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Infections ENT

Myra W Popejoy, David L Paterson, Daniel Cloutier, Jennifer A Huntington, Benjamin Miller, Caleb A Bliss, Judith N Steenbergen, Ellie Hershberger, Obiamiwe Umeh, Keith S Kaye
OBJECTIVES: The increase in infections caused by drug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-ENT) is a global concern. The characteristics and outcomes of patients infected with ESBL-ENT were examined in a pooled analysis of Phase 3 clinical trials of ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (ASPECT-cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (ASPECT-cIAI). METHODS: Trials were randomized and double blind. The ASPECT-cUTI regimen was 7 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Elisabeth H Ference, Jin-Young Min, Rakesh K Chandra, James W Schroeder, Jody D Ciolino, Amy Yang, Jane Holl, Stephanie Shintani Smith
BACKGROUND: This study investigates differences in antibiotic prescribing rates for pediatric upper respiratory infections (URIs) between physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs). METHODS: Visits by children <18 years old diagnosed with URI to physicians or NPs between 2001 and 2010 were abstracted from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey. Logistic regression analyses examined variations in antibiotic prescribing rates...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Brigitta G Baumert, Monika E Hegi, Martin J van den Bent, Andreas von Deimling, Thierry Gorlia, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Alba A Brandes, Guy Kantor, Martin J B Taphoorn, Mohamed Ben Hassel, Christian Hartmann, Gail Ryan, David Capper, Johan M Kros, Sebastian Kurscheid, Wolfgang Wick, Roelien Enting, Michele Reni, Brian Thiessen, Frederic Dhermain, Jacoline E Bromberg, Loic Feuvret, Jaap C Reijneveld, Olivier Chinot, Johanna M M Gijtenbeek, John P Rossiter, Nicolas Dif, Carmen Balana, Jose Bravo-Marques, Paul M Clement, Christine Marosi, Tzahala Tzuk-Shina, Robert A Nordal, Jeremy Rees, Denis Lacombe, Warren P Mason, Roger Stupp
BACKGROUND: Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and assessed progression-free survival outcomes and identified predictive molecular factors. METHODS: For this randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study (EORTC 22033-26033), undertaken in 78 clinical centres in 19 countries, we included patients aged 18 years or older who had a low-grade (WHO grade II) glioma (astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, or oligodendroglioma) with at least one high-risk feature (aged >40 years, progressive disease, tumour size >5 cm, tumour crossing the midline, or neurological symptoms), and without known HIV infection, chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection, or any condition that could interfere with oral drug administration...
September 26, 2016: Lancet Oncology
B Peters, E G P M de Bont, J W L Cals
Amoxicillin and paracetamol are the two most widely prescribed and recommended medicines in children. Due to lack of scientific evidence of the most effective dosage, dosing instructions of both medicines are often unclear. In this article we challenge general practitioners, paediatricians, child-health clinic physicians, ENT specialists, pharmacists and guideline committees to critically evaluate the current dosing instructions of these two medicines. The Netherlands paediatric formulary, the Kinderformularium, should become the primary formulary for children in the Netherlands, but it has to be more in line with daily practice, and basic dosing instructions should be less ambiguous: (a) dosing instructions based on body weight instead of age; b) in case of pain, paracetamol should be given 60 mg/kg/day in four divided doses; (c) in case of common uncomplicated infections, amoxicillin should be given orally 60 mg/kg/day in two divided doses; (d) the following should be mentioned on the antibiotic prescription: the daily dose, the number of divided doses, the duration of therapy, the indication for the prescription, and the child's weight...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
A Y Mushkin, E Y Malyarova, V A Evseev, P K Yablonskii
DESIGN: Case report. INTRODUCTION: The combination of severe post-infectious kyphosis and diaphragm relaxation is extremely rare in patient early than 1 year old. Its no publications concerning their simultaneous surgical treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: 7-Month-old girl had simultaneous spinal reconstruction with anterior and posterior instrumentation and plastic of diaphragm because of sequelae of non-granulenatous spondylitis complicated by severe kyphosis (54°) and diaphragm relaxation...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Alison Perry, Siew Hwa Lee, Susan Cotton, Catriona Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer treatment has developed over the last decade, with improved mortality and survival rates, but the treatments often result in dysphagia (a difficulty in swallowing) as a side effect. This may be acute, resolving after treatment, or remain as a long-term negative sequela of head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment. Interventions to counteract the problems associated with dysphagia include swallowing exercises or modification of diet (bolus texture, size), or both...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Manfred Relle, Bernd Föhr, Federica Fasola, Andreas Schwarting
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a severe autoimmune disease and one of the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides. Although its etiology and pathophysiology are still widely unknown, it is accepted that infections, environmental factors, epigenetic modifications, and a genetic predisposition provide the basis for this systemic disorder. GPA typically evolves into two phases: an initial phase characterized by ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations, such as chronic sinusitis and otitis, ulceration of the oral cavity and pharynx, as well as pulmonary nodules and a severe generalized phase, defined by the occurrence of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and arthritis...
