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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163364/telomere-length-in-preterm-infants-a-promising-biomarker-of-early-adversity-and-care-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#2
Livio Provenzi, Giunia Scotto di Minico, Roberto Giorda, Rosario Montirosso
Preterm infants present an immature neurobehavioral profile at birth, even in absence of severe brain injuries and perinatal complications. As such, they require a long-lasting hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), which is thought to grant at-risk newborns' survival, but still entails a number of physical, painful, and socio-emotional stressors. Hence, preterm birth and NICU stay represent an early adverse experience, which has been linked to detrimental consequences for neurological, neuro-endocrinal, behavioral, and socio-emotional development, as well as to disease later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163041/revisiting-the-quantum-brain-hypothesis-toward-quantum-neuro-biology
#3
Peter Jedlicka
The nervous system is a non-linear dynamical complex system with many feedback loops. A conventional wisdom is that in the brain the quantum fluctuations are self-averaging and thus functionally negligible. However, this intuition might be misleading in the case of non-linear complex systems. Because of an extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, in complex systems the microscopic fluctuations may be amplified and thereby affect the system's behavior. In this way quantum dynamics might influence neuronal computations...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159958/evaluation-of-a-low-risk-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-intracranial-hemorrhage-emergency-department-observation-protocol
#4
Brian J Yun, Pierre Borczuk, Lulu Wang, Stephen Dorner, Benjamin A White, Ali S Raja
OBJECTIVES: Among emergency physicians, there is wide variation in admitting practices for patients who suffered a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) with an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementing a protocol in the emergency department (ED) observation unit for patients with mild TBI and ICH. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Study subjects were patients ≥18 years of age with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code corresponding to a traumatic IC, and admitted to an ED observation unit (EDOU) of an urban, academic level 1 trauma center between February 1, 2015 and January 31, 2017...
November 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#5
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158049/down-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-pathways-by-tanshinone-iia-and-cryptotanshinone-in-a-non-genetic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Francesco Maione, Marialuisa Piccolo, Simona De Vita, Maria Giovanna Chini, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen De Caro, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Rita Santamaria, Carlo Irace, Vincenzo De Feo, Antonio Calignano, Nicola Mascolo, Giuseppe Bifulco
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia mainly characterized by the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Additionally, increasing evidence demonstrates that a neuro-inflammatory state plays a key role in the development of this disease. Beside synthetic drugs, the use of natural compounds represents an alternative for the development of new potential drugs for the treatment of AD. Among these, the root of Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge (also known as Danshen) used for the treatment of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease and CNS functional decline in Chinese traditional medicine is one of the most representative examples...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154289/subjective-reality-and-brain-topology-inversion-transformations-on-non-orientable-atomic-surfaces-of-membrane-channels
#7
Gustav Bernroider
Subject-object relations reflect the relation of phenomenology and physics and are at the centre of interest in brain research and neuro-psychology. The unresolved dichotomy behind this relation is one of the most challenging questions of our time. Setting out from causal modelling I suggest a particular topology for subject-object relations and argue that we can find a physical realization in living organism that provides a continuous transform between both domains. In a geometrical metaphor this transform has the topological properties of a one-sided surface or non-orientable flat...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154284/palmitoylethanolamide-blunts-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-induced-astrocyte-activation-and-improves-neuronal-survival-in-primary-mouse-cortical-astrocyte-neuron-co-cultures
#8
Sarah Beggiato, Andrea Celeste Borelli, Luca Ferraro, Sergio Tanganelli, Tiziana Antonelli, Maria Cristina Tomasini
