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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651369/reduced-thalamus-volume-may-reflect-nicotine-severity-in-young-male-smokers
#1
Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Bo Liu, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu
Introduction: Nicotine acts as an agonist at presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and to facilitate synaptic release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. The thalamus has the highest density of nAChRs in the brain, which may make this area be more vulnerable to the addictive effects of nicotine. However, the volume of thalamus abnormalities and the association with smoking behaviors in young smokers remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-six young male smokers and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched nonsmokers participated in current study...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647633/nicotine-dependence-and-willingness-to-quit-smoking-in-vascular-surgery-patients
#2
Matthew R Smeds, Anna Privratsky, Carol R Thrush, Claudia P Barone, Guillermo A Escobar, Ahsan T Ali, Mohammed M Moursi
OBJECTIVE: Smoking rates have declined, however it remains the primary modifiable risk factor for vascular disease. While vascular surgeons often advise patients to quit, few provide assistance. We sought to understand patients' interest in quitting and determine factors that influence this willingness to quit. METHODS: Anonymous surveys were given to vascular surgery clinic patients in a single institution over a 5-month period. Demographic information, smoking status, cessation attempts, and barriers to quitting were obtained...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645199/do-neurobiological-understandings-of-smoking-influence-quitting-self-efficacy-or-treatment-intentions
#3
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Jayne Lucke, Brad Partridge, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Addiction is increasingly defined as a "brain disease" caused by changes to neurochemistry. While nicotine addiction has historically been excluded in the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), it is beginning to be labelled a chronic brain disease. We investigated whether Australian smokers endorse brain-based explanations of smoking, and whether these beliefs are associated with quitting self-efficacy or treatment intentions. Method: Cross-sectional study of Australian smokers (N=1,538) who completed a survey measuring their agreement with statements on the brain's role in smoking...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643739/patterns-of-tobacco-usage-among-subjects-with-potentially-malignant-oral-lesions-or-conditions-in-chennai-city-a-comparative-study
#4
Mohammed Junaid, Kalaiarasi Periyanan, Anil Raj, P D Madan Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the patterns of tobacco usage among subjects with potentially malignant oral lesions or conditions through a comparative study design. METHODS: The study was carried out in a span of 2 months on a sample of 120 subjects; 60 in case group (30 subjects with leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis [OSMF], respectively) and 60 subjects in control group (30 current smokers and current chewers, respectively), attending the tobacco cessation clinic at a private dental college hospital in Chennai city...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641491/nicotine-and-cigarette-smoke-modulate-nrf2-bdnf-dopaminergic-signal-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-adult-rat-cerebral-cortex
#5
Nibedita Naha, D N Gandhi, A K Gautam, J Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Nicotine and cigarette smoking (CS) are associated with addiction behavior, drug-seeking, and abuse. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association especially, the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine (DA), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the cerebral cortex, are not fully known. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of BDNF and DA, and suppression of Nrf2 contribute to several pathological and behavioral alterations in adult cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641297/factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-and-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-revised-italian-version
#6
Andrea Svicher, Agnese Beghè, Giacomo Mangiaracina, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We run Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and of the MNWS-Revised (MNWS-R). Psychometric properties were also explored. METHODS: Adult Italian smokers, 366 in all, were assessed via the MNWS-R together with rating scales measuring cigarette dependence, alcohol use, anxiety sensitivity and negative affect at baseline and after 3 months. RESULTS: The MNWS showed good psychometric properties (α = 0...
June 23, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640563/-smoking-vaping-and-cardiovascular-risk-an-update
#7
Sofia Dalkou, Carole Clair
It is well known that tobacco smoking increases cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity, however, smoking cessation is often neglected compared to other CV risk factors. Behavioral counseling as well as smoking cessation treatments are efficient and do not increase the risk of CV events when used for a defined duration. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) contain potentially cardiotoxic substances but in lower concentrations than in cigarettes. The CV effect of ENDS is to date difficult to assess and depends on the type of device used and its mode of consumption...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#8
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634162/linking-the-content-to-demographic-reach-of-online-advertising-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems
#9
David S Timberlake, Dmitriy Nikitin, Jennifer Garcia-Cano, Samantha Cino, Margarita Savkina, Cornelia Pechmann
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have separately examined the content and demographic reach of the advertising of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). No study to our knowledge has linked the two in investigating whether racial/ethnic groups are differentially exposed to the comparative messages conveyed in online ENDS advertisements. METHODS: 932 unique ENDS advertisements (6311 total), which were posted on 3435 websites between December, 2009 and October, 2015, were categorized as either comparative or non-comparative with respect to the traditional cigarette...
