosa Alves de Oliveira, Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether prophylaxis for digestive disorders with omeprazole is a risk factor for adverse drug events (ADEs) and kidney impairment. METHODS: This was a 9-month, prospective, double-blinded cohort study performed in a Brazilian public hospital. All inpatients 18 years or older admitted during the period of data collection were divided into 2 cohorts. The first group comprised 200 patients receiving prophylaxis for digestive disorders with omeprazole...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756567/chronic-low-back-pain-current-pharmacotherapeutic-therapies-and-a-new-biological-approach
#9
Karel Pavelka, Hana Jarosova, Olga Sleglova, Radka Svobodova, Leonello Milani, Martina Votavova, Zdenek Prochazka, Lucie Kotlarova, Pavel Kostiuk, Jiri Sliva, Alberto Marco Meroni
The syndrome of chronic low back pain (CLBP) represents one of the leading causes of long-term disability worldwide. The prevalence of CLBP rises significantly in relation to increasing average of life expectancy. CLBP arises by chronification of acute low back pain. There are many factors that contribute to the emergency of CLBP; frequent etiopathogenetic factors include e.g. a functional blockage of intervertebral joints. The treatment of CLBP has a complex character. An important part of treatment consists of pharmacotherapy of pain, under which several groups of drugs are being used...
May 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752633/clinical-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations-in-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#10
REVIEW
Sophie E Berends, Anne S Strik, Mark Löwenberg, Geert R D'Haens, Ron A A Mathôt
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology, probably caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The treatment of patients with active UC depends on the severity, localization and history of IBD medication. According to the classic step-up approach, treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds is the first step in the treatment of mild to moderately active UC. Corticosteroids, such as prednisolone are used in UC patients with moderate to severe disease activity, but only for remission induction therapy because of side effects associated with long-term use...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751356/exploring-novel-pharmacotherapeutic-applications-and-repurposing-potential-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
Tushar Madaan, Ibraheem Husain, Mohamad Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs with a distinctive mechanism of action focusing on renal absorption ofglucose. Apart from its anti-hyperglycemic effects, a multitude of research studies on this classhave revealed that these drugs have far more versatile and comprehensive pharmacologicaleffects than previously believed. Approximately 30% of FDA approved drugs are repurposedand used for indications other than those they were initially intended for...
May 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750475/effects-of-losartan-and-allopurinol-on-cardiorespiratory-regulation-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#12
Barbara J Morgan, Mihaela Teodorescu, David F Pegelow, Emily R Jackson, Devin L Schneider, David T Plante, James P Gapinski, Scott J Hetzel, John M Dopp
Chemoreflex sensitization produced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in rats is attenuated by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) blockade. AT1 R blockade and xanthine oxidase inhibition both ameliorate CIH-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized treatment with losartan and allopurinol would reduce chemoreflex sensitivity and improve hypoxic vasodilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Eighty-six hypertensive patients with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥25 events/hr and no other cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, or metabolic disease were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol, losartan, or placebo for 6 weeks...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742478/autoimmune-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia-reveal-novel-treatment-targets
#13
REVIEW
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735754/an-assessment-of-the-in-vitro-inhibition-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-cyp-udp-glucuronsyltransferases-ugt-and-transporters-by-phosphodiester-or-phosphorothioate-linked-oligonucleotides
#14
Faraz Kazmi, Phyllis Yerino, Chase McCoy, Andrew Parkinson, David B Buckley, Brian W Ogilvie
Oligonucleotides represent an expanding class of pharmacotherapeutics in development for various indications. Typically, oligonucleotides are developed with phosphorothioate linkages for the improvement of biological stability; however limited data are available on the potential of these molecules to cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the present study, two non therapeutic oligonucleotides with either phosphodiester (PD-GP and PD-Ac) or phosphorothioate (PT-GP and PT-Ac) linkages were evaluated in vitro for their potential to inhibit P450s and UGTs in both human liver microsomes (HLM) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (CHH) and to inhibit select transporters in expression systems...
