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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449398/feeding-induced-phenol-production-in-capsicum-annuum-l-influences-spodoptera-litura-f-larval-growth-and-physiology
#1
Vijaya Movva, Usha Rani Pathipati
We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449390/partial-tibial-nerve-transfer-to-tibialis-anterior-for-traumatic-peroneal-nerve-palsy
#2
Scott Ferris, Simon J Maciburko
BACKGROUND: Partial tibial nerve transfer to the motor branches of tibialis anterior is an emerging reconstructive technique for the treatment of traumatic common peroneal nerve (CPN) injury; however, few papers in the literature describe clinical outcomes. METHODS: A prospective single-surgeon series of nine consecutive patients who underwent partial tibial nerve transfers to the motor branches of tibialis anterior for traumatic CPN injuries between 2008 and 2014...
April 27, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449168/mri-sequences-in-head-neck-radiology-state-of-the-art
#3
Gerlig Widmann, Benjamin Henninger, Christian Kremser, Werner Jaschke
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head & neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head & neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Method Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head & neck MRI...
May 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449038/real-time-imaging-of-single-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#4
Maria F Cordeiro, Eduardo M Normando, M Jorge Cardoso, Serge Miodragovic, Seham Jeylani, Benjamin M Davis, Li Guo, Sebastien Ourselin, Roger A'Hern, Philip A Bloom
Retinal cell apoptosis occurs in many ocular neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma-the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Using a new imaging technique that we have called DARC (detection of apoptosing retinal cells), which until now has only been demonstrated in animal models, we assessed if annexin 5 labelled with fluorescent dye DY-776 (ANX776) could be used safely in humans to identify retinal cell apoptosis. Eight patients with glaucomatous neurodegeneration and evidence of progressive disease, and eight healthy subjects were randomly assigned to intravenous ANX776 doses of 0...
April 26, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448691/clinical-characterization-and-genetic-analysis-of-korean-patients-with-x-linked-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1
#5
Young Bin Hong, Jin-Mo Park, Jin Seok Yu, Da Hye Yoo, Da Eun Nam, Hyung Jun Park, Ji-Su Lee, Sun Hee Hwang, Ki Wha Chung, Byung-Ok Choi
Mutations in the gap junction protein beta 1 gene (GJB1) cause X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMTX1). CMTX1 is representative of the intermediate type of CMT, having both demyelinating and axonal neuropathic features. We analyzed the clinical and genetic characterization of 128 patients with CMTX1 from 63 unrelated families. Genetic analysis revealed a total of 43 mutations including 6 novel mutations. Ten mutations were found from two or more unrelated families. p.V95M was most frequently observed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448317/early-experience-in-100-consecutive-patients-with-injection-adipocytolysis-for-neck-contouring-with-atx-101-deoxycholic-acid
#6
Sachin M Shridharani
BACKGROUND: Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is approved for improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe convexity or fullness associated with submental fat. OBJECTIVE: To assess early treatment experience with DCA injection in a clinical practice setting. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this single-center, prospective, single-arm, observational study, 100 consecutive patients seeking to decrease submental fullness received subcutaneous DCA (2 mg/cm) injections in the submental area (maximum of 6 sessions at ≥1 month intervals)...
