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Comparative effectiveness research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641384/acute-testosterone-deficiency-alters-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-storage
#1
Sylvia Santosa, Nikki C Bush, Michael D Jensen
Context: Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. Objective: We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. Design: This was a prospective, randomized trial. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641226/evaluation-of-trace-element-concentration-in-cancerous-and-non-cancerous-tissues-of-human-stomach
#2
Shadi Kohzadi, Farshad Sheikhesmaili, Ramesh Rahehagh, Baran Parhizkar, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Hozan Loqmani, Behzad Shahmoradi, Ebrahim Mohammadi, Afshin Maleki
Gastric cancer has a high mortality rate in west of Iran. Various environmental elements are proposed as cancer risk factors including trace elements. Trace elements can induce initiation or progression of carcinogenesis via oxidative stress and DNA injury. The aim of this study was to measure and compare some trace element concentration (Ca, Cu, Fe, As, Mg, Ni, Cd and Cr) in gastric cancer tissues and normal tissues. For this purpose, 35 patients with gastric cancer and 30 without any cancer were biopsied...
June 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641044/the-effects-of-short-versus-long-inter-set-rest-intervals-in-resistance-training-on-measures-of-muscle-hypertrophy-a-systematic-review
#3
Jozo Grgic, Bruno Lazinica, Pavle Mikulic, James W Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640913/temporal-patterns-of-deepwater-horizon-impacts-on-the-benthic-infauna-of-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico-continental-slope
#4
Michael G Reuscher, Jeffrey G Baguley, Nathan Conrad-Forrest, Cynthia Cooksey, Jeffrey L Hyland, Christopher Lewis, Paul A Montagna, Robert W Ricker, Melissa Rohal, Travis Washburn
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in spring and summer 2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Research cruises in 2010 (approximately 2-3 months after the well had been capped), 2011, and 2014 were conducted to determine the initial and subsequent effects of the oil spill on deep-sea soft-bottom infauna. A total of 34 stations were sampled from two zones: 20 stations in the "impact" zone versus 14 stations in the "non-impact" zone. Chemical contaminants were significantly different between the two zones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640857/glucose-dysregulation-and-response-to-common-anti-diabetic-agents-in-the-fatzo-pco-mouse
#5
Richard G Peterson, Charles Van Jackson, Karen M Zimmerman, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, M Dodson Michael, Paul J Emmerson, Tamer Coskun
The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Given that obesity and its sequelae in humans are polygenic in nature and not associated with leptin signaling defects, the FATZO mouse may represent a more translatable rodent model for study of obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637294/over-time-impacts-of-pictorial-health-warning-labels-and-their-differences-across-smoker-subgroups-results-from-adult-smokers-in-canada-and-australia
#6
Kamala Swayampakala, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, Gera E Nagelhout, Lin Li, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, James W Hardin
Introduction: This study examines patterns of change in different smoker subgroups' responses to new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) over the initial, two year post-implementation period in Canada, where HWLs include package inserts with cessation messages, and Australia, where "plain" packaging (i.e., prohibition of brand imagery) was also implemented. Methods: Data were collected from online consumer panels in Canada (nsmokers=3,153; nobservations=5,826) and Australia (nsmokers=2,699; nobservations=5,818) from September 2012 to September 2014, with approximately 1,000 adult smokers surveyed in each country every four months, using replenishment to maintain sample size...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637215/managerial-ownership-in-nursing-homes-staffing-quality-and-financial-performance
#7
Sean Shenghsiu Huang, John R Bowblis
Purpose of the Study: Ownership of nursing homes (NHs) has primarily focused broadly on differences between for-profit (FP), nonprofit (NFP), and government-operated facilities. Yet, among FPs, the understanding of detailed ownership structures at individual NHs is rather limited. Particularly, NH administrators may hold significant equity interests in their facilities, leading to heterogeneous financial incentives and NH outcomes. Through the principal-agent theory, this article studies how managerial ownership of individual facilities affects NH outcomes...
June 20, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637147/musculoskeletal-complaints-in-individuals-with-finger-or-partial-hand-amputations-in-the-netherlands-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Sjoukje E Bouma, Sietke G Postema, Raoul M Bongers, Pieter U Dijkstra, Corry K van der Sluis
PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) in individuals with finger or partial hand amputations (FPHAs) with a control group and to explore the effect and predictors of MSCs in individuals with FPHAs. METHOD: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. The primary outcome measures were: prevalence of MSCs, health status, pain-related disability, physical work demands, work productivity, and hand function. RESULTS: The response rate was 61%...
