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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139177/a-structural-overview-of-mycobacterial-adhesins-key-biomarkers-for-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Alfonso De Simone, Rita Berisio
Adherence, colonization, and survival of mycobacteria in host cells require surface adhesins, which are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets. A large arsenal of pilus and non-pilus adhesins have been identified in mycobacteria. These adhesins are capable of interacting with host cells, including macrophages and epithelial cells and are essential to microbial pathogenesis. In the last decade, several structures of mycobacterial adhesins responsible for adhesion to either macrophages or extra cellular matrix proteins have been elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133056/therapeutic-potential-of-songorine-a-diterpenoid-alkaloid-of-the-genus-aconitum
#2
REVIEW
Haroon Khan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Nikolay Mehterov, Diana Gulei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Atanas G Atanasov
Alkaloids are well-studied secondary metabolites, with recent preclinical studies evidencing that many of them exhibit anti-cancer, anti-depressant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial properties. Aconitum is a genus rich of diverse alkaloids. More than 450 alkaloids have been identified in a variety of species. Songorine is a C20 diterpenoid alkaloid and 12-keto analog of napelline, isolated from Aconitum soongaricum and was associated with a heterogeneous panel of biological functions...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127674/pharmacotherapeutic-management-of-pediatric-lymphoma
#3
REVIEW
Christine Mauz-Körholz, Natascha Ströter, Julia Baumann, Ante Botzen, Katharina Körholz, Dieter Körholz
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprise approximately 15% of all childhood malignancies. Cure rates for both lymphoma entities have evolved tremendously during the last couple of decades, raising the 5-year survival rates to almost 100% for HL and to 85% for NHL. The mainstay therapy for both malignancies is still chemotherapy-with different regimens recommended for different types of disease. In HL, combined modality treatment, i.e., chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, has long been the standard regimen...
November 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127441/verification-of-a-genetic-locus-for-methamphetamine-intake-and-the-impact-of-morphine
#4
Emily C Eastwood, Amy J Eshleman, Aaron Janowsky, Tamara J Phillips
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) on proximal chromosome (Chr) 10 accounts for > 50% of the genetic variance in methamphetamine (MA) intake in mice selectively bred for high (MAHDR) and low (MALDR) voluntary MA drinking. The µ-opioid receptor (MOP-r) gene, Oprm1, resides at the proximal end of Chr 10, and buprenorphine reduces MA intake in MAHDR mice. However, this drug has only partial agonist effects at MOP-r. We investigated the impact of a full MOP-r agonist, morphine, on MA intake and saccharin intake, measured MOP-r density and affinity in several brain regions of the MA drinking lines and their C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains, and measured MA intake in two congenic strains of mice to verify the QTL and reduce the QTL interval...
November 10, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118097/molecular-recognition-of-ternary-complexes-a-new-dimension-in-the-structure-guided-design-of-chemical-degraders
#5
REVIEW
Scott J Hughes, Alessio Ciulli
Molecular glues and bivalent inducers of protein degradation (also known as PROTACs) represent a fascinating new modality in pharmacotherapeutics: the potential to knockdown previously thought 'undruggable' targets at sub-stoichiometric concentrations in ways not possible using conventional inhibitors. Mounting evidence suggests these chemical agents, in concert with their target proteins, can be modelled as three-body binding equilibria that can exhibit significant cooperativity as a result of specific ligand-induced molecular recognition...
November 8, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115883/pharmacotherapeutic-options-for-treating-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#6
Carlota Gudiol, Guillermo Cuervo, Evelyn Shaw, Miquel Pujol, Jordi Carratalà
Case-fatality rates for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) remain unacceptably high and have improved only modestly in recent decades. Treatment of SAB is still a clinical challenge, especially if methicillin-resistant strains are involved. New drugs with anti-staphylococcal activity are currently available, and their role as alternatives to standard therapies is being investigated. Areas covered: In this review, we give an update of the current available antibiotics for the treatment of SAB. We provide information regarding the pharmacological characteristics, the accepted indications, and the most important adverse events of the old and new anti- staphylococcal agents, as well as the existing evidence on their use for the treatment of SAB...