April 12, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448294/macular-ganglion-cell-and-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-children-with-refractive-errors-an-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#7
Jody P Goh, Victor Koh, Yiong Huak Chan, Cheryl Ngo
PURPOSE: To study the distribution of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in children with refractive errors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty-three healthy eyes from 139 children with refractive error ranging from -10.00 to +5.00 D were recruited from the National University Hospital Eye Surgery outpatient clinic. After a comprehensive ocular examination, refraction, and axial length (AL) measurement (IOLMaster), macular GC-IPL and RNFL thickness values were obtained with a spectral domain Cirrus high definition optical coherence tomography system (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448180/renal-denervation-decreases-blood-pressure-and-renal-tyrosine-hydroxylase-but-does-not-augment-the-effect-of-hypotensive-drugs
#8
Janusz Skrzypecki, Maciej Gawlak, Tomasz Huc, Paweł Szulczyk, Marcin Ufnal
The effect of renal denervation on the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs has not yet been elucidated. Twenty-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with metoprolol, losartan, indapamide, or saline (controls) and assigned to renal denervation or a sham procedure. Acute hemodynamic measurements were performed ten days later. Series showing a significant interaction between renal denervation and the drugs were repeated with chronic telemetry measurements. In the saline series, denervated rats showed a significantly lower mean arterial blood pressure (blood pressure) than the sham-operated rats...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448017/low-density-primary-hippocampal-neuron-culture
#9
Reiko T Roppongi, Kevin P Champagne-Jorgensen, Tabrez J Siddiqui
The ability to probe the structure and physiology of individual nerve cells in culture is crucial to the study of neurobiology, and allows for flexibility in genetic and chemical manipulation of individual cells or defined networks. Such ease of manipulation is simpler in the reduced culture system when compared to the intact brain tissue. While many methods for the isolation and growth of these primary neurons exist, each has its own limitations. This protocol describes a method for culturing low-density and high-purity rodent embryonic hippocampal neurons on glass coverslips, which are then suspended over a monolayer of glial cells...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448012/protocols-for-visualizing-steroidogenic-organs-and-their-interactive-organs-with-immunostaining-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Eisuke Imura, Yuto Yoshinari, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
In multicellular organisms, a small group of cells is endowed with a specialized function in their biogenic activity, inducing a systemic response to growth and reproduction. In insects, the larval prothoracic gland (PG) and the adult female ovary play essential roles in biosynthesizing the principal steroid hormones called ecdysteroids. These ecdysteroidogenic organs are innervated from the nervous system, through which the timing of biosynthesis is affected by environmental cues. Here we describe a protocol for visualizing ecdysteroidogenic organs and their interactive organs in larvae and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which provides a suitable model system for studying steroid hormone biosynthesis and its regulatory mechanism...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447988/increased-recovery-time-and-decreased-lps-administration-to-study-the-vagus-nerve-stimulation-mechanisms-in-limited-inflammatory-responses
#11
Erwan Le Maître, Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Jon Lampa
Inflammation is a local response to infection and tissue damage mediated by activated macrophages, monocytes, and other immune cells that release cytokines and other mediators of inflammation. For a long time, humoral and cellular mechanisms have been studied for their role in regulating the immune response, but recent advances in the field of immunology and neuroscience have also unraveled specific neural mechanisms with interesting therapeutic potential. The so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been described to control innate immune responses and inflammation in a very potent manner...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447903/low-grade-sinonasal-sarcoma-with-neural-and-myogenic-features-a-recently-discovered-entity-with-unique-features-and-diagnostic-challenge
#12
Meriam Triki, Lobna Ayadi
Low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features is an entity recently described in the literature. Little is known about its etiopathogenesis, natural history, or optimal treatment. In fact, it has relatively unique findings: it has a distinctive cytogenetic signature, and it expresses both smooth muscle actin and S100 protein. However, its diagnosis is challenging on biopsies showing negative staining for these 2 markers. The differential diagnoses include fibrosarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and other benign and malignant lesions...
