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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806765/pka-activity-is-essential-for-relieving-the-suppression-of-hyphal-growth-and-appressorium-formation-by-mosfl1-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#1
Yang Li, Xue Zhang, Shuai Hu, Huiquan Liu, Jin-Rong Xu
In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the cAMP-PKA pathway regulates surface recognition, appressorium turgor generation, and invasive growth. However, deletion of CPKA failed to block appressorium formation and responses to exogenous cAMP. In this study, we generated and characterized the cpk2 and cpkA cpk2 mutants and spontaneous suppressors of cpkA cpk2 in M. oryzae. Our results demonstrate that CPKA and CPK2 have specific and overlapping functions, and PKA activity is essential for appressorium formation and plant infection...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806763/genome-wide-regulation-of-electro-acupuncture-on-the-neural-stat5-loss-induced-obese-mice
#2
Shu-Ping Fu, Hao Hong, Sheng-Feng Lu, Chen-Jun Hu, Hou-Xi Xu, Qian Li, Mei-Ling Yu, Chen Ou, Jian-Zhong Meng, Tian-Lin Wang, Lothar Hennighausen, Bing-Mei Zhu
Acupuncture is reported to be effective in treating obesity related illnesses, but its mechanism is still unclear. To investigate this mechanism we applied electro-acupuncture (EA) in a mouse model of obesity and used RNA-seq to identify molecular consequences. Deletion of the transcription factor STAT5 from neurons (Stat5NKO) led to obesity. Acupuncture, in turn, reduced body weight and the ratio of epididymal white adipose tissue (Epi-WAT) to body weight, and it also decreased plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806761/transcriptome-analysis-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-cells-identifies-t-type-ca2-channel-cacna1g-as-a-new-pathological-marker-for-pdgfr%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia
#3
Se Eun Ha, Moon Young Lee, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Chanjae Park, Paul J Park, Doug Redelman, Kent C Sasse, Laren S Becker, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells are distributed into distinct morphological groups within the serosal, muscular, and submucosal layers as well as the myenteric and deep muscular plexi. PDGFRα+ cells directly interact with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tissue. These three cell types, SMC, ICC, and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP cells), form an electrical syncytium, which dynamically regulates gastrointestinal motility. We have previously reported the transcriptomes of SMC and ICC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806745/persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#4
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in macrophages where they avoid lysosomal targeting and degradation through poorly understood mechanisms proposed to involve arrest of phagosomal maturation at an early endosomal stage. A clear understanding of how this relates to host defenses elicited from various intracellular compartments is also missing and can only be studied using techniques allowing single cell and subcellular analyses. Using confocal imaging of human primary macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium (Mav) we show evidence that Mav phagosomes are not arrested at an early endosomal stage, but mature to a (LAMP1+/LAMP2+/CD63+) late endosomal/phagolysosomal stage where inflammatory signaling and Mav growth restriction is initiated through a mechanism involving Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8, the adaptor MyD88 and transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-1...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806594/signaling-networks-in-the-control-of-pluripotency
#5
REVIEW
Hanzhi Zhao, Ying Jin
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by their ability of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and pluripotent developmental potential, which endows them with great values in basic research and future clinical application. However, realization of full potential of ESCs is dependent on the elucidation of molecular mechanisms governing ESCs, among which signaling pathways play critical roles. A great deal of efforts has been made in the past decades to understand what and how signaling pathways contribute to the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806415/synthetic-mrna-is-a-more-reliable-tool-for-the-delivery-of-dna-targeting-proteins-into-the-cell-nucleus-than-fusion-with-a-protein-transduction-domain
#6
Ivan Leontovyc, David Habart, Sarka Loukotova, Lucie Kosinova, Jan Kriz, Frantisek Saudek, Tomas Koblas
Cell reprogramming requires efficient delivery of reprogramming transcription factors into the cell nucleus. Here, we compared the robustness and workload of two protein delivery methods that avoid the risk of genomic integration. The first method is based on fusion of the protein of interest to a protein transduction domain (PTD) for delivery across the membranes of target cells. The second method relies on de novo synthesis of the protein of interest inside the target cells utilizing synthetic mRNA (syn-mRNA) as a template...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806414/alpha-tocopherol-attenuates-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-crizotinib-against-cells-transformed-by-npm-alk
#7
Yuki Uchihara, Fumihito Ueda, Kenji Tago, Yosuke Nakazawa, Tomoyuki Ohe, Tadahiko Mashino, Shigenobu Yokota, Tadashi Kasahara, Hiroomi Tamura, Megumi Funakoshi-Tago