August 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Manuel Daumann, Philippe Golfier, Nathalie Knüppel, Matthias Hahn, Torsten Möhlmann
Nucleotide de novo synthesis is an essential pathway in nearly all organisms. Transport processes as well as salvage and catabolism of nucleotides and pathway intermediates are required to balance nucleotide pools. We have analysed the genome of the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea for genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and found a complete set of genes necessary for purine and pyrimidine uptake and salvage based on homology of the gene products to corresponding proteins from Aspergillus nidulans...
August 2016: Fungal Biology
N M Phillips, A Cervin, J Earnshaw, H E Sidjabat
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a serious infection caused by soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is most commonly reported in Northern Australia, Southeast and Southern Asia, China, and Taiwan. METHODS: A case report and short review of the literature are presented. Presentation, diagnosis including genomic sequencing, and acute and long-term management are discussed. RESULTS: A 58-year-old female presented with chronic rhinosinusitis secondary to melioidosis...
July 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Ishan Acharya, Divya Basa, M Kavitha
We report a case of isolated Aspergillus dacryoadenitis. A 23-year-old male presented with dull ache, diffuse swelling in superolateral quadrant of the right orbit and proptosis for 4 months. Ocular examination showed conjunctival congestion, discharge in the fornix and palpable lacrimal gland (LG) mass. Routine hematological investigations followed by computed tomography scan of orbits were done. He did not respond to a course of systemic and topical antibiotics. Lateral orbitotomy with extended lid crease incision was performed with excision biopsy of LG...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Ellen Schatorjé, Michiel van der Flier, Mikko Seppänen, Michael Browning, Megan Morsheimer, Stefanie Henriet, João Farela Neves, Donald Cuong Vinh, Laia Alsina, Anete Grumach, Pere Soler-Palacin, Thomas Boyce, Fatih Celmeli, Ekaterini Goudouris, Grant Hayman, Richard Herriot, Elisabeth Förster-Waldl, Markus Seidel, Annet Simons, Esther de Vries
BACKGROUND: Patients with syndromic features frequently suffer from recurrent respiratory infections, but little is known about the spectrum of immunological abnormalities associated with their underlying chromosomal aberrations outside the well-known examples of Down and DiGeorge syndromes. Therefore, we performed this retrospective, observational survey study. METHODS: All members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) were invited to participate by reporting their patients with chromosomal aberration (excluding Down and DiGeorge syndromes) in combination with one or more identified immunological abnormalities potentially relating to primary immunodeficiency...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
João Pires, Esther Kuenzli, Sara Kasraian, Regula Tinguely, Hansjakob Furrer, Markus Hilty, Christoph Hatz, Andrea Endimiani
We aimed to assess the intestinal colonization dynamics by multiple extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESC-R-Ent) clones in Swiss travelers to India, a country with high prevalence of these multidrug-resistant pathogens. Fifteen healthy volunteers (HVs) colonized with ESC-R-Ent after traveling to India who provided stools before, after, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up are presented in this study. Stools were enriched in a LB broth containing 3 mg/L cefuroxime and plated in standard selective media (BLSE, ChromID ESBL, Supercarba) to detect carbapenem- and/or ESC-R-Ent...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
S Shemesh, S Tamir, A Goldfarb, T Ezri, Y Roth
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infection is the most common non-preventable cause of surgery cancellation. Consequently, surgeons and anaesthesiologists involved in elective ENT surgical procedures frequently face a dilemma of whether to proceed or to postpone surgery in affected children. METHODS: A literature review was conducted and a practical assessment algorithm proposed. CONCLUSION: The risk-benefit assessment should take into consideration the impact of postponing the surgery intended to bring relief to the child and the risks of proceeding with general anaesthesia in an inflamed airway...
