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Comparative effectiveness research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684877/toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-exhaust-from-compressed-natural-gas-could-this-be-a-clean-solution-for-megacities-with-mixed-traffic-conditions
#1
Avinash K Agarwal, Bushra Ateeq, Tarun Gupta, Akhilendra P Singh, Swaroop K Pandey, Nikhil Sharma, Rashmi A Agarwal, Neeraj K Gupta, Hemant Sharma, Ayush Jain, Pravesh C Shukla
Despite intensive research carried out on particulates, correlation between engine-out particulate emissions and adverse health effects is not well understood yet. Particulate emissions hold enormous significance for mega-cities like Delhi that have immense traffic diversity. Entire public transportation system involving taxis, three-wheelers, and buses has been switched from conventional liquid fuels to compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Mega-city of Delhi. In this study, the particulate characterization was carried out on variety of engines including three diesel engines complying with Euro-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV emission norms, one Euro-II gasoline engine and one Euro-IV CNG engine...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684810/associations-between-dairy-cow-inter-service-interval-and-probability-of-conception
#2
J G Remnant, M J Green, J N Huxley, C D Hudson
Recent research has indicated that the interval between inseminations in modern dairy cattle is often longer than the commonly accepted cycle length of 18-24 days. This study analysed 257,396 inseminations in 75,745 cows from 312 herds in England and Wales. The interval between subsequent inseminations in the same cow in the same lactation (inter-service interval, ISI) were calculated and inseminations categorised as successful or unsuccessful depending on whether there was a corresponding calving event. Conception risk was calculated for each individual ISI between 16 and 28 days...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684722/effect-of-age-at-exposure-on-chromosome-abnormalities-in-mic-exposed-bhopal-population-detected-30-years-post-disaster
#3
Bani Bandana Ganguly, Shouvik Mandal, Nalok Banerjee, Nitin N Kadam, Rita Abbi
Follow-up cytogenetic study was carried out on 145 individuals from areas stratified by Indian Council of Medical Research, for evaluation of the effect of age-at-exposure and its interaction with exposure status on chromosomal aberrations (CA) in blood-lymphocytes. CA was presented as abnormal cell (Abc), aberrations (Abn) and number of aberration/abnormal cell (Abn/Abc), and correlated with age-at-exposure (childhood: <1-10 years; young: 11-26 years; adult: >27 years). Age related increase in abnormalities (Abc, Abn, Abn/Abc) was observed in all exposure strata, except moderately exposed adult-group, which has exhibited lower Abn/Abc than similarly exposed childhood and young age-groups...
March 29, 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684679/comparing-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-translocation-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-ions-through-human-nasal-epithelium
#4
Jonathan L Falconer, Jeremiah A Alt, David W Grainger
Silver nanomaterials are widely used in clinically approved devices, consumer goods, and over-the-counter nutraceutical products. Despite the increase in silver nanomaterial research, few investigations have specifically distinguished the biological effects resulting from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) versus silver ions released from AgNPs. This is in part, due to the complex analytical methods required to characterize silver ion release from AgNPs in biological media. This study sought to analyze silver ion release from AgNPs in biological media, compare silver transport from soluble AgNO3 and AgNPs through ex vivo full thickness sinus human tissue explants and human nasal epithelium and determine fractional AgNP internalization by human nasal epithelial cells...
