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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933701/a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study-of-medication-use-among-persons-with-a-gastrointestinal-stoma
#1
Bianca Augusta Pereira de Paula, Geisa Cristina da Silva Alves, Álvaro PercÍnio, Mariana Linhares Pereira, Juliano Teixeira Moraes, Cristina Sanches
Research on the use of medications in people with intestinal stomas is lacking, creating gaps in knowledge of pharmacoepidemiology in these patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted over a period of 4 months in Divinópolis, Brazil to describe the profile of medication use among people enrolled in the Health Support Service for People with Stoma - Level II (SSPS II) of a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All patients from SSPS II with a colostomy or ileostomy were invited by phone to participate; those with incomplete registration data and/or who were <18 years old, hospitalized for any reason, or had their stoma reversed were excluded from participation...
September 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928987/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-depression-and-physical-activity-making-the-neuroplastic-connection
#2
REVIEW
Cristy Phillips
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is vital to the survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in key brain circuits involved in emotional and cognitive function. Convergent evidence indicates that neuroplastic mechanisms involving BDNF are deleteriously altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) and animal models of stress. Herein, clinical and preclinical evidence provided that stress-induced depressive pathology contributes to altered BDNF level and function in persons with MDD and, thereby, disruptions in neuroplasticity at the regional and circuit level...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926093/pulmonary-hypertension-molecular-aspects-of-current-therapeutic-intervention-and-future-direction
#3
Taruna Katyal Arora, Amit KumarArora, Monika Katyal Sachdeva, Satyendra Kumar Rajput, Arun Kumar Sharma
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening lung disorder with towering prevalence and risk for future has been gradually rising worldwide. Even, no specific medications are available for pulmonary hypertension; various classes of treatment based upon the origin and magnitude of hypertension are still used for the treatment of PH. Consideration of molecular or signaling modulation is the imperative approach that can offer a new notion for prevalent pharmacotherapeutic agents. Instead of concurrent targets, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ETA/ETB), phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDF-5), calcium channel blockers, anticoagulants, diuretics and long acting prostacyclin analogue, recent scientific reports revealed the numerous potential alternative therapeutic approaches that can significantly target the pathological signaling alteration associated with PH...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#4
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916907/pharmacokinetic-study-of-piracetam-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#5
Pankaj Paliwal, Debabrata Dash, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911339/emerging-treatments-for-the-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia
#6
Abhinav Anand, Puneet Khurana, Jasneet Chawla, Neha Sharma, Navneet Khurana
Dementia is referred to a loss of memory and decline in other mental abilities at levels critical enough to hinder performance of daily activities. It can be of several types, depending on the underlying pathophysiology. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are various, but the most clinically significant are depression, apathy, and anxiety. Other BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, elation, hallucinations, and alterations in sleep and appetite. About 90% of sufferers of dementia are affected by BPSD during the course of the illness...
September 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892721/glial-and-neuroinflammatory-targets-for-treating-substance-use-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Ryan K Bachtell, Jermaine D Jones, Keith G Heinzerling, Patrick M Beardsley, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND: The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886861/primary-headache-disorders-part-2-tension-type-headache-and-medication-overuse-headache
#8
Gary W Jay, Robert L Barkin
In Part 2 of Primary Headache disorders, we discuss the fourth Primary Headache Disorder, Tension-Type Headache (TTHA). We are again using the ICHD-III (Beta) definitions of such headaches, taking into consideration episodic and chronic TTHA, as well as the presence or absence of pericranial muscle tenderness. We discuss the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapeutic treatment of TTHA, and the aspects of the Myofascial Pain Syndrome that enhance and help the development of TTHA. We then discuss Medication Overuse Headache (MOH), itself a Secondary headache disorder, but one that is extremely important as it assists with the chronification of both migraine and TTHA...
September 5, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886860/primary-headache-disorders-part-i-migraine-and-the-trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias
#9
Gary W Jay, Robert L Barkin
In Primary Headache Disorders, Part 1, we discuss three of the primary headache disorders using the headache definitions from ICHD-III (Beta): Migraine, with and without aura; its pathophysiology and treatment are discussed. We then discuss the Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs), including Cluster Headache and Hemicrania Continua, two more primary headache disorders, as well as the other TAC Headaches. We discuss pathophysiology as well as diagnosis, treatment, and pharmacotherapeutic management of these headache diatheses...