September 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Paola Marchisio, Carlotta Pipolo, Massimo Landi, Dario Consonni, Nicola Mansi, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Elisabetta Salvatici, Pasquale Di Pietro, Susanna Esposito, Giovanni Felisati, Nicola Principi
OBJECTIVES: Under physiological conditions, cerumen (Ce) is regularly extruded from the ear canal by a self-cleaning mechanism. Failure of this mechanism leads to excessive accumulation or impaction of Ce. Limited data are available concerning the prevalence of cerumen in healthy and sick infants and children. We assessed the prevalence of Ce in a large population of infants and children and compared the Ce removal attitudes of paediatricians (PEDs) and otorhinolaryngologists (ENTs). METHODS: Children seen in November 2014 for acute respiratory infections, including suspected acute otitis media, or well-being visits, were enrolled...
August 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
V T Pal'chun
This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
K Sharma, M S Pannu, A Arora, V Sharma
A late detection of hearing impairment in children can affect speech and language development. Otitis media with effusion (OME) associated with risk factors like recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) is considered the most common cause of silent hearing impairment among children. So this study was carried out to screen such at risk children for hearing impairment. The study was conducted on 1000 children in the age group of 2-12 years who presented to the OPD of ENT and Pediatrics Department, Govt Medical College with the complaint of recurrent URTI...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Sujata N Muranjan, Satish V Khadilkar, Sanjay C Wagle, Sunila T Jaggi
The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of central skull base osteomyelitis and to discuss the classical imaging findings and various diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced in the management of this condition. This is a retrospective analysis of inpatient case records, carried out in a multidisciplinary tertiary care hospital. The study subjects included five elderly diabetic patients presenting to the ENT surgeon or neurologist with headache followed by multiple cranial nerve paralysis with no temporal bone involvement in four patients and a past history of otitis externa in one patient...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Takahiro Nakashima, Keiji Matsuda, Takumi Okuda, Tetsuya Tono, Minoru Takaki, Tamon Hayashi, Yutaka Hanamure
Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a relatively rare condition and is mainly seen in children. We report of a 7-year-old girl suffering from AARF after cochlear implantation (CI). Fortunately, early diagnosis based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) was made, and the patient was cured with conservative therapy. Nontraumatic AARF, which is also known as Grisel's syndrome and occurs subsequent to neck infections or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery, represents only a small fraction of AARF cases...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Roderick P Venekamp, Martin J Burton, Thijs M A van Dongen, Geert J van der Heijden, Alice van Zon, Anne G M Schilder
BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is characterised by an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear behind an intact tympanic membrane, without the symptoms or signs of acute infection. Since most cases of OME will resolve spontaneously, only children with persistent middle ear effusion and associated hearing loss potentially require treatment. Previous Cochrane reviews have focused on the effectiveness of ventilation tube insertion, adenoidectomy, nasal autoinflation, antihistamines, decongestants and corticosteroids in OME...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rosa van Mansfeld, Angelica de Vrankrijker, Roland Brimicombe, Harry Heijerman, Ferdinand Teding van Berkhout, Cristian Spitoni, Sanne Grave, Cornelis van der Ent, Tom Wolfs, Rob Willems, Marc Bonten
INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation...
2016: PloS One
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