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are mainly characterized by harboring the fusion protein nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). The ALK inhibitor, crizotinib specifically induced apoptosis in Ba/F3 cells expressing NPM-ALK by inhibiting the activation of NPM-ALK and its downstream molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3). We found that α-tocopherol, a major component of vitamin E, attenuated the effects of crizotinib independently of its anti-oxidant properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806401/a-gdf15-3-utr-variant-rs1054564-results-in-allele-specific-translational-repression-of-gdf15-by-hsa-mir-1233-3p
#8
Ming-Sheng Teng, Lung-An Hsu, Shu-Hui Juan, Wen-Chi Lin, Ming-Cheng Lee, Cheng-Wen Su, Semon Wu, Yu-Lin Ko
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with or without cardiovascular diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) target sites, also known as miRSNPs, are known to enhance or weaken miRNA-mRNA interactions and have been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the miRSNP rs1054564 in regulating GDF15 levels. Two rs1054564-containing binding sites for hsa-miR-873-5p and hsa-miR-1233-3p were identified in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the GDF15 transcript using bioinformatics tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806398/lysine-52-stabilizes-the-myc-oncoprotein-through-an-scf-fbxw7-independent-mechanism
#9
J De Melo, S S Kim, C Lourenco, L Z Penn
The oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC (MYC) is deregulated and often overexpressed in more than 50% of cancers. MYC deregulation is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive disease, suggesting that the development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting MYC would markedly impact patient outcome. MYC is highly regulated, with a protein and mRNA half-life of ~30 min. The most extensively studied pathway regulating MYC protein stability involves ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation mediated by the E3-ligase, SCF(Fbxw7)...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806396/inhibiting-myc-binding-to-the-e-box-dna-motif-by-me47-decreases-tumour-xenograft-growth
#10
L C Lustig, D Dingar, W B Tu, C Lourenco, M Kalkat, I Inamoto, R Ponzielli, W C W Chan, J A Shin, L Z Penn
Developing therapeutics to effectively inhibit the MYC oncoprotein would mark a key advance towards cancer patient care as MYC is deregulated in over 50% of human cancers. MYC deregulation is correlated with aggressive disease and poor patient outcome. Despite strong evidence in mouse models that inhibiting MYC would significantly impact tumour cell growth and patient survival, traditional approaches have not yet yielded the urgently needed therapeutic agents that directly target MYC. MYC functions through its interaction with MAX to regulate gene transcription by binding to E-box DNA response elements of MYC target genes...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806394/smggds-is-a-transient-nucleolar-protein-that-protects-cells-from-nucleolar-stress-and-promotes-the-cell-cycle-by-regulating-dream-complex-gene-expression
#11
P Gonyo, C Bergom, A C Brandt, S-W Tsaih, Y Sun, T M Bigley, E L Lorimer, S S Terhune, H Rui, M J Flister, R M Long, C L Williams
The chaperone protein and guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS (RAP1GDS1) is a key promoter of cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. SmgGDS undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, suggesting that it has both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions that promote cancer. Previous studies indicate that SmgGDS binds cytoplasmic small GTPases and promotes their trafficking to the plasma membrane. In contrast, little is known about the functions of SmgGDS in the nucleus, or how these nuclear functions might benefit cancer cells...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806136/harnessing-olig2-function-in-tumorigenicity-and-plasticity-to-target-malignant-gliomas
#12
Jennifer Kosty, Fanghui Lu, Robert Kupp, Shwetal Mehta, Q Richard Lu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity...
August 14, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805978/obeticholic-acid-a-selective-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-regulates-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-sandwich-cultured-human-hepatocytes
#13
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jonathan P Jackson, Robert L St Claire, Kimberly Freeman, Kenneth R Brouwer, Jeffrey E Edwards
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a master regulator of bile acid homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and cellular membrane transport. Impairment of bile acid efflux due to cholangiopathies results in chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal elevation of intrahepatic and systemic bile acid levels. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent and selective FXR agonist that is 100-fold more potent than the endogenous ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The effects of OCA on genes involved in bile acid homeostasis were investigated using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805926/multiple-trait-genomewide-mapping-and-gene-network-analysis-for-scrotal-circumference-growth-curves-in-brahman-cattle
#14
A C C Soares, S E F Guimarães, M J Kelly, M R S Fortes, F F E Silva, L L Verardo, R Mota, S Moore
Fertility traits are economically important in cattle breeding programs. Scrotal circumference (SC) measures are repeatable, easily obtained, highly heritable, and positively correlated with female fertility traits and sperm quality traits in males. A useful approach to summarize SC measures over time is using nonlinear models, which summarize specific measures of SC in a few parameters with biological interpretation. This approach facilitates the selection of bulls with larger SC and maturity index (K), that is, early maturing animals...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805829/lineage-specific-dynamic-and-pre-established-enhancer-promoter-contacts-cooperate-in-terminal-differentiation