BACKGROUND: Based on the pivotal role of astrocytes in brain homeostasis and the strong metabolic cooperation existing between neurons and astrocytes, it has been suggested that astrocytic dysfunctions might cause and/or contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes. Therapeutic approaches aimed at both neuroprotection and neuroinflammation reduction may prove particularly effective in slowing the progression of these diseases. The endogenous lipid mediator palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) displayed neuroprotective and anti(neuro)inflammatory properties, and demonstrated interesting potential as a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148114/on-the-character-and-production-of-active-participation-in-neuro-rehabilitation-an-actor-network-perspective
#9
Simon Horton, Kathryn Mares, Neil Coull, Fiona Poland
The importance of patients' active involvement in neuro-rehabilitation after acquired brain injury has been consistently emphasised in recent years. However, most approaches fail to show how 'active participation' is practically enacted, focusing on individualised explanations of patient choice and behaviours, or notions of inherent patient traits. Using actor-network theory (ANT) as a sensitising concept, we investigated neuro-rehabilitation practices, asking how participation is shaped through biological and socio-material specificities, how rights to knowledge and expertise are constructed, and how a body acclimatises and adjusts within an order of participation and transformation...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147859/initial-psycho-oncological-counselling-in-neuro-oncology-analysis-of-topics-and-needs-of-brain-tumour-patients
#10
Stephanie Schipmann, Eric Suero Molina, Anna Frasch, Walter Stummer, Dorothee Wiewrodt
Diagnosis of a brain tumour is associated with a tremendous disruption of emotional, physical and social well-being. Due to the complexity of the disease and the affection of the central organ, the brain, brain tumour patients differ from other cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concerns and burdens presented by brain tumour patients during their initial psycho-oncological consultation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 53 patients with the diagnosis of either benign or malignant brain tumour, seeking counsel by a neurosurgeon specialised in psycho-oncology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146215/-acute-methotrexate-related-neurotoxicity-and-pseudo-stroke-syndrome
#11
V Deneux, N Leboucq, L Saumet, S Haouy, T Akbaraly, N Sirvent
Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia requires high-dose systemic and/or intrathecal methotrexate to prevent and/or treat central nervous system disorders. Acute neurotoxicity of methotrexate, of unknown etiopathogenesis, is characterized by the polymorphism of clinical manifestations, responsible for a potentially harmful diagnostic delay in these immunosuppressed patients. We describe five episodes of transient acute leukoencephalopathy mimicking a stroke, reported in the literature as "pseudo-stroke syndrome"...
November 13, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142631/mortality-and-epidemiology-in-256-cases-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-korean-neuro-trauma-data-bank-system-kntdbs-2010-2014
#12
Hee-Won Jeong, Seung-Won Choi, Jin-Young Youm, Jeong-Wook Lim, Hyon-Jo Kwon, Shi-Hun Song
Objective: Among pediatric injury, brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. To improve outcomes, many developed countries built neurotrauma databank (NTDB) system but there was not established nationwide coverage NTDB until 2009 and there have been few studies on pediatric traumatic head injury (THI) patients in Korea. Therefore, we analyzed epidemiology and outcome from the big data of pediatric THI. Methods: We collected data on pediatric patients from 23 university hospitals including 9 regional trauma centers from 2010 to 2014 and analyzed their clinical factors (sex, age, initial Glasgow coma scale, cause and mechanism of head injury, presence of surgery)...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142557/outcome-of-burr-hole-aspiration-of-brain-abscess
#13
Shakeel Ahmad, Lal Rehman, Ali Afzal, Raza Rizvi
Objective: To determine the clinical outcome of burr-hole aspiration of brain abscess. Methods: We analyzed 100 cases of intracranial abscess, treated surgically from January 2015 and October 2016 at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC). All patients were treated with burr hole aspiration. Medical records were analyzed for demographics, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, abscess location on imaging and clinical outcomes were charted. Results: The study included 100 patients with 73 (73%) males and 27 (27%) females with a mean age of 36...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141278/a-survey-of-the-neuro-oncology-landscape
#14
REVIEW
Rimas V Lukas, Jing Wu, Mahua Dey, Robin A Buerki, Richard W Byrne, George J Dohrmann