April 14, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684621/setd7-and-its-contribution-to-boron-induced-bone-regeneration-in-b-mbg-scaffolds
#5
Chengcheng Yin, Xiaoshi Jia, Richard J Miron, Qiaoyun Long, Hudi Xu, Yan Wei, Min Wu, Yufeng Zhang, Zubing Li
Boron (B), a trace element found in the human body, plays an important role for health of bone by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Our research group previously fabricated B-mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds, which successfully promoted osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts when compared to pure MBG scaffolds without boron. However, the mechanisms of the positive effect of B-MBG scaffolds on osteogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we performed in-vivo experiments in an OVX rat models with pure MBG scaffolds and compared them to B-MBG scaffold...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684470/acute-stress-but-not-corticosterone-facilitates-acquisition-of-paired-associates-learning-in-rats-using-touchscreen-equipped-operant-conditioning-chambers
#6
Andrew J Roebuck, Max C Liu, Brittney R Lins, Gavin A Scott, John G Howland
Acute stress influences learning and memory in humans and rodents, enhancing performance in some tasks while impairing it in others. Typically, subjects preferentially employ striatal-mediated stimulus-response strategies in spatial memory tasks following stress, making use of fewer hippocampal-based strategies which may be more cognitively demanding. Previous research demonstrated that the acquisition of rodent paired associates learning (PAL) relies primarily on the striatum, while task performance after extensive training is impaired by hippocampal disruption...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684295/smoking-related-behaviours-of-pregnant-women-depending-on-their-place-of-residence
#7
Magdalena Zawadzka, Andrzej Buczyński, Włodzimierz Stelmach, Alina Kowalska, Gabriela Henrykowska
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a commonly recognized risk factor of civilization diseases. Despite many educational programmes concerning harmful effects of tobacco smoking, this habit is still very popular. Particularly alarming is a high percentage of pregnant women who smoke. METHODS: The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women depending on their place of residence. The research was conducted in randomly selected 30 outpatient clinics for women in Łodź and 16 outpatient clinics in rural communes of the Łodź province...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684249/standard-head-down-tilt-versus-modified-without-head-down-tilt-postural-drainage-in-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Diana A Freitas, Gabriela Ss Chaves, Thayla A Santino, Cibele Td Ribeiro, Fernando Al Dias, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla Mpp Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684134/changes-in-executive-function-following-a-stressful-interpersonal-task-are-associated-with-condomless-anal-intercourse-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#9
David M Huebner, Larissa A McGarrity, Timothy W Smith, Nicholas S Perry, Yana Suchy
Background: Executive functioning (EF) describes a set of neurocognitive processes critical to enacting complex health behaviors. However, theoretical frameworks for understanding sexual risk behavior have generally neglected neurocognitive constructs, and beyond a few studies of individuals selected for high substance use, the literature contains virtually no research on this topic with other adults at risk for HIV infection, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Purpose: This study tested whether EF was associated with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among MSM...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683880/economic-analysis-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-versus-primary-debulking-surgery-for-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-using-an-aggressive-surgical-paradigm
#10
Ashley L Cole, Emma L Barber, Anagha Gogate, Arthur-Quan Tran, Stephanie B Wheeler
OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) versus primary debulking surgery (PDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC) remains controversial in the United States. Generalizability of existing trial results has been criticized because of less aggressive debulking procedures than commonly used in the United States. As a result, economic evaluations using input data from these trials may not accurately reflect costs and outcomes associated with more aggressive primary surgery. Using data from an ongoing trial performing aggressive debulking, we investigated the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of NACT versus PDS for AEOC...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683723/model-fit-and-item-factor-analysis-overfactoring-underfactoring-and-a-program-to-guide-interpretation
#11
D Angus Clark, Ryan P Bowles
In exploratory item factor analysis (IFA), researchers may use model fit statistics and commonly invoked fit thresholds to help determine the dimensionality of an assessment. However, these indices and thresholds may mislead as they were developed in a confirmatory framework for models with continuous, not categorical, indicators. The present study used Monte Carlo simulation methods to investigate the ability of popular model fit statistics (chi-square, root mean square error of approximation, the comparative fit index, and the Tucker-Lewis index) and their standard cutoff values to detect the optimal number of latent dimensions underlying sets of dichotomous items...
April 23, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683654/effect-of-co-2-phase-states-and-flow-rate-on-salt-precipitation-in-shale-caprocks-a-microfluidic-study
#12
Mohammad Nooraiepour, Hossein Fazeli, Rohaldin Miri, Helge Hellevang
Fracture networks inside the caprock for CO2 storage reservoirs may serve as leakage pathways. Fluid flow through fractured caprocks and bypass conduits, however, can be restrained or diminished by mineral precipitations. This study investigates precipitation of salt crystals in an artificial fracture network as a function of pressure-temperature conditions and CO2 phase states. The impact of CO2 flow rate on salt precipitation was also studied. The primary research objective was to examine whether salt precipitation can block potential CO2 leakage pathways...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683337/foot-mobilization-and-exercise-program-in-combination-with-toe-separator-improves-outcomes-in-women-with-moderate-hallux-valgus-at-the-one-year-follow-up-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Sahar A Abdalbary
BACKGROUND: Few studies have documented the outcome of conservative treatment of hallux valgus deformities on pain and muscle strength. Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of foot mobilization and exercise program, in combination with use of a toe separator, on symptomatic moderate hallux valgus in female patients. METHODS: As part of the randomized clinical trial, 56 adult female patients with moderate hallux valgus were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 36 sessions for 3 months or no intervention (waiting list)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683252/decreasing-rates-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-people-living-with-hiv-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-spain-2004-2015
#14
M Masiá, S Padilla, J A García, J I Bernardino, A A Campins, V Asensi, F Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVES: Contemporary data from country-wide cohorts are needed to reveal trends in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in people living with HIV (PLWH). We analysed time trends in the standardized incidence rate (sIR) of AMI in PLWH in Spain from 2004 to 2015, and compared them with trends in the general population. METHODS: A longitudinal study in a nationwide contemporary multicentre HIV-infected cohort was carried out. Data on all incident AMI events were collected, and age- and sex-standardized IRs calculated...
