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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917203/mirna-26a-promotes-angiogenesis-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-infarction-via-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-erk-pathway
#1
Z Liang, Y-J Chi, G-Q Lin, S-H Luo, Q-Y Jiang, Y-K Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific role of microRNA-26 (miRNA-26a) in a rat model of cerebral ischemic stroke and the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established to induce permanent cerebral infarction. Neuro-behavior was observed and scored after model establishment. The expression of miRNA-26a in brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) of rats after cerebral ischemic stroke was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915651/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-after-bevacizumab-therapy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#2
Mohsin Hamid, Ali Ghani, Ida Micaily, Usman Sarwar, Bilal Lashari, Faizan Malik
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an increasingly recognizable neuro-clinical syndrome. Clinical and neurological manifestations of PRES include hypertension, headache, encephalopathy, seizures, and symmetrical white matter changes on brain MRI. Most common precipitants of PRES are acute medical illness, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia, immunosuppressive therapy, and chemotherapy. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that halts angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914996/a-peircean-account-of-concepts-grounding-abstraction-in-phylogeny-through-a-comparative-neuroscientific-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Cuccio, Vittorio Gallese
The nature of concepts has always been a hotly debated topic in both philosophy and psychology and, more recently, also in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts have been proposed of what concepts are. These accounts reflect deeply different conceptions of how the human mind works. In the last decades, two diametrically opposed theories of human cognition have been discussed and empirically investigated: the Computational Theory of Mind, on the one hand (Fodor 1983 The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology ; Pylyshyn 1984 Computation and cognition: toward a foundation for cognitive science ), and Embodied Cognition (Barsalou 2008 Annu...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914796/convection-enhanced-delivery-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-a-single-centre-dose-escalation-phase-1-trial
#4
Mark M Souweidane, Kim Kramer, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Zhiping Zhou, Sofia Haque, Pat Zanzonico, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Serge K Lyashchenko, Sunitha B Thakur, Maria Donzelli, Ryan S Turner, Jason S Lewis, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Steven M Larson, Ira J Dunkel
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is one of the deadliest central nervous system tumours of childhood, with a median overall survival of less than 12 months. Convection-enhanced delivery has been proposed as a means to efficiently deliver therapeutic agents directly into the brainstem while minimising systemic exposure and associated toxic effects. We did this study to evaluate the safety of convection-enhanced delivery of a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting the glioma-associated B7-H3 antigen in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
June 15, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910162/corpus-callosum-and-cerebellar-vermis-size-in-very-preterm-infants-relationship-to-long-term-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#5
Po-Ming Wu, Hsin-I Shih, Wen-Hao Yu, Li-Wen Chen, Lie-Chuan Wang, Chao-Ching Huang, Yi-Fang Tu
BACKGROUND: The neonatal changes of corpus callosum or cerebellar volume in preterm infants have been shown to link with abnormal mentality and motor disability in early childhood. This study aims to predict the long-term neurological outcomes by measuring these changes on neonatal brain ultrasound in preterm infants. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of infants aged below 32 weeks' gestation with very low birth body weights who completed neuro-assessments at 5 years of age...
June 1, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909495/the-neuro-immune-regulators-niregs-promote-tissue-resilience-a-vital-component-of-the-host-s-defense-strategy-against-neuroinflammation
#6
REVIEW
Yosra Bedoui, Jim W Neal, Philippe Gasque
An effective protective inflammatory response in the brain is crucial for the clearance of pathogens (e.g. microbes, amyloid fibrils, prionSC ) and should be closely regulated. However, the CNS seems to have limited tissue resilience to withstand the detrimental effects of uncontrolled inflammation compromising functional recovery and tissue repair. Newly described neuro-immune-regulators (NIREGs) are functionally related proteins regulating the severity and duration of the host inflammatory response. NIREGs such as CD200, CD47 and CX3CL1 are vital for increasing tissue resilience and are constitutively expressed by neurons...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908718/effects-of-cognitive-and-motor-rehabilitation-in-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-a-case-report
#7
Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Marcella Di Cara, Simona De Salvo, Giuliana Vermiglio, Patrizia Pollicino, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino, Carmela Rifici
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, that implies neurobiologic, psychological, and social consequences. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an electro-clinical state associated to altered level of consciousness. In NCSE could occur the behavioural and emotional disorder, cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorder with a negative impact on quality of life and adaptive social behaviours. Cognitive rehabilitation for epileptic patients may include internal compensation strategies, external memory aids, psychoeducation, verbal and visual memory training, attention exercise and executive functions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907813/early-life-and-pubertal-stress-differentially-modulate-grey-matter-development-in-human-adolescents
#8
Anna Tyborowska, Inge Volman, Hannah C M Niermann, J Loes Pouwels, Sanny Smeekens, Antonius H N Cillessen, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
Animal and human studies have shown that both early-life traumatic events and ongoing stress episodes affect neurodevelopment, however, it remains unclear whether and how they modulate normative adolescent neuro-maturational trajectories. We characterized effects of early-life (age 0-5) and ongoing stressors (age 14-17) on longitudinal changes (age 14 to17) in grey matter volume (GMV) of healthy adolescents (n = 37). Timing and stressor type were related to differential GMV changes. More personal early-life stressful events were associated with larger developmental reductions in GMV over anterior prefrontal cortex, amygdala and other subcortical regions; whereas ongoing stress from the adolescents' social environment was related to smaller reductions over the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904027/chaperonology-the-third-eye-on-brain-gliomas
#9
Francesca Graziano, C Caruso Bavisotto, A Marino Gammazza, Francesca Rappa, Everly Conway de Macario, Albert J L Macario, Francesco Cappello, Claudia Campanella, Rosario Maugeri, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada Phase III trial has validated as a current regimen for high-grade gliomas (HGG) a maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide. However, it is essential to balance maximal tumor resection with preservation of the patient’s neurological functions. Important developments in the fields of pre-operative and intra-operative neuro-imaging and neuro-monitoring have ameliorated the survival rate and the quality of life for patients affected by HGG...