November 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112491/predictive-factors-of-hyperglycemia-in-hospitalized-adults-receiving-total-parenteral-nutrition
#7
Teresa García Martínez, Belén Montañes Pauls, Ana María Vicedo Cabrera, Carla Liñana Granell, Raul Ferrando Piqueres
OBJECTIVE: To know those predictive factors of hyperglycemia that could guide  us the design of a parenteral nutrition and it could avoid later complications associated with it. Methods: A prospective observational study was designed; adult hospitalized patients who received total parenteral nutrition at least 48 hours were included. Nutritional and pharmacotherapeutic follow-up were  performed according to usual practice. Variables collected included demographic, clinical, analytical and nutrition and pharmacotherapy...
November 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101800/pharmacotherapeutic-potential-of-phytochemicals-implications-in-cancer-chemoprevention-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Varinder Kaur, Manish Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Kamaldeep Kaur, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Satwinderjeet Kaur
Cancer is a leading cause of disease burden throughout the world. Many cancers develop as a result of exposure to both lifestyle and environmental factors that are potentially modifiable. In the last few years, much of the scientific attention has drawn to the discovery of new and effective chemopreventive agents from natural sources. A multitude of phytoconstituents have been explored for their potential to prevent the occurrence of carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo by means of diverse cellular and molecular approaches...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101616/a-multifaceted-intervention-to-reduce-guideline-non-adherence-among-prescribing-physicians-in-dutch-hospitals
#9
Jacqueline M Bos, Stephanie Natsch, Patricia M L A van den Bemt, Johan L W Pot, J Elsbeth Nagtegaal, Andre Wieringa, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Peter A G M De Smet, Cornelis Kramers
Background Despite the potential of clinical practice guidelines to improve patient outcomes, adherence to guidelines by prescribers is inconsistent. Objective The aim of the study was to determine whether an approach of introducing an educational programme for prescribers in the hospital combined with audit and feedback by the hospital pharmacist reduces non-adherence of prescribing physicians to key pharmacotherapeutic guidelines. Setting This prospective intervention study with a before-after design evaluated patients at surgical, urological and orthopaedic wards...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092775/cytokines-as-therapeutic-targets-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Soledad Retamozo, Alejandra Flores-Chavez, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Francisco Lozano, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Pilar Brito-Zerón
Primary Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that may affect 1 in 1000 people (overwhelmingly women) and that can be a serious disease with excess mortality due to severe organ-specific involvements and the development of B cell lymphoma; systemic involvement clearly marks the disease prognosis, and strongly suggests the need for closer follow-up and more robust therapeutic management. Therapy is established according to the organ involved and severity. As a rule, the management of systemic SjS should be organ-specific, with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents limited to potentially-severe involvements; unfortunately, the limited evidence available for these drugs, together with the potential development of serious adverse events, makes solid therapeutic recommendations difficult...
October 29, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063517/parp-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Jill J J Geenen, Sabine C Linn, Jos H Beijnen, Jan H M Schellens
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, manifesting in a broad differentiation in phenotypes and morphologic profiles, resulting in variable clinical behavior. Between 10 and 20% of all breast cancers are triple negative. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and hormone receptors; therefore, to date, chemotherapy remains the backbone of treatment. TNBC tends to be aggressive and has a high histological grade, resulting in a poor 5-year prognosis...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056150/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-the-new-crf
#12
Jesse R Schank, Markus Heilig
Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as the NK1R influences the activity of the brain stem emesis centers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055920/curcumin-in-hepatobiliary-disease-pharmacotherapeutic-properties-and-emerging-potential-clinical-applications
#13
Robert W Hu, Elizabeth J Carey, Keith D Lindor, James H Tabibian
Curcumin, an aromatic phytoextract from the turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome, has been used for centuries for a variety of purposes, not the least of which is medicinal. A growing body of evidence suggests that curcumin has a broad range of potentially therapeutic pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-neoplastic effects, among others. Clinical applications of curcumin have been hampered by quality control concerns and limited oral bioavailability, although novel formulations appear to have largely overcome these issues...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052582/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Harold R Collard, Annie Pardo, Ganesh Raghu, Luca Richeldi, Moises Selman, Jeffrey J Swigris, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Athol U Wells