September 5, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884741/-the-nephroprotective-potential-of-peloid-therapy-used-for-the-rehabilitation-of-the-patients-presenting-with-chronic-pyelonephritis
#10
E I Slobodian, N N Kaladze, A L Govdaliuk, E I Kulik
This review article presents the data on the mechanism of action of peloid therapy from the perspective of its defibrosing effect, the structure and functions of the extracellular matrix under the normal and pathological conditions. In addition, role of this treatment modality in the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis which determines the severity and prognosis of chronic pyelonephritis is considered. The researchers are currently carry out the extensive studies aimed at the search of the methods for the primary and secondary prevention of chronic pyelonephritis...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880679/application-of-nanocarrier-based-drug-delivery-system-in-treatment-of-oral-cancer
#11
Abhishek K Sah, Amber Vyas, Preeti K Suresh, Bina Gidwani
Oral cancer includes cancer of lips, oral cavity and oropharynx. Oral cancer is the sixth most life-threatening disease affecting 65% of population. The delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs is a challenging task due to unfavorable properties. Both synthetic chemotherapeutic agents and herbal constituents are used in treatment of oral cancer. The purpose of present article is to overcome the limitations through concept of nanotechnology and conjugation approach. Also, it will provide better therapeutic effect and sustain long life of healthy and recovered cells...
September 7, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879802/anti-nociceptive-interactions-between-opioids-and-a-cannabinoid-receptor-2-agonist-in-inflammatory-pain
#12
Matthew B Yuill, David E Hale, Josée Guindon, Daniel J Morgan
The cannabinoid 1 receptor and cannabinoid 2 receptor can both be targeted in the treatment of pain; yet, they have some important differences. Cannabinoid 1 receptor is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system, whereas cannabinoid 2 receptor is found predominantly, although not exclusively, outside the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate potential interactions between cannabinoid 2 receptor and the mu-opioid receptor in pathological pain. The low level of adverse side effects and lack of tolerance for cannabinoid 2 receptor agonists are attractive pharmacotherapeutic traits...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877605/obesity-paradox-in-patients-with-deep-venous-thrombosis
#13
Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Hassan Al-Thani
We aimed to investigate the association between obesity and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a country with a high prevalence of obesity. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who presented with DVT between 2008 and 2012. Data were analyzed and compared based on body mass index (BMI), and patients were classified into normal (<25), overweight (≥25 to <30), obese I (30 to <35), obese II (35 to <40), and obese III (≥40). Among 662 patients with DVT, 28% were overweight and 49% were obese...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873276/micrornas-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-drug-addiction
#14
REVIEW
A C W Smith, P J Kenny
Chronic use of drugs of abuse results in neurochemical, morphological and behavioral plasticity that underlies the emergence of compulsive drug seeking and vulnerability to relapse during periods of attempted abstinence. Identifying and reversing addiction-relevant plasticity is seen as a potential point of pharmacotherapeutic intervention in drug-addicted individuals. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the actions of drugs of abuse in the brain this information has thus far yielded few novel treatment options addicted individuals...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863384/therapeutical-strategies-for-anxiety-and-anxiety-like-disorders-using-plant-derived-natural-compounds-and-plant-extracts
#15
REVIEW
Julia Fedotova, Peter Kubatka, Dietrich Büsselberg, Alexander G Shleikin, Martin Caprnda, Jozef Dragasek, Luis Rodrigo, Miroslav Pohanka, Iveta Gasparova, Vladimir Nosal, Radka Opatrilova, Tawar Qaradakhi, Anthony Zulli, Peter Kruzliak
Anxiety and anxiety-like disorders describe many mental disorders, yet fear is a common overwhelming symptom often leading to depression. Currently two basic strategies are discussed to treat anxiety: pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. In the pharmacotherapeutical clinical approach, several conventional synthetic anxiolytic drugs are being used with several adverse effects. Therefore, studies to find suitable safe medicines from natural sources are being sought by researchers. The results of a plethora experimental studies demonstrated that dietary phytochemicals like alkaloids, terpenes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, cinnamates, and saponins or various plant extracts with the mixture of different phytochemicals possess anxiolytic effects in a wide range of animal models of anxiety...