June 20, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629854/inhibition-of-organic-anion-transporter-oat-activity-by-cigarette-smoke-condensate
#10
Katia Sayyed, Marc Le Vee, Ziad Abdel-Razzak, Olivier Fardel
Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has previously been shown to impair activity and expression of hepatic drug transporters. In the present study, we provided evidence that CSC also hinders activity of organic anion transporters (OATs), notably expressed at the kidney level. CSC thus cis-inhibited OAT substrate uptake in OAT1- and OAT3-transfected HEK293 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=72.1μg/mL for OAT1 inhibition and IC50=27.3μg/mL for OAT3 inhibition). By contrast, OAT4 as well as the renal organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 were less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of CSC (IC50=351...
June 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627253/protective-effects-of-quercetin-on-nicotine-induced-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Amir Yarahmadi, Fatemeh Zal, Ayeh Bolouki
Nicotine is a natural component of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nicotine has been recognized to result in oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this work was to estimate the hepatotoxicity effect of nicotine on viability and on antioxidant defense system in cultures of HepG2 cell line and the other hand, ameliorative effect of querctin (Q) as an antioxidant was analyzed. Nicotine induced concentration dependent loss in HepG2 cell line viability...
June 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624697/waterpipe-smoking-patterns-and-symptoms-of-nicotine-dependence-the-waterpipe-dependence-in-lebanese-youth-study
#12
Raed Bahelah, Joseph R DiFranza, Kenneth D Ward, Thomas Eissenberg, Fouad M Fouad, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Rana Jaber, Wasim Maziak
INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe typically is smoked intermittently over long smoking sessions. Waterpipe is addictive and its users show symptoms of nicotine dependence (ND). This study examined the risk of developing ND symptoms across waterpipe use patterns among Lebanese youth. METHODS: Waterpipe use patterns (length of smoking session, smoking a whole waterpipe without sharing, past-30day use frequency, number of waterpipes smoked) were assessed. Symptoms of ND were assessed using the 10-item Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC; endorsement of ≥1 symptom) and the 6 criteria of the International Classification of Diseases-10th revision (ICD-10 ND; presence of ≥3 criteria during 12months)...
June 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624583/pre-adolescent-and-adolescent-mice-are-less-sensitive-to-the-effects-of-acute-nicotine-on-extinction-and-spontaneous-recovery
#13
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Dana Zeid, Jessica M Tumolo, Thomas J Gould
Adolescence is a period of high risk for the initiation of nicotine product usage and exposure to traumatic events. In parallel, nicotine exposure has been found to age-dependently modulate acquisition of contextual fear memories; however, it is unknown if adolescent nicotine exposure alters extinction of fear related memories. Age-related differences in sensitivity to the effects of nicotine on fear extinction could increase or decrease susceptibility to anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine administration on extinction and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear memories in pre-adolescent (PND 23), late adolescent (PND 38), and adult (PND 53) C57B6/J mice...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624424/fusaric-acid-fa-protects-heart-failure-induced-by-isoproterenol-isp-in-mice-through-fibrosis-prevention-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smads-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways
#14
Xin Li, Zhou-Long Zhang, Hui-Fen Wang
Fusaric acid (FA) is a novel compound derived from a class of nicotinic acid derivatives, exhibiting activity against cancers. However, its role in regulating cardiac injury is limited. Our study was aimed to investigate the role and the underlying molecular mechanism of FA in heart fibrosis and hypertrophy. Isoproterenol (ISP) was used to induce cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. FA administration ameliorated hypertrophy by reducing atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and β -myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in vitro and in vivo...