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by progressive lung scarring and the histological picture of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). It is associated with increasing cough and dyspnoea and impaired quality of life. IPF affects ∼3 million people worldwide, with incidence increasing dramatically with age. The diagnostic approach includes the exclusion of other interstitial lung diseases or overlapping conditions and depends on the identification of the UIP pattern, usually with high-resolution CT; lung biopsy might be required in some patients...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052117/clinical-impact-of-an-interdisciplinary-patient-safety-program-for-managing-drug-related-problems-in-a-long-term-care-hospital
#15
Oreto Ruiz-Millo, Mónica Climente-Martí, Ana María Galbis-Bernácer, José Ramón Navarro-Sanz
Background Medication reviews intended to identify drug-related problems (DRPs) have been researched in primary care, acute care and nursing homes rather than in long-term care hospitals (LTCHs). Objectives To assess the clinical impact of an interdisciplinary pharmacotherapy quality improvement and patient safety program in elderly patients with polypharmacy admitted to an LTCH. Setting An interventional, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted in a Spanish LTCH Method A total of 162 elderly (≥ 70 years) patients with polypharmacy (≥ 5 medications) were included...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039022/metformin-inhibits-the-development-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-a-murine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Young-Kyoung Ryu, Hye-Yeon Park, Jun Go, Dong-Hee Choi, Yong-Hoon Kim, Jung Hwan Hwang, Jung-Ran Noh, Tae Geol Lee, Chul-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Shim Kim
Metformin is a medication that is widely prescribed for the management of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its anti-diabetic uses, metformin has been proposed as a therapeutically effective drug candidate in various central nervous system disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is characterized by severe movement defects and is commonly treated with the dopamine (DA) precursor 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (L-DOPA). However, prolonged use of L-DOPA can lead to the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID)...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024348/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease-weighing-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
S Alford, D Patel, N Perakakis, C S Mantzoros
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA today; therefore, it is imperative that public health initiatives and clinical strategies are developed to prevent and effectively treat AD. Despite the enormous impact that AD has on individuals, families, society, and the health care system, there are no biomarkers to clearly identify those at risk for AD, public health prevention strategies in place, or treatments to address the underlying pathology or stop the progression of AD. There is ample scientific as well as empirical evidence that obesity and its metabolic and vascular comorbidities are related to AD and likely in the causative pathway...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992739/pharmacogenetic-and-pharmacogenomic-considerations-of-asthma-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Maria Gabriella Matera, Barbara Rinaldi, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic approaches are already utilized in some areas, such as oncology and cardiovascular disease, for selecting appropriate patients and/or establishing treatment and dosing guidelines. This is not true in asthma although many patients have different responses to drug treatment due to genetic factors. Areas covered: Several genetic factors that affect the pharmacotherapeutic responses to asthma medications, such as β2-AR agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers and could contribute to significant between-person variability in response are described...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990593/riluzole-impairs-cocaine-reinstatement-and-restores-adaptations-in-intrinsic-excitability-and-glt-1-expression
#19
Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kati L Healey, Ronald Kim, Alyson C Auriemma, Jennifer Rojas, Nicholas Woronoff, Rachel Hyppolite, Kathryn J Reissner
Adaptations in glutamate signaling within the brain's reward circuitry are observed following withdrawal from several abused drugs, including cocaine. These include changes in intrinsic cellular excitability, glutamate release, and glutamate uptake. Pharmacological or optogenetic reversal of these adaptations have been shown to reduce measures of cocaine craving and seeking, raising the hypothesis that regulation of glutamatergic signaling represents a viable target for the treatment of substance use disorders...
October 9, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986358/pulmonary-vasodilation-by-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-is-enhanced-and-nitric-oxide-independent-in-early-pulmonary-hypertension-after-myocardial-infarction
#20
Richard W B van Duin, Birgit Houweling, Andre Uitterdijk, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Myocardial infarction (MI) may result in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle, has become part of the contemporary therapeutic armamentarium for pulmonary arterial hypertension and may also be of benefit in PH secondary to MI. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important source of cGMP and can be enhanced in early PH and decreased in severe PH. In the present study we investigated if PDE5-inhibition ameliorates pulmonary hemodynamics in swine with PH secondary to MI and whether NO is essential...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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