The field of neuro-oncology is evolving rapidly. Many important advances have recently been reported, and other promising investigations have the potential to soon make substantial impacts in the field, especially in the areas of high-grade gliomas and brain metastases. We present an overview of the current status of this field, highlighting the key recent advances as well as representative work of key clinical investigations, since these concepts have the potential to influence clinical management if they are demonstrated to be safe and efficacious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136779/juglanin-ameliorates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-cell-culture-via-inactivating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Fang-Xue Zhang, Ren-Shi Xu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neuro-degenerative disorder, and novel therapeutic targets are required for the treatment of PD. Juglanin is a natural compound extracted from the crude Polygonum aviculare, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. In our study, PD in mice was induced by systemic LPS treatment as evidenced by enhanced α-synuclein and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which were reversed by juglanin treatment. Moreover, juglanin administration attenuated LPS-caused behavioral and memory impairments and reduced LPS-induced enhancement of neuro-degenerative markers, including amyloid β (Aβ) and p-Tau...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135901/clinical-factors-associated-with-pediatric-brain-neoplasms-versus-primary-headache-a-case-control-analysis
#16
David C Sheridan, Bethany Waites, Bradley Lezak, Robert J Coryell, Kellie J Nazemi, Amber L Lin, Rongwei Fu, Matthew L Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric headaches are a common presentation to emergency departments accounting for almost half a million annual visits. Providers are left with the difficult task of deciding who has a secondary headache etiology that warrants neuroimaging. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Patients from a pediatric neuro-oncology clinic database with brain cancer and a headache at presentation were identified as cases. Controls were patients from 2 local pediatric tertiary care emergency departments with a final diagnosis of headache after negative neuroimaging...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128669/wip1-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-function-and-neuro-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-via-the-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-signaling-pathway
#17
Hong Zhen, Lize Zhao, Zhangjun Ling, Li Kuo, Xiarui Xue, Jiaxiu Feng
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a diffusion barrier that maintains the brain environment. Wip1 is a nuclear phosphatase induced by many factors and involved in various stresses, tumorigenesis, organismal aging, and neurogenesis. Wip1's role in BBB integrity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Wip1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BBB dysfunction and inflammation in an in vitro BBB model. The in vitro BBB model was established by co-culturing human brain-microvascular endothelial cells and human astrocytes and then exposing them to 1μg/ml LPS for 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48h...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125266/decision-making-in-very-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-glasgow-coma-scale-3-5-a-literature-review-of-acute-neurosurgical-management-of-the-most-severely-threatened-brain-trauma-patients
#18
Jeroen van Dijck, Florence Reith, Inge van Erp, Thomas van Essen, Andrew Maas, Wilco C Peul, Godard de Ruiter
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with an early GCS score of 3-5 after blunt or penetrating skull-brain assaults are categorized as having sustained a very severe Traumatic Brain Injury (vs-TBI). This category is often overlooked in literature. Impact on patients and families lives however is huge and the question "whether to surgically treat or not" frequently poses a dilemma to treating physicians. Little is known about mortality and outcome, compared to what is known for the group of severe TBI patients (s-TBI) (GCS 3- 8)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122553/fisetin-as-a-caloric-restriction-mimetic-protects-rat-brain-against-aging-induced-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-neurodegeneration
#19
Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Geetika Garg, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
AIM: In the present study, attempts have been made to evaluate the potential role of fisetin, a caloric restriction mimetic (CRM), for neuroprotection in D-galactose (D-gal) induced accelerated and natural aging models of rat. MAIN METHODS: Fisetin was supplemented (15mg/kg b.w., orally) to young, D-gal induced aged (D-gal 500mg/kg b.w subcutaneously) and naturally aged rats for 6weeks. Standard protocols were employed to measure pro-oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential in brain tissues...
November 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121778/intraoperative-image-guided-surgery-in-neuro-oncology-with-specific-focus-on-high-grade-gliomas
#20
Syed O Mahboob, Muftah Eljamel
Surgery is paramount in glioma management and extent of resection is an independent significant prognostic factor. However, these tumors are often invisible intraoperatively. Hence imaging plays an important role in surgical guidance. A critical literature review, using MEDLINE/PubMed service was carried out. It demonstrated a gross total resection (GTR) with neuronavigation (NNS) of 31-36%, adding 5-aminolevulinic acid or fluorescein fluorescence, or intraoperative ultrasound or MRI improved GTR to 69.1, 84...
November 2017: Future Oncology
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