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Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Monica Raina, Amber M Bates, Carol L Fischer, Ann Progulske-Fox, Taher Abbasi, Shireen Vali, Kim A Brogden
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- or calcium-dependent proteinases involved in normal maintenance of extracellular matrix. When elevated, they contribute to the tissue destruction seen in periodontal disease. Recently, we found that human beta defensin 3 (HBD3), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, alters chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB). In this study, the hypotheses that HagB induces MMP production in dendritic cells and that HBD3 mixed with HagB prior to treatment alters HagB-induced MMP profiles were tested...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Kinga A Kocemba-Pilarczyk, Barbara Ostrowska, Sonia Trojan, Ecce Aslan, Dorota Kusior, Małgorzata Lasota, Claire Lenouvel, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized as a clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, which is often associated with pancytopenia and osteolytic bone disease. Interestingly, myeloma-infiltrated bone marrow is considered to be hypoxic, providing selection pressure for a developing tumour. Since HSP90 was shown to participate in stabilization of the subunit of the key transcription factor HIF-1, which controls the hypoxic response, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a HSP90 inhibitor 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), on MM cells cultured under low oxygenation conditions...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Zengli Zhang, Huiqian Wang, Qifeng Ding, Yufei Xing, Zhonghua Xu, Chun Lu, Dongdong Luo, Longjiang Xu, Wei Xia, Caicun Zhou, Minhua Shi
The prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is poor. One of the reasons for this hampered progress has been a lack of in vitro models that would faithfully recapitulate the heterogeneity of tumors and response to treatment. In this study, surgically resected tumors were obtained from patients with stage I/II NSCLC during curative-intent surgery. Using a 3D patient-derived tumor spheroids culture system, our results demonstrate successful long-term expansion of primary NSCLC cells in vitro (> 120 days)...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jin Ah Cha, Hyo-Sook Song, Beomku Kang, Moon Nyeo Park, Kyoung Sun Park, Sung-Hoon Kim, Bum-Sang Shim, Bonglee Kim
Though Cnidium officinale Makino (COM) was known to have anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer effects, the underlying anticancer mechanism of COM using endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and miRNA remained unclear until now. Thus, in the current study, the inhibitory mechanism of COM in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) cells was elucidated. COM exerted cytotoxicity in U937 and U266 but not Raw264.7 cells. COM treatment increased the expression of ER stress-related proteins such as p-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), p-eukaryotic initiation factor (p-eIF2α), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniela Sorriento, Gaetano Santulli, Michele Ciccarelli, Angela Serena Maione, Maddalena Illario, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
We have recently demonstrated that the amino-terminal domain of G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) type 5, (GRK5-NT) inhibits NFκB activity in cardiac cells leading to a significant amelioration of LVH. Since GRK5-NT is known to bind calmodulin, this study aimed to evaluate the functional role of GRK5-NT in the regulation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent transcription factors. We found that the overexpression of GRK5-NT in cardiomyoblasts significantly reduced the activation and the nuclear translocation of NFAT and its cofactor GATA-4 in response to phenylephrine (PE)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kenzie A Cameron, Elaine R Cohen, Joelle R Hertz, Diane B Wayne, Debi Mitra, Jeffrey H Barsuk
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. METHODS: Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Corinna Schmitz, Heidi Noels, Omar El Bounkari, Eva Straussfeld, Remco T A Megens, Marieke Sternkopf, Setareh Alampour-Rajabi, Christine Krammer, Pathricia V Tilstam, Norbert Gerdes, Christina Bürger, Aphrodite Kapurniotu, Richard Bucala, Joachim Jankowski, Christian Weber, Jürgen Bernhagen
The inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes atherosclerosis via lesional monocyte and T-cell recruitment. B cells have emerged as important components in atherogenesis, but the interaction between MIF and B cells in atherogenesis is unknown. Here, we investigated the atherosclerotic phenotype of Mif-gene deletion in Apoe-/- mice. Apoe-/- Mif-/- mice on a Western-diet exhibited strongly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in brachiocephalic artery (BC) and abdominal aorta compared with controls...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jing Chen, Yan Qi, Cui-Fang Liu, Jing-Min Lu, Yan Shi