#15
Adam J Rubin, Brook C Barajas, Mayra Furlan-Magaril, Vanessa Lopez-Pajares, Maxwell R Mumbach, Imani Howard, Daniel S Kim, Lisa D Boxer, Jonathan Cairns, Mikhail Spivakov, Steven W Wingett, Minyi Shi, Zhixin Zhao, William J Greenleaf, Anshul Kundaje, Michael Snyder, Howard Y Chang, Peter Fraser, Paul A Khavari
Chromosome conformation is an important feature of metazoan gene regulation; however, enhancer-promoter contact remodeling during cellular differentiation remains poorly understood. To address this, genome-wide promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C) was performed during epidermal differentiation. Two classes of enhancer-promoter contacts associated with differentiation-induced genes were identified. The first class ('gained') increased in contact strength during differentiation in concert with enhancer acquisition of the H3K27ac activation mark...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805820/prostate-cancer-associated-spop-mutations-confer-resistance-to-bet-inhibitors-through-stabilization-of-brd4
#16
Xiangpeng Dai, Wenjian Gan, Xiaoning Li, Shangqian Wang, Wei Zhang, Ling Huang, Shengwu Liu, Qing Zhong, Jianping Guo, Jinfang Zhang, Ting Chen, Kouhei Shimizu, Francisco Beca, Mirjam Blattner, Divya Vasudevan, Dennis L Buckley, Jun Qi, Lorenz Buser, Pengda Liu, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Andrew H Beck, Liewei Wang, Peter J Wild, Levi A Garraway, Mark A Rubin, Christopher E Barbieri, Kwok-Kin Wong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Jiaoti Huang, Yu Chen, James E Bradner, Wenyi Wei
The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins comprises four members-BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and the testis-specific isoform BRDT-that largely function as transcriptional coactivators and play critical roles in various cellular processes, including the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. BET proteins enhance the oncogenic functions of major cancer drivers by elevating the expression of these drivers, such as c-Myc in leukemia, or by promoting the transcriptional activities of oncogenic factors, such as AR and ERG in prostate cancer...
August 14, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805812/t-bet-dependent-nkp46-innate-lymphoid-cells-regulate-the-onset-of-th17-induced-neuroinflammation
#17
Brandon Kwong, Rejane Rua, Yuanyuan Gao, John Flickinger, Yan Wang, Michael J Kruhlak, Jinfang Zhu, Eric Vivier, Dorian B McGavern, Vanja Lazarevic
The transcription factor T-bet has been associated with increased susceptibility to systemic and organ-specific autoimmunity, but the mechanism by which T-bet expression promotes neuroinflammation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a cardinal role of T-bet-dependent NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the initiation of CD4(+) TH17-mediated neuroinflammation. Loss of T-bet specifically in NKp46(+) ILCs profoundly impaired the ability of myelin-reactive TH17 cells to invade central nervous system (CNS) tissue and protected the mice from autoimmunity...
August 14, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805661/the-foxn3-neat1-sin3a-repressor-complex-promotes-progression-of-hormonally-responsive-breast-cancer
#18
Wanjin Li, Zihan Zhang, Xinhua Liu, Xiao Cheng, Yi Zhang, Xiao Han, Yu Zhang, Shumeng Liu, Jianguo Yang, Bosen Xu, Lin He, Luyang Sun, Jing Liang, Yongfeng Shang
The pathophysiological function of the forkhead transcription factor FOXN3 remains to be explored. Here we report that FOXN3 is a transcriptional repressor that is physically associated with the SIN3A repressor complex in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cells. RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled high-throughput sequencing identified that NEAT1, an estrogen-inducible long noncoding RNA, is required for FOXN3 interactions with the SIN3A complex. ChIP-Seq and deep sequencing of RNA genomic targets revealed that the FOXN3-NEAT1-SIN3A complex represses genes including GATA3 that are critically involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805632/juvenile-hormone-and-hemimetabolan-eusociality-a-comparison-of-cockroaches-with-termites
#19
REVIEW
Judith Korb, Xavier Belles
Termites are social Dictyoptera that evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. They are characterized by unique developmental plasticity that is the basis of caste differentiation and social organization. As developmental plasticity is a result of endocrine regulation, in order to understand the evolution of termite sociality it is helpful to compare the endocrine underpinning of development between termites and cockroaches. Nijhout and Wheeler (1982) proposed that varying JH titers determine caste differentiation in termites...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805492/roles-of-rice-phytochrome-interacting-factor-like1-ospil1-in-leaf-senescence
#20
Yasuhito Sakuraba, Eun-Young Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
Rice (Oryza sativa) Phytochrome-Interacting Factor-Like1 (OsPIL1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays an important role in the elongation of internode cells. Recently, we found that OsPIL1 participates in chlorophyll biosynthesis by directly upregulating several genes encoding components of the photosystem apparatus. Here, we show that OsPIL1 negatively regulates leaf senescence in rice. During dark-induced senescence (DIS), ospil1 mutants senesced earlier than wild type; this is opposite to mutants of Arabidopsis PIF4 and PIF5, the closest homologs of OsPIL1...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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