May 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447895/compensatory-function-of-the-diaphragm-following-high-cervical-hemisection-in-the-rat
#13
Kun-Ze Lee, Shih-Hui Hsu
Unilateral high cervical spinal hemisection (i.e., C2Hx) interrupts the respiratory bulbospinal pathway and results in paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. The ipsilateral diaphragmatic activity can partially recover over weeks to months; however, its contribution to the tidal volume generation is less than 20 %. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the contralateral diaphragm exert a compensatory function to maintain the essential ventilation following cervical spinal cord hemisection. The cardiorespiratory pattern and bilateral diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) were measured in urethane-anesthetized and spontaneously breathing adult rats at 1 day, 2 or 8 weeks post-C2Hx or C2 laminectomy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447862/high-reliability-microcontroller-nerve-stimulator-for-assistance-in-regional-anaesthesia-procedures
#14
Carlos A Ferri, Antonio A F Quevedo
In the last decades, the use of nerve stimulators to aid in regional anaesthesia has been shown to benefit the patient since it allows a better location of the nerve plexus, leading to correct positioning of the needle through which the anaesthetic is applied. However, most of the nerve stimulators available in the market for this purpose do not have the minimum recommended features for a good stimulator, and this can lead to risks to the patient. Thus, this study aims to develop an equipment, using embedded electronics, which meets all the characteristics, for a successful blockade...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447764/sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-pregnant-rats-negatively-affects-nerve-function-in-offspring-potentially-via-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#15
Yiyao Wang, Yu Li, Qunzhi Xing, Xuechan G Han, Xu Dong, Yiping Lu, Mintao Zhou
Due to the rapid development of medical technology used to perform intrauterine procedures during pregnancy, the number of patients receiving fetal surgery under general anesthesia is increasing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of anesthetics on the offspring of rats, and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. On day 14 of pregnancy, Sprague‑Dawley rats were equally divided into the following 3 groups (n=9): Control group (n=3), 3% sevoflurane group (n=3) and 4% sevoflurane group (n=3)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447661/the-nonsystemic-vasculitic-neuropathies
#16
REVIEW
Michael P Collins, Robert D Hadden
Nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN) is an under-recognized single-organ vasculitis of peripheral nerves that can only be diagnosed with a nerve biopsy. A Peripheral Nerve Society guideline group published consensus recommendations on the classification, diagnosis and treatment of NSVN in 2010, and new diagnostic criteria for vasculitic neuropathy were developed by the Brighton Collaboration in 2015. In this Review, we provide an update on the classification, diagnosis and treatment of NSVN. NSVN subtypes include Wartenberg migratory sensory neuropathy and postsurgical inflammatory neuropathy...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447589/neuroretinal-evaluation-using-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-affected-by-pituitary-tumors
#17
Yasar Altun, Ayse Sevgi Karadag, Seyho Cem Yucetas, Sadullah Saglam, A Z A Tak, Ilhan Cag, Yusuf Ehi
AIM: To investigate the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and choroid thickness (CT) in patients with pituitary tumours, microadenoma and macroadenoma, using spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Thirty six patients who had micro and macroadenoma, and 34 healthy participants (control group) were included in the study. Spectral OCT was used to measure the RNFL, GCL, IPL, and CT values for all patients...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447588/malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumour-of-the-oesophagus-review-of-the-literature-and-report-of-a-case-with-lymph-node-and-distant-metastases
#18
Vasileios K Mavroeidis, Kosmas Kandilaris, Dimitrios I Matthioudakis, Stavroula N Kaza, Panagis M Lykoudis, Francesca Saffioti, Maria Demonakou
Oesophageal sarcomas are very rare while various histological types have occasionally been reported. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour (MPNST) of the oesophagus is an exceedingly rare type of oesophageal sarcoma with only thirteen cases previously reported in the world literature. However, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of oesophageal neoplasias. Due to the small number of reported cases, the information about the biological behaviour of this entity is still insufficient. While MPNST is generally considered an aggressive type of tumour with high recurrence rates after surgical treatment and poor prognosis, previous reports of cases with oesophageal localization have recorded satisfactory outcomes overall even with less aggressive therapeutic approaches, although a long-term follow-up is lacking...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447405/high-mortality-from-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-bangladesh
#19
Tanveen Ishaque, Mohammad B Islam, Gulshan Ara, Hubert P Endtz, Quazi D Mohammad, Bart C Jacobs, Zhahirul Islam
Although Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has higher incidence and poor outcome in Bangladesh, mortality from GBS in Bangladesh has never been explored before. We sought to explore the frequency, timing and risk factors for deaths from GBS in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study on 407 GBS patients who were admitted to Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2010 to 2013. We compared deceased and alive patients to identify risk factors. Cox regression model was used to adjust for confounders...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447287/topography-and-correlation-of-radial-peripapillary-capillary-density-network-with-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-thickness
#20
Tarannum Mansoori, Jayanthi Sivaswamy, Jahnavi Sai Gamalapati, Nagalla Balakrishna
PURPOSE: To analyse the expansion of radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in normal human eyes and correlate RPC density with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) at various distances from the optic nerve head (ONH) edge. METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 healthy subjects underwent imaging with RTVue XR-100 Avanti OCT. OCT-A scans of Angio disc (6 × 6 mm) and Angio retina (8 × 8 mm) were combined to create a wide-field montage image of the RPC network...
April 26, 2017: International Ophthalmology
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