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Ellen Gelpi, Cristina Carrato, Laia Grau-López, Juan Luis Becerra, Roser Garcia-Armengol, Anna Massuet, Laura Cervera, Jordi Clarimon, Katrin Beyer, Ramiro Álvarez
We present unexpected neuropathological findings in a 37 year old woman who underwent surgery for removal of an epidermoid cyst. A first brain MRI at the age of 27 years (due to hyperprolactinemia) showed a cystic lesion in the right prepontine region involving the cisterna ambiens with supratentorial extension. The lesion remained stable until she was 32 year, when it increased in size causing partial compression of the parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain peduncle and lateral pons (Fig. 1). One year later, the patient started to present weekly seizures in form of partial focal complex seizures...
September 7, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Emanuel Tschopp, Octávio Mateus
Diplodocids are among the best known sauropod dinosaurs. Numerous specimens of currently 15 accepted species belonging to ten genera have been reported from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous of North and South America, Europe, and Africa. The highest diversity is known from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the western United States: a recent review recognized 12 valid, named species, and possibly three additional, yet unnamed ones. One of these is herein described in detail and referred to the genus Galeamopus...
2017: PeerJ
Ada J Klinkhamer, D Ray Wilhite, Matt A White, Stephen Wroe
Digital dissection is a relatively new technique that has enabled scientists to gain a better understanding of vertebrate anatomy. It can be used to rapidly disseminate detailed, three-dimensional information in an easily accessible manner that reduces the need for destructive, traditional dissections. Here we present the results of a digital dissection on the appendicular musculature of the Australian estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). A better understanding of this until now poorly known system in C...
2017: PloS One
Cord J Andreas, Xavier Pepin, Constantinos Markopoulos, Maria Vertzoni, Christos Reppas, Jennifer B Dressman
AIMS: When administered orally as either an immediate or modified release dosage form, zolpidem demonstrates a negative food effect, i.e. decrease in Cmax and AUC. The aim of the study was to arrive at a better understanding of the absorption of this BCS class I compound in vivo and to simulate the observed plasma profiles using in vitro and in silico methods. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic profiles of zolpidem are presented from a bioavailability (8mg intravenous; 10mg immediate release Stilnox®; 10mg and 12...
May 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xiaoxiao Ma, Zheng Ouyang
Ambien ionization and miniaturization of mass spectrometers are two fields in mass spectrometry that have advanced significantly in the last decade. The integration of the techniques developed in these two fields is leading to the development of complete miniature analytical systems that can be used for on-site or point-of-care analysis by non-expert users. In this review, we report the current status of development in ambient ionization and miniature mass spectrometers, with an emphasis on those techniques with potential impact on the point-of-care (POC) diagnostics...
December 2016: Trends in Analytical Chemistry: TRAC
David S Uygun, Zhiwen Ye, Anna Y Zecharia, Edward C Harding, Xiao Yu, Raquel Yustos, Alexei L Vyssotski, Stephen G Brickley, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
Zolpidem, a GABAA receptor-positive modulator, is the gold-standard drug for treating insomnia. Zolpidem prolongs IPSCs to decrease sleep latency and increase sleep time, effects that depend on α2 and/or α3 subunit-containing receptors. Compared with natural NREM sleep, zolpidem also decreases the EEG power, an effect that depends on α1 subunit-containing receptors, and which may make zolpidem-induced sleep less optimal. In this paper, we investigate whether zolpidem needs to potentiate only particular GABAergic pathways to induce sleep without reducing EEG power...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeffrey M Derbas, Anjum Sayyad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
M C Mosto
This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae...
February 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Jonathan L Harward, Valerie B Clinard, Michael R Jiroutek, Beverly H Lingerfeldt, Andrew J Muzyk
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Zolpidem is a sedative-hypnotic widely prescribed in the United States. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a drug safety communication regarding its dosing in women. OBJECTIVE: To compare compliance with FDA-approved dosing for zolpidem in women before and after a drug safety communication, and to evaluate compliance based on pharmacy location and prescriber type. METHOD: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study...
