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Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Haruo Nishijima, Tomoaki Akagi, Tatsuya Ueno, Tomoya Kon, Rie Haga, Yukihisa Funamizu, Akira Arai, Chieko Suzuki, Jin-Ichi Nunomura, Masayuki Baba, Masahiko Tomiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Ahmed Hegazy, Hieder Al-Shami, Mohammed Fathy Adel Ali, Mohamad Fathallah, Ahmed Salah, Hashim Mohamed, Emad Ibrahim Ahmed, Haytham Hussien Mohammed Osman, Arundhati Biswas
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether adding mobilization of the outer cavernous sinus membrane as a part of the approach, in large spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus extension, would reduce bleeding and increase the extent of resection. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was held between February 2016 and April 2017 at Cairo University Hospitals. The study recruited 94 patients with spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus involvement...
March 2018: Neurology India
Manas Panigrahi, Manoranjitha Kumari, Sudhindra Vooturi
Background: The diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) is a clinical challenge. Medical management with steroids may result in complete resolution of the symptoms and radiological features. We report our approach to the diagnosis and treatment of LYH. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of data of nine consecutive patients of LYH from August 2013 to August 2015 was done. The average age of the study population was 38.4 ± 19.8 years, with five (55...
March 2018: Neurology India
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
Walter Edward Dandy did pioneering work in Neurosurgery in the early part of the 19th century. He worked all his life at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in USA and contributed extensively to research in hydrocephalus, the physiology of the cerebrospinal fluid and devised the technique of pneumoencephalography, apart from performing the first clipping operation in cerebral aneurysm and the division of the trigeminal nerve in neuralgic pain. This article summarizes his immense contributions in the field of Neurosurgery...
March 2018: Neurology India
James Hope, Frederique Vanholsbeeck, A J McDaid
In neural interfaces for peripheral nerve a trade-off exists between the level of invasiveness and the selectivity of neural recordings. In this study, we implement electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in a nerve cuff with the aim to investigate the achievable level of selectivity.
 Approach: Established modelling approaches in neural-EIT are expanded on to be used, for the first time, on myelinated fibres which are abundant in mammalian peripheral nerves and transmit motor commands. The model is then used to evaluate the viability of using EIT with a nerve cuff to record neural activity in peripheral nerves...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Kazunari Sugita, Shigeto Yanagihara, Osamu Yamamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Francisco Vaz-Guimaraes, Maria Koutourousiou, John R de Almeida, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W Wang, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
OBJECTIVE Epidermoid and dermoid cysts may be found along the cranial base and are commonly resected via open transcranial approaches. The use of endoscopic endonasal approaches for resection of these tumors has been rarely reported. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for epidermoid and dermoid cyst resection at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2005 and June 2014. Surgical outcomes and variables that might affect the extent of resection and complications were analyzed...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Shailja Tibrewal, Ramesh Kekunnaya
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk of anterior segment ischemia (ASI) after simultaneous three rectus muscle surgery. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All patients who underwent simultaneous three rectus muscle surgery from January 2003 to December 2014 were included. Medical records were reviewed for signs of acute ASI in the postoperative period or presence of any late sequelae. Those patients who had pre-existing corneal pathology obscuring visualisation of anterior chamber and iris were excluded...
March 16, 2018: Strabismus
V Reggie Edgerton, Parag Gad
What are the implications of the vagus nerve being able to mediate the time-dependent plasticity of an array of sensorimotor networks?
March 16, 2018: ELife
SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Schwann cells are the primary inducers of regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells can be isolated from adult peripheral nerves, expanded in large numbers, and genetically transduced by viral vectors in vitro prior to their use in vivo. Here we describe how to use lentiviral vectors to transduce primary Schwann cells in vitro. We also describe how cultured Schwann cells can be used in conjunction with decellularized peripheral nerve sheaths prepared by multiple freeze thawing of peripheral nerve tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables visualization of the ultrastructure of the myelin sheath. Schwann cells on the posterior lateral line nerves and motor nerves can be imaged by TEM. Here, we detail the multiday processing of larval trunks and dissected posterior lateral line for TEM, as well as how to trim embedded samples, section, and stain grids for imaging.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
In situ hybridization enables visualization of mRNA localization, and immunohistochemistry enables visualization of protein localization within a tissue or organism. Both techniques have been extensively utilized in zebrafish (Thisse et al., Development 119:1203-1215, 1993; Dutton et al., Development 128:4113-4125, 2001; Gilmour et al., Neuron 34:577-588, 2002; Lyons et al., Curr Biol 15:513-524, 2005) including for visualization of mRNA localization in Schwann cells (Lyons et al., Curr Biol 15:513-524, 2005; Monk et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mario A Saporta, Renata de Moraes Maciel
The human skin is richly innervated by nerve fibers of different calibers and functions, including thickly myelinated large fibers that act as afferents for mechanoreceptors in the dermal papillae. Skin biopsies offer minimally invasive access to these myelinated fibers, in which each internode represents an individual myelinating Schwann cell. Using this approach, human myelinated nerve fibers can be analyzed by several methods, including immunostaining, morphometric and ultrastructural analysis, and molecular biology techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peter Bond, David B Parkinson
The use of electron microscopy allows analysis of the microarchitecture of peripheral nerves both during development and in the processes of nerve regeneration and repair.We describe a novel method for the rapid analysis and quantification of myelin in peripheral nerve using a low vacuum scanning electron microscopy protocol. For this methodology, excised nerves are prepared for traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, but at the stage where semi-thin sections would be taken, the resin block is instead imaged at low vacuum in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using the backscattered electron signal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xin-Peng Dun, David B Parkinson
Injury to the peripheral nervous system triggers a series of well-defined events within both neurons and the Schwann cells to allow efficient axonal regeneration, remyelination, and functional repair. The study of these events has previously been done using sections of nerve material to analyze axonal regrowth, cell migration, and immune cell infiltration following injury. This approach, however, has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow, for instance, the path of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or the nerve bridge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alejandra Catenaccio, Felipe A Court
Glial cells regulate a wide variety of neuronal functions during physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the study of glial cells and their association with axons is of paramount importance in order to understand the physiology of the nervous system. This chapter describes a detailed protocol to prepare and stain teased nerve fibers from peripheral nerves using fluorescent indirect immunolabeling and staining with vital dyes. For immunofluorescence analysis, we describe techniques to study the axonal compartment and the expression of cytoplasmic and plasma membrane proteins in Schwann cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura Fangmann, Steffen Teller, Pavel Stupakov, Helmut Friess, Güralp O Ceyhan, Ihsan Ekin Demir
In pancreatic cancer, neural invasion is one of the most common paths of cancer dissemination. Classically, cancer cells actively invade nerves and cause local recurrence and pain. Three-dimensional (3D) neural migration assay has become a standard tool for scientists to study neural invasion by confronting the involved cell types. This protocol introduces Schwann cells, i.e., the most prevalent cell type in peripheral nerves, in a novel heterotypic, glia-cancer-neuron, 3D migration assay for assessing their relevance in the early pathogenesis of neural invasion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mateusz M Urbanski, Carmen V Melendez-Vasquez
Extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity may direct cellular differentiation and can be modeled in vitro using synthetic ECM-like substrates with defined elastic properties. However, the effectiveness of such approaches depends on the selection of a range of elasticity and ECM ligands that accurately model the relevant tissue. Here, we present a cell culture system than can be used to study Schwann cell differentiation on substrates which model the changes in mechanical ECM properties that occur during sciatic nerve development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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