April 23, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683080/childhood-gender-nonconformity-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#15
Avanti Adhia, Allegra R Gordon, Andrea L Roberts, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, David Hemenway, S Bryn Austin
Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with numerous adverse experiences, including peer bullying and homophobic violence. However, little is known about gender nonconformity in the context of intimate relationships, independent of sexual orientation. This study aimed to examine associations between childhood gender nonconformity and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adolescence and early adulthood. Using data from the 2007 wave of the U.S. Growing Up Today Study ( N = 7,641, mean age = 22.8 years), we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for the association of gender nonconformity up to age 11 years and lifetime IPV victimization and perpetration...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683046/a-systematic-review-exploring-therapist-competence-adherence-and-therapy-outcomes-in-individual-cbt-for-children-and-young-people
#16
Hannah A Rapley, Maria E Loades
OBJECTIVE: Whilst the evidence base for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with children and young people is growing, the mechanisms through which these beneficial effects occur are still unclear. This systematic review seeks to appraise the relationship between therapeutic outcomes in CBT and therapist adherence and competence, within the child and adolescent literature. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out, with five studies identified as meeting the inclusion criteria...
April 22, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682785/bayesian-propensity-scores-for-high-dimensional-causal-inference-a-comparison-of-drug-eluting-to-bare-metal-coronary-stents
#17
Jacob V Spertus, Sharon-Lise T Normand
High-dimensional data provide many potential confounders that may bolster the plausibility of the ignorability assumption in causal inference problems. Propensity score methods are powerful causal inference tools, which are popular in health care research and are particularly useful for high-dimensional data. Recent interest has surrounded a Bayesian treatment of propensity scores in order to flexibly model the treatment assignment mechanism and summarize posterior quantities while incorporating variance from the treatment model...
April 23, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682782/a-hierarchical-clustering-method-for-dimension-reduction-in-joint-analysis-of-multiple-phenotypes
#18
Xiaoyu Liang, Qiuying Sha, Yeonwoo Rho, Shuanglin Zhang
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a very effective research tool to identify genetic variants of underlying various complex diseases. In spite of the success of GWAS in identifying thousands of reproducible associations between genetic variants and complex disease, in general, the association between genetic variants and a single phenotype is usually weak. It is increasingly recognized that joint analysis of multiple phenotypes can be potentially more powerful than the univariate analysis, and can shed new light on underlying biological mechanisms of complex diseases...
April 22, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682720/-research-progress-of-sacral-neuromodulation-procedure-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation-and-fecal-incontinence
#19
Chenxiang He, Shaoqing Liu, Shisen Li, Bo Zhang, Jianyong Zheng
Sacral neuromodulation(SNM) procedure has become a new therapy to treat chronic constipation and fecal incontinence. The surgical procedure is easy and safe. It has a small incision compared with traditional surgery and is mainly used in patients whose traditional treatment was unsuccessful. Chronic constipation is one of the most common digestive symptoms. The quality of life in patients with severe constipation has decreased greatly. Although the incidence of fecal incontinence in China is not as high as that of constipation, it also seriously affects the life of the patients, resulting in a decline in the quality of life...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682719/-evolution-and-prospect-of-colorectal-anastomosis
#20
Qi Liu, Xinxiang Li
Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant tumor among men, and the second most common malignant tumor among women worldwide. As one of the most common malignant tumor, colorectal cancer has a great threat to the health of people. Although the development of radiotherapy and chemotherapy could improve the prognosis of colorectal cancer, surgery, the complete resection of the tumor, remains the only chance for the cure of this disease. Over the past hundred years, surgical oncology went in the direction of protecting organ function and improving quality of life...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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