2015: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Ann Shastay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Home Healthcare Now
David J McIver, Jared B Hawkins, Rumi Chunara, Arnaub K Chatterjee, Aman Bhandari, Timothy P Fitzgerald, Sachin H Jain, John S Brownstein
BACKGROUND: Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. METHODS: Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, "can't sleep", Ambien, and others...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Garrett C Moraski, Patricia A Miller, Mai Ann Bailey, Juliane Ollinger, Tanya Parish, Helena I Boshoff, Sanghyun Cho, Jeffery R Anderson, Surafel Mulugeta, Scott G Franzblau, Marvin J Miller
Zolpidem (Ambien, 1) is an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide and an approved drug for the treatment of insomnia. As medicinal chemists enamored by how structure imparts biological function, we found it to have strikingly similar structure to the antitubercular imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxyamides. Zolpidem was found to have antituberculosis activity (MIC of 10-50 μM) when screened against replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv. Manipulation of the Zolpidem structure, notably, to structural isomers ("anagrams"), attains remarkably improved potency (5, MIC of 0...
February 13, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
David M Schwope, Anne DePriest, David L Black, Yale H Caplan, Edward J Cone, Rebecca Heltsley
Zolpidem (Ambien(®)) is the most prescribed insomnia treatment in the USA; however, little is known about zolpidem metabolite excretion in chronic pain patients. As zolpidem is extensively metabolized in vivo to zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), metabolite detection may provide improved accuracy for compliance determinations, thereby improving clinical decisions. Zolpidem and ZCA were extracted from 1 mL human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS-MS using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode employed for detection and quantification...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Stephanie C Licata, J Eric Jensen, Nina A Conn, Jeffrey P Winer, Scott E Lukas
Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often use hypnotics like zolpidem (Ambien(®)) to improve sleep in addition to their selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) regimen. SSRIs act in part to restore disrupted GABAergic activity, but benzodiazepines and related drugs have been shown to lower GABA in a way that may be counter to these therapeutic effects. The present within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled study measured changes in GABA in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus of volunteers maintained on SSRIs for the treatment of MDD (n=14) following zolpidem (10mg) administration...
October 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Julieta Carril, María C Mosto, Mariana B J Picasso, Claudia P Tambussi
We studied the hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). Like all parrots, it has zygodactyl feet enabling perching, climbing, hanging, moving easily among trees, and handling food. Muscles were described and weighed, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of four flexors and one extensor was calculated. In comparison to other muscles, the M. tibialis cranialis and the M. fibularis brevis show increased development and high PCSA values, and therefore, large potential force production...
July 2014: Journal of Morphology
R I Alfaro, H D Pierce, J H Borden, A C Oehlschlager
The feeding deterrent activity of fractions from the foliage of western red cedar,Thujaplicata Donn, was studied in laboratory bioassays using the white pine weevil,Pissodes strobi Peck, as a test insect. The most active fraction was the volatile mixture that comprises the leaf oil of this tree species. Further fractionation of the leaf oil indicated feeding deterrent activity in the monoterpene hydrocarbon, thujone, and terpene alcohol fractions. When tested alone, both (-)-3-isothujone and (+)-3-thujone, which made up 75-88% and 5-10% of the leaf oil, respectively, deterred feeding by the weevils...
January 1981: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ronald H Farkas, Ellis F Unger, Robert Temple
Zolpidem (Ambien, Sanofi) is the most widely used prescription drug for insomnia and one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States. Treatment of insomnia, which has important effects on patients' quality of life, may also have larger public health benefits. In its 2006 report, the..
August 22, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Erik J Kaestner, John T Wixted, Sara C Mednick
Sleep affects declarative memory for emotional stimuli differently than it affects declarative memory for nonemotional stimuli. However, the interaction between specific sleep characteristics and emotional memory is not well understood. Recent studies on how sleep affects emotional memory have focused on rapid eye movement sleep (REM) but have not addressed non-REM sleep, particularly sleep spindles. This is despite the fact that sleep spindles are implicated in declarative memory as well as neural models of memory consolidation (e...
October 2013: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Niraj Chapla, Gerard Gallucci, Imran Trimzi, Bradley R Meier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2013: Delaware Medical Journal
Jason M Uslaner, Spencer J Tye, Donnie M Eddins, Xiaohai Wang, Steven V Fox, Alan T Savitz, Jacquelyn Binns, Christopher E Cannon, Susan L Garson, Lihang Yao, Robert Hodgson, Joanne Stevens, Mark R Bowlby, Pamela L Tannenbaum, Joseph Brunner, Terrence P Mcdonald, Anthony L Gotter, Scott D Kuduk, Paul J Coleman, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger
Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs), which promote sleep in preclinical animal models and humans. We compare the effects of orally administered eszopiclone, zolpidem, and diazepam to the dual orexin receptor antagonist DORA-22 on sleep and the novel object recognition test in rat, and on sleep and two cognition tests (delayed match to sample and serial choice reaction time) in the rhesus monkey...
April 3, 2013: Science Translational Medicine
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