February 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636838/searching-for-affective-and-cognitive-restoration-examining-the-restorative-effects-of-casual-video-game-play
#9
Michael A Rupp, Richard Sweetman, Alejandra E Sosa, Janan A Smither, Daniel S McConnell
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. METHOD: Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636694/placebo-response-and-practice-effects-in-schizophrenia-cognition-trials
#10
Richard S E Keefe, Vicki G Davis, Philip D Harvey, Alexandra S Atkins, George M Haig, Owen Hagino, Stephen Marder, Dana C Hilt, Daniel Umbricht
Importance: Patients' previous experience with performance-based cognitive tests in clinical trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia can create practice-related improvements. Placebo-controlled trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia are at risk for these practice effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from placebo effects. Objectives: To conduct a systematic evaluation of the magnitude of practice effects on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia and to examine which demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics were associated with improvement in placebo conditions...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636634/cardiomyopathy-development-protection-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-successful-competition-for-major-dihydropyridines-common-metabolite-against-captopril
#11
Katarzyna A Mitręga, Adrianna M Spałek, Jerzy Nożyński, Maurycy Porc, Magdalena Stankiewicz, Tadeusz F Krzemiński
During the last 25 years angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors spectacularly conquered the field of cardiovascular diseases therapy. Nevertheless, lack of new studies concerning side effects associated with their chronic administration seems to be rather confusing. In our previous research, we proved that the main furnidipines' metabolite (M-2) possess multiple cardioprotective actions. Currently, we compared effects of post-infarction long-term oral treatment with M-2 and captopril on hemodynamic parameters and "ischemic cardiomyopathy" development in rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636110/cumulative-toxicity-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-mixtures-to-chironomus-dilutus-under-acute-exposure-scenarios
#12
Erin M Maloney, Christy A Morrissey, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Karsten Liber
Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) was characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635617/the-dosimetric-impact-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-media-in-gbm-brain-patient-plans-for-a-mri-linac
#13
Syed Bilal Ahmad, Moti Raj Paudel, Arman Sarfehnia, Anthony Kim, Geordi Pang, Mark Ruschin, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
Dosimetric effects of gadolinium based contrast media (Gadovist) were evaluated for the Elekta MRI Linear accelerator (MRL) using the research version of Monaco treatment planning system (TPS). In order to represent a gadolinium uptake it was manually assigned to a phantom as well as to the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) of 6 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. A preliminary estimate of dose enhancement, due to gadolinium, was performed using the phantom irradiated with a single beam. More complicated assessment was performed for the GBM patients using a 7 field IMRT technique...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635375/therapeutic-effect-of-increased-openness-investigating-mechanism-of-action-in-mdma-assisted-psychotherapy
#14
Mark T Wagner, Michael C Mithoefer, Ann T Mithoefer, Rebecca K MacAulay, Lisa Jerome, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Rick Doblin
A growing body of research suggests that traumatic events lead to persisting personality change characterized by increased neuroticism. Relevantly, enduring improvements in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found in response to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy. There is evidence that lasting changes in the personality feature of "openness" occur in response to hallucinogens, and that this may potentially act as a therapeutic mechanism of change. The present study investigated whether heightened Openness and decreased Neuroticism served as a mechanism of change within a randomized trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635188/the-financial-and-quality-of-life-cost-to-patients-living-with-a-chronic-wound-in-the-community
#15
Suzanne Kapp, Nick Santamaria
Chronic wounds are associated with financial and personal costs. The system level expense associated with chronic wounds has been established, however, the out-of-pocket cost incurred by individuals who self-fund has not been the focus of extensive investigation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in evaluating quality of life, in line with the shift to patient enablement and self-care in chronic disease management. The objectives of this research were to describe the out-of-pocket wound treatment costs and the quality of life of people who have chronic wounds...
June 20, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635158/prepregnancy-overweight-and-obesity-are-associated-with-impaired-child-neurodevelopment
#16
Elizabeth Marie Widen, Linda Gross Kahn, Piera Cirillo, Barbara Cohn, Katrina Lynn Kezios, Pam Factor-Litvak
The authors examined the relationship of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with child neurodevelopment. Mother-child dyads were a subgroup (n = 2,084) of the Child Health and Development Studies from the Oakland, California, area enrolled during pregnancy from 1959 to 1966 and followed at child age 9 years. Linear regression was used to examine associations between prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Raven Progressive Matrices scores and to evaluate effect modification of GWG by prepregnancy BMI...
June 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635119/the-detection-and-prevention-of-unintentional-consumption-of-dox-and-25x-nbome-at-portugal-s-boom-festival
#17
Daniel Martins, Monica J Barratt, Cristiana Vale Pires, Helena Carvalho, Mireia Ventura, Iván Fornís, Helena Valente
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. METHODS: Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. RESULTS: About 67...
June 21, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634876/life-expectancy-gain-due-to-employment-status-depends-on-race-gender-education-and-their-intersections
#18
Shervin Assari
PURPOSE: Despite the well-established health effects of socioeconomic status (SES), SES resources such as employment may differently influence health outcomes across sub-populations. This study used a national sample of US adults to test if the effect of baseline employment (in 1986) on all-cause mortality over a 25-year period depends on race, gender, education level, and their intersections. METHODS: Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, which followed 2025 Whites and 1156 Blacks for 25 years from 1986 to 2011...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634863/high-tech-acupuncture-for-prevention-of-lifestyle-diseases-a-sino-austrian-cooperation-research-protocol-on-heart-rate-variability
#19
Feng-Xia Liang, Ze-Bin Chen, Song Wu, Jian-Min Liu, Jing-Zhi Wang, Ji-Dong Lu, Lu-Shan Wang, Li Chen, Qing Shu, Daniela Litscher, Lu Wang, Hua Wang, Gerhard Litscher
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture can not only be used for well-known diseases, but also for so-called modern lifestyle-related diseases. Using innovative methods like e.g. new analyses of heart rate variability (HRV), it is also possible to investigate diseases like burnout syndrome, ie., qi defificiency in Chinese medicine (CM). OBJECTIVE: The main object of this research protocol is to perform research on the relationship of burnout syndrome and heart rate (HR) and HRV...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634580/tobacco-use-during-pregnancy-and-its-associated-factors-in-a-mountain-district-of-eastern-nepal-a-cross-sectional-questionnaire-survey
#20
Ramesh Barakoti, Anup Ghimire, Achyut Raj Pandey, Dharani Dhar Baral, Paras K Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Tobacco using among women is more prevalent in Nepal as compared to other South-East Asian countries. The effect of its use is seen not only on the pregnant women, but also health of the growing fetus is compromised. Currently, little is known about the tobacco use among women especially during pregnancy in Nepal. This study explored the tobacco use prevalence and its associated factors during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sankhuwasabha, a mountain district of eastern Nepal...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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