June 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902500/the-role-of-neuro-epithelial-like-and-radial-glial-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-development-plasticity-and-repair
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin W Lindsey, Zachary J Hall, Aurélie Heuzé, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Vincent Tropepe, Jan Kaslin
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are the primary source of new neurons in the brain and serve critical roles in tissue homeostasis and plasticity throughout life. Within the vertebrate brain, NSPCs are located within distinct neurogenic niches differing in their location, cellular composition, and proliferative behaviour. Heterogeneity in the NSPC population is hypothesized to reflect varying capacities for neurogenesis, plasticity and repair between different neurogenic zones. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, studies have predominantly focused on the behaviour and biological significance of adult NSPCs (aNSPCs) in rodents...
June 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900681/envisioning-the-future-of-polymer-therapeutics-for-brain-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Fernanda Rodriguez-Otormin, Aroa Duro-Castano, Inmaculada Conejos-Sánchez, María J Vicent
The growing incidence of brain-related pathologies and the problems that undermine the development of efficient and effective treatments have prompted both researchers and the pharmaceutical industry to search for novel therapeutic alternatives. Polymer therapeutics (PT) display properties well suited to the treatment of neuro-related disorders, which help to overcome the many hidden obstacles on the journey to the central nervous system (CNS). The inherent features of PT, derived from drug(s) conjugation, in parallel with the progress in synthesis and analytical methods, the increasing knowledge in molecular basis of diseases, and collected clinical data through the last four decades, have driven the translation from "bench to bedside" for various biomedical applications...
June 14, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897225/establishment-of-a-human-ipsc-and-nanofiber-based-microphysiological-blood-brain-barrier-system
#12
Dianjun Qi, Shaohua Wu, Haishuang Lin, Mitchell A Kuss, Yuguo Lei, Alexey Krasnoslobodtsev, Shaheen Ahmed, Chi Zhang, Hyung Joon Kim, Peng Jiang, Bin Duan
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an active and complex diffusion barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid, regulates nutrient transportation, and provides protection against various toxic compounds and pathogens. Creating an in vitro microphysiological BBB system, particularly with relevant human cell types, will significantly facilitate the research of neuro-pharmaceutical drug delivery, screening, and transport, as well as improve our understanding of pathologies that are due to BBB damage...