August 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844076/synaptic-loss-and-the-pathophysiology-of-ptsd-implications-for-ketamine-as-a-prototype-novel-therapeutic
#16
REVIEW
John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah, Lynette A Averill, Benjamin Kelmendi, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Gerard Sanacora, Steven M Southwick, Ronald S Duman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies of the neurobiology and treatment of PTSD have highlighted many aspects of the pathophysiology of this disorder that might be relevant to treatment. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential clinical importance of an often-neglected consequence of stress models in animals that may be relevant to PTSD: the stress-related loss of synaptic connectivity. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, we will briefly review evidence that PTSD might be a "synaptic disconnection syndrome" and highlight the importance of this perspective for the emerging therapeutic application of ketamine as a potential rapid-acting treatment for this disorder that may work, in part, by restoring synaptic connectivity...
August 26, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842272/pharmacotherapeutic-potential-of-ginger-and-its-compounds-in-age-related-neurological-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Jin Gyu Choi, Sun Yeou Kim, Minsun Jeong, Myung Sook Oh
Age-related neurological disorders (ANDs), including neurodegenerative diseases, are multifactorial disorders with a risk that increases with aging. ANDs are generally characterized by common neuropathological conditions of the central nervous system, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and protein misfolding. Recently, efforts have been made to overcome ANDs because of the increase in age-dependent prevalence. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a popular food spice and has a long history of use in traditional medicine for treating various disease symptoms...
August 24, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842264/evaluation-of-antiviral-activity-of-piperazine-against-chikungunya-virus-targeting-hydrophobic-pocket-of-alphavirus-capsid-protein
#18
Megha Aggarwal, Ramanjit Kaur, Amrita Saha, Rajat Mudgal, Ravi Yadav, Paban Kumar Dash, Manmohan Parida, Pravindra Kumar, Shailly Tomar
Small heterocyclic molecules such as piperazine are potential pharmacotherapeutic agents and binding of these molecules to the hydrophobic pocket of capsid protein (CP) offers a new perspective for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report the crystal structure of CP from Aura virus (AVCP) in complex with piperazine at 2.2 Å resolution. Piperazine binds to the conserved hydrophobic pocket of CP where dioxane based antivirals bind. Comparative structural studies of the piperazine-bound AVCP structure with the apo, active and dioxane-bound AVCP structures provide insights into the conformational variations in the pocket...
August 24, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833332/pharmacotherapeutic-management-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-patients-with-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#19
Adam Sieg, Jeremy D Moretz, Edward Horn, Douglas L Jennings
Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have become an integral component of the management in patients with advanced heart failure, serving as destination therapy or as a bridge to heart transplantation. Despite significant advances in the design and longevity of the device, the ongoing risk for bleeding remains a significant concern. The genesis of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients with CF-LVADs is likely multifactorial and may include components of acquired von Willebrand disease, angiodysplasia, and gastrointestinal arteriovenous malformations, as well as additional risk factors such as history of GIB and increased age...
August 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831925/diabetes-mellitus-and-male-aging-pharmacotherapeutics-and-clinical-implications
#20
Swathi Putta, Ilaria Peluso, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Eswar Kumar Kilari, Anupam Bishayee, Da-Yong Lu, George E Barreto, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Rajeev K Singla, Thonos Alexiou, Atanas G Atanasov, Vadim V Tarasov, P Veera Bramhachari, Sarat Babu Imandi, Madhuri Chintala, Bechan Sharma, Marcella Reale, Rosanna Filosa, Gjumrakch Aliev, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
Andropause or male menopause is defined as androgen decline and onset of hypogonadism in the aging male. Testosterone deficiency in adult male is associated with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. Type 2 diabetic male patients aged above 30 years showed low testosterone levels which is common in diabetic men and had symptoms of hypogonadism. Male sexual dysfunction among diabetic patients can include disorders of libido, ejaculatory problems, and erectile dysfunctions are common among people with diabetes, particularly in older men who had diabetes for years...
August 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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