May 7, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730983/the-challenge-of-aging-and-pharmacoterapeutic-complexity-in-the-hiv-patient
#15
Ramón Morillo-Verdugo, José Ramón Blanco Ramos, Laila Abdel-Kader Martín, María Álvarez de Sotomayor
OBJECTIVE: To describe the current knowledge and management of aging and  pharmacotherapeutic complexity in HIV + patients. METHOD: A review of literature was carried out, including articles, originals or  reviews, published in English or Spanish, from 2007 to 2017, which analysed the aging and pharmacotherapeutic complexity in HIV + patients. The terms  «Polypharmacy»/»Polypharmacy», «Aging»/»Aging», «Frailty»/»Fragility»,  «Pharmacotherapeutic Complexity»/»Medication Regimen Complexity» and  «HIV»/"HIV» were combined...
May 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730419/crispr-cas9-gene-editing-of-ryr2-in-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-provides-a-novel-approach-in-investigating-dysfunctional-ca-2-signaling
#16
Hua Wei, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Cassandra Clift, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Martin Morad
Type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) play a pivotal role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling by releasing Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via a Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. Two strategies have been used to study the structure-function characteristics of RyR2 and its disease associated mutations: (1) heterologous cell expression of the recombinant mutant RyR2s, and (2) knock-in mouse models harboring RyR2 point mutations. Here, we establish an alternative approach where Ca2+ signaling aberrancy caused by the RyR2 mutation is studied in human cardiomyocytes with robust CICR mechanism...
April 27, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719417/pharmacotherapeutic-considerations-for-use-of-cannabinoids-to-relieve-pain-in-patients-with-malignant-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Marija Darkovska-Serafimovska, Tijana Serafimovska, Zorica Arsova-Sarafinovska, Sasho Stefanoski, Zlatko Keskovski, Trajan Balkanov
Purpose: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of cannabis preparations for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases, through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were predominantly double-blind trials that compared cannabis preparation to a placebo. Methods: An electronic search of all literature published until June 2017 was made in MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and specific web pages devoted to cannabis...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718436/non-pharmacotherapeutic-interventions-in-travellers-diarrhoea-td
#18
Derek P Evans
Background: This is a review of some of the non-pharmacotherapeutic interventions in travellers diarrhoea (TD) looking particularly at the role of pre and probiotics, the evidence behind water purification and the impact of advice given and its adherence by travellers. Method: A systematic review of the research completed under section using the listed key words and searched using the databases of Google Scholar, Journal of Travel Medicine, QxMD, ReadCube and The Knowledge Network...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715556/chitosan-alginate-nano-carrier-for-transdermal-delivery-of-pirfenidone-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
Marzieh Abnoos, Mojdeh Mohseni, Seyed Ali Javad Mousavi, Khadijeh Ashtari, Roya Ilka, Bita Mehravi
Pirfenidone (PFD) is one of the pyridine family components with anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic effects and US FDA approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Presently, PFD is administered orally and this has setbacks. Hence, it is important to eliminate the pharmacotherapeutic limitations of PFD. This research was carried out to study the possibility of transdermal delivery of PFD using chitosan-sodium alginate nanogel carriers. In order to synthesize chitosan-sodium alginate nanoparticles loaded with PFD, the pre-gelation method was used...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714617/pharmacotherapeutic-reports-as-tools-for-detecting-discrepancies-in-continuity-of-care
#20
Elena Yaiza Romero-Ventosa, Mónica Gayoso-Rey, Marisol Samartín-Ucha, Pablo Lamas-Domínguez, Martín Rubianes-González, David Rodríguez-Lorenzo, María Holanda Rodríguez-Vázquez, Julio García-Comesaña, Guadalupe Piñeiro-Corrales
BACKGROUND: The care transition is the time when more medication errors occur. The aim of this study is to analyze the usefulness of a pharmacotherapeutic report model at hospital discharge to prevent medication errors and to simplify pharmacotherapy during a patient's transition from the hospital to primary care. METHODS: Prospective study including patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were admitted to a short-stay unit or an emergency room...
January 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
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