June 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896129/gut-brain-axis-and-mood-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Lu Liu, Gang Zhu
Humans have over 100 trillion bacteria, highly abundant in the intestinal tract. Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota is associated with the neuro-endocrine-immune pathways and can be associated with various mood disorders. This review summarizes findings from studies looking into neurobiochemical, neuroendocrine, and neuroimmune system mechanisms of the gut-brain axis to determine the relationship between intestinal microbiota and mood disorders. The effect of prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics on mood disorders are also discussed, with the aim to propose some new therapeutic strategies for mood disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895892/large-scale-mapping-of-cortical-alterations-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-convergence-with-idiopathic-psychosis-and-effects-of-deletion-size
#14
Daqiang Sun, Christopher R K Ching, Amy Lin, Jennifer K Forsyth, Leila Kushan, Ariana Vajdi, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Laura Hansen, Julio E Villalon-Reina, Xiaoping Qu, Rachel K Jonas, Therese van Amelsvoort, Geor Bakker, Wendy R Kates, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Linda E Campbell, Kathryn L McCabe, Eileen Daly, Maria Gudbrandsen, Clodagh M Murphy, Declan Murphy, Michael Craig, Jacob Vorstman, Ania Fiksinski, Sanne Koops, Kosha Ruparel, David R Roalf, Raquel E Gur, J Eric Schmitt, Tony J Simon, Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Courtney A Durdle, Anne S Bassett, Eva W C Chow, Nancy J Butcher, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Joanne Doherty, Adam Cunningham, Marianne B M van den Bree, David E J Linden, Hayley Moss, Michael J Owen, Kieran C Murphy, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Beverly Emanuel, Theo G M van Erp, Jessica A Turner, Paul M Thompson, Carrie E Bearden
The 22q11.2 deletion (22q11DS) is a common chromosomal microdeletion and a potent risk factor for psychotic illness. Prior studies reported widespread cortical changes in 22q11DS, but were generally underpowered to characterize neuroanatomic abnormalities associated with psychosis in 22q11DS, and/or neuroanatomic effects of variability in deletion size. To address these issues, we developed the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis) 22q11.2 Working Group, representing the largest analysis of brain structural alterations in 22q11DS to date...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893758/early-and-rapid-detection-of-uchl1-in-the-serum-of-brain-trauma-patients-a-novel-gold-nanoparticle-based-method-for-diagnosing-the-severity-of-brain-injury
#15
Gyaninder Pal Singh, Richa Nigam, Gaurav Singh Tomar, Mohan Monisha, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi, Arulselvi S, Kangana Sengar, Deepa Akula, Prashanth Panta, Roy Anindya
The clinical diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is based on neurological examination and neuro-imaging tools such as CT scanning and MRI. However, neurological examination at times may be confounded by consumption of alcohol or drugs and neuroimaging facilities may not be available at all centers. Human ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCHL1) is a well-accepted serum biomarker for severe TBI and can be used to detect the severity of a head injury. A reliable, rapid, cost effective, bedside and easy to perform method for the detection of UCHL1 is a pre-requisite for wide clinical applications of UCHL1 as a TBI biomarker...
June 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893200/retinal-parameters-as-compared-with-head-circumference-height-weight-and-body-mass-index-in-children-in-kenya-and-bhutan
#16
Sara J Grundy, Lhab Tshering, Stanley W Wanjala, Megan B Diamond, Martin S Audi, Sashank Prasad, Russell T Shinohara, Debora Rogo, Dechen Wangmo, Ugyen Wangdi, Abi Aarayang, Thukten Tshering, Thomas F Burke, Farrah J Mateen
The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT ( iScan ; Optovue, Inc...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891849/pervasive-influence-of-idiosyncratic-associative-biases-during-facial-emotion-recognition
#17
Marwa El Zein, Valentin Wyart, Julie Grèzes
Facial morphology has been shown to influence perceptual judgments of emotion in a way that is shared across human observers. Here we demonstrate that these shared associations between facial morphology and emotion coexist with strong variations unique to each human observer. Interestingly, a large part of these idiosyncratic associations does not vary on short time scales, emerging from stable inter-individual differences in the way facial morphological features influence emotion recognition. Computational modelling of decision-making and neural recordings of electrical brain activity revealed that both shared and idiosyncratic face-emotion associations operate through a common biasing mechanism rather than an increased sensitivity to face-associated emotions...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890272/emerging-strategies-and-future-perspective-in-neuro-oncology-using-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology
#18
REVIEW
Giada Toccaceli, Roberto Delfini, Claudio Colonnese, Antonino Raco, Simone Peschillo
Despite the progress achieved in recent years, the prognosis of patients with primary brain tumors remains poor. Research efforts have therefore focused on identifying more effective and minimally invasive treatment methods. MR guided transcranial focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a consolidated minimally invasive therapeutic technique, which has recently acquired a role also in the treatment of some non-oncological intracranial pathologies. In this article, we've reviewed the latest studies to take stock of the potential that this method can offer...
June 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889788/vestibular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Takamori Takeda, Yoshiyuki Kawashima, Chiaki Hirai, Ayane Makabe, Taku Ito, Taro Fujikawa, Katsura Yamamoto, Ayako Maruyama, Takeshi Tsutsumi
OBJECTIVE: To describe the vestibular function in patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCN). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ten consecutive patients with SSCN. This study is the largest case series of SSCN in which detailed neuro-otological findings, including electronystagmography recording, video head impulse test (vHIT), and posturography, were described...
July 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888561/-our-considerations-about-studies-on-structure-of-acupuncture-points
#20
Chen She, Dong-Sheng Xu, Jing-Jing Cui, Jia Wang, Wei He, Xiao-Yu Wang, Xiang-Hong Jing, Wan-Zhu Bai
The anatomical structure of acupuncture points is the carrier for needling stimulation induced neurobiological effects. Although researchers have never stopped investigating its structure and experienced different stages from macroscopic to microcosmic morphological material basis, our understanding still largely lags behind the requirements of the times. In the present paper, we review development of researches on acupuncture points in recent decades from 1) macroscopic anatomical structure including skin, bones, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, etc...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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