June 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623168/access-to-nicotine-in-drinking-water-reduces-weight-gain-without-changing-caloric-intake-on-high-fat-diet-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Cali A Calarco, Somin Lee, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine and tobacco use is associated with lower body weight, and many smokers report concerns about weight. In animal studies, nicotine reduces weight gain, reduces food consumption, and alters energy expenditure, but these effects vary with duration and route of nicotine administration. Previous studies have used standardized nicotine doses, however, in this study, male and female mice had free access to nicotine drinking water for 30 days while fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or chow, allowing animals to titrate their nicotine intake...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621793/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-oxidation-of-the-anti-tubercular-prodrug-isoniazid-and-its-analog-by-iridium-iv-as-models-for-biological-redox-systems
#16
Jingran Dong, Yanli Ren, Sufang Sun, Jiao Yang, Chunxia Nan, Hongmei Shi, Jianzhong Xu, Jie Duan, Tiesheng Shi, Lars I Elding
A complex reaction mechanism of oxidation of the anti-tubercular prodrug isoniazid (isonicotinic hydrazide, INH) by [IrCl6](2-) as a model for redox processes of such drugs in biological systems has been studied in aqueous solution as a function of pH between 0 and 8.5. Similar experiments have been performed with its isomer nicotinic hydrazide (NH). All reactions are overall second-order, first-order in [IrCl6](2-) and hydrazide, and the observed second-order rate constants k' have been determined as a function of pH...
June 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621245/evaluation-of-school-teachers-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-quality-of-life-according-to-their-cigarette-smoking-status-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-eastern-black-sea-region-of-turkey
#17
Dilek Çakmakçı Karadoğan, Özgür Önal, Deniz Say Şahin, Sonnur Yazıcı, Yalçın Kanbay
Introduction: Smoking related health disorders are particularly common after long-term cigarette use and accordingly cumulative side effects of smoking usually do not appear in younger individuals. Therefore, for evaluating the contemporary effects of smoking in healthy individuals quality of life has become a fundamental criterion. In this study our aims are evaluating factors affecting school teachers' smoking status and comparing quality of life them according to their cigarette smoking status...
March 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618990/biological-roles-of-the-eclectic-chromogranin-a-derived-peptide-catestatin
#18
Teresa Pasqua, Tommaso Angelone, Angela Spena, Maria Carmela Cerra
Research on Chromogranin A (CGA) and its derived fragments convincingly demonstrated the multifunctional activity of the 21 amino acid peptide named Catestatin (CST: human CGA352-372, bovine CGA344-364, rat CGA367-387). It is mainly known as an inhibitor of the nicotinic-dependent Catecholamine (CA) release, and an anti-hypertensive peptide, but its role includes a modulation of antioxidant and immune defense, epidermal function, and adipose tissue homeostasis. CST influences the cardiocirculatory system acting both indirectly, via the autonomic nervous system, and directly by influencing the basal cardiac function, and the stretch-dependent myocardial performance...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618425/electronic-cigarettes-in-germany-patterns-of-use-and-perceived-health-improvement
#19
Kirsten Lehmann, Silke Kuhn, Jens Reimer
AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize e-cigarette users in terms of their consumption patterns, motives, and the perceived health benefits they experience from using e-cigarettes. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional online survey in 2015. A total of 3,320 German e-cigarette users were enrolled. A total of 91.5% were former tobacco smokers, 7.5% used both e-cigarettes and tobacco products, 1.0% were never-smokers. RESULTS: No differences were found between ex-smokers and dual users with regard to sociodemographic and smoking history (mean age 40...
June 16, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616847/interactive-voice-response-calls-to-promote-smoking-cessation-after-hospital-discharge-pooled-analysis-of-two-randomized-clinical-trials
#20
Nancy A Rigotti, Yuchiao Chang, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Sandra J Japuntich, Elyse R Park, Hilary A Tindle, Douglas E Levy, Zachary Z Reid, Joanna Streck, Timothy Gomperts, Jennifer H K Kelley, Daniel E Singer
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization offers smokers an opportunity to quit smoking. Starting cessation treatment in hospital is effective, but sustaining treatment after discharge is a challenge. Automated telephone calls with interactive voice response (IVR) technology could support treatment continuance after discharge. OBJECTIVE: To assess smokers' use of and satisfaction with an IVR-facilitated intervention and to test the relationship between intervention dose and smoking cessation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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