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs have been increasing prevalent due to the association of their deregulation with neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between miRNAs and AD hasn't been made clear. PURPOSE: In this study, Nine representative miRNA datasets were selected for the identification of the critical miRNAs by analyzing the overlap relations among them. TargetScan software was further used to predict the target genes of these miRNAs...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
Laura Jeacock, Joana Faria, David Horn
Protein abundance differs from a few to millions of copies per cell. Trypanosoma brucei presents an excellent model for studies on codon bias and differential gene expression because transcription is broadly unregulated and uniform across the genome. T. brucei is also a major human and animal protozoal pathogen. Here, an experimental assessment, using synthetic reporter genes, revealed that GC3 codons have a major positive impact on both mRNA and protein abundance. Our estimates of relative expression, based on coding sequences alone (codon usage and sequence length), are within 2-fold of the observed values for the majority of measured cellular mRNAs (n>7000) and proteins (n>2000)...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Heather N Carter, Marion Pauly, Liam D Tryon, David A Hood
Mitochondrial impairments are often noted in aged skeletal muscle. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α is integral to maintaining mitochondria, and its expression declines in aged muscle. It remains unknown whether this is due to a transcriptional deficit during aging. Our study examined PGC-1α transcription in muscle from young and old F344BN rats. Using a rat PGC-1α promoter-reporter construct, we found that PGC-1α transcription was reduced by ~65% in aged TA muscle, accompanied by decreases in PGC-1α mRNA and transcript stability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Simone Bier, Jörg Hennenlotter, Gunthild Beger, Lucretia Pavlenco, Jens van de Flierdt, Siegfried Hauch, Moritz Maas, Simon Walz, Steffen Rausch, Jens Bedke, Giuseppe Morgia, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of circulating tumour cells (CTC) at different stages of prostate cancer (PC) using the ProstateCancerDetect kit. Moreover, we aimed to assess the expression of transcripts that are specific for cancer stem cells (AdnaTest StemCell) and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CTC (AdnaTest EMT) as well as additional genes that are known to promote PC progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we included 81 patients who underwent treatment for PC between 07/2014 and 02/2015, including A) 18 patients (22...
March 15, 2018: BJU International
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yingying Liu, Yudiao Huang, Yueyue Xu, Peng Qu, Minghua Wang
Increased transendothelial permeability and subsequent blood-brain barrier damage play a key role in the pathological progression of human brain ischemia and secondary reperfusion. Memantine is a licensed drug providing clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is known regarding its effects on brain endothelial permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine on endothelial permeability and the underlying mechanisms in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
March 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
Eiki Yoshida, Takafumi Suzuki, Masanobu Morita, Keiko Taguchi, Kohei Tsuchida, Hozumi Motohashi, Minoru Doita, Masayuki Yamamoto
Keap1 is a negative regulator of Nrf2, a master transcription factor that regulates cytoprotection against oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Although several studies have suggested that the Keap1-Nrf2 system contributes to bone formation besides the maintenance of redox homeostasis, how Nrf2 hyperactivation by Keap1 deficiency affects the bone formation remains to be explored, as the Keap1-null mice are juvenile lethal. To overcome this problem, we used viable Keap1-deficient mice that we have generated by deleting the esophageal Nrf2 in Keap1-null mice (NEKO mice)...
March 15, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Chun-I Wang, Chia-Jung Yu, Yenlin Huang, Jui-Shan Yi, Hsing-Wen Cheng, Huang-Kai Kao, William Wei-Kai Lao, Kai-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological associations and molecular mechanisms of karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) progression. METHODS: The KPNA2 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 209 tissues and 181 saliva samples, respectively. The functions of KPNA2 in migration and invasion were examined in KPNA2-knowdown cells. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Shigeki Fujiwara, Cristian Cañestro
Reporter analyses of Hox1 and Brachyury (Bra) genes have revealed examples of redundant enhancers that provide regulatory robustness. Retinoic acid (RA) activates through an RA-response element the transcription of Hox1 in the nerve cord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We also found a weak RA-independent neural enhancer within the second intron of Hox1. The Hox1 gene in the larvacean Oikopleura dioica is also expressed in the nerve cord. The O. dioica genome, however, does not contain the RA receptor-encoding gene, and the expression of Hox1 has become independent of RA...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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