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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541157/isolated-medial-longitudinal-fasciculus-syndrome-review-of-imaging-anatomy-pathophysiology-and-differential-diagnosis
#1
Puneet S Kochar, Yogesh Kumar, Pranav Sharma, Vikash Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Pradeep Goyal
Isolated medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome due to infarction limited only to the midbrain is a rare occurrence. The MLF are a group of fiber tracts located in the paramedian area of the midbrain and pons. They control horizontal eye movements by interconnecting oculomotor and abducens nuclei in the brain stem. Such small infarcts can easily be overlooked by young neuroradiologists and trainees. In this review, we discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics, comprehensive review of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541017/extracranial-internal-carotid-artery-calcium-volume-measurement-using-computer-tomography
#2
Hediyeh Baradaran, Chuen R Ng, Ajay Gupta, Norliza M Noor, Khalid W Al-Dasuqi, Edward E Mtui, Omar M Rijal, Argiris Giannopoulos, Andrew Nicolaides, John R Laird, Luca Saba, Jasjit S Suri
BACKGROUND: The extent of calcium volume in the carotid arteries of contrast-based Computer Tomography (CT) is a valuable indicator of stroke risk. This study presents an automated, simple and fast calcium volume computation system. Since the high contrast agent can sometimes obscure the presence of calcium in the CT slices, it is therefore necessary to identify these slices before the corrected volume can be estimated. METHODS: The system typically consists of segmenting the calcium region from the CT scan into slices based on Hounsfield Unit-based threshold, and subsequently computing the summation of the calcium areas in each slice...
May 24, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538065/squamosal-suture-synostosis-incidence-associations-and-implications-for-treatment
#3
Blake D Murphy, Navid Ajabshir, Nolan Altman, S Anthony Wolfe, Chad Perlyn
Squamosal suture craniosynostosis is thought to be a relatively rare entity. In the authors' experience, it is underreported in imaging examinations and the existing literature. The authors sought to determine the incidence of squamosal synostosis, whether it is increasing in frequency, and its relationship with synostosis of the major calvarial sutures.Patients undergoing computed tomography imaging for suspected craniosynostosis over a 15-year period were reviewed by a plastic surgeon and pediatric neuroradiologist...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536179/prevalence-of-developmental-venous-anomalies-increases-with-age
#4
Waleed Brinjikji, Ali El-Rida El-Masri, John T Wald, Giuseppe Lanzino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) may develop in the postnatal period, we studied the age-related prevalence of DVAs on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Reports from a consecutive series of head magnetic resonance images with intravenous contrast performed over a 2-year period at our institution were reviewed. Studies reporting the presence of a DVA were retrieved and reviewed by a neuroradiologist...
May 23, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534419/correlation-between-hypoxic-area-in-primary-brain-tumors-and-who-grade-differentiation-from-malignancy-using-18f-fluoromisonidazole-positron-emission-tomography
#5
Masafumi Kanoto, Kazukuni Kirii, Toshitada Hiraka, Yuuki Toyoguchi, Yukio Sugai, Kenichiro Matsuda, Kaori Sakurada, Yukihiko Sonoda, Jun Hatazawa, Takaaki Hosoya
Background 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography (FMISO-PET) has been used for identification of hypoxic areas in tumors, and since hypoxia causes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and enhancement of tumor growth, identifying the hypoxic area in the tumor tissue is important. Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of FMISO-PET in the grading of primary brain tumors. Material and Methods FMISO-PET was performed preoperatively on 41 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed brain tumor. A neuroradiologist retrospectively measured both maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean) in the tumor and normal cerebellar parenchyma...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534135/automated-algorithm-for-counting-microbleeds-in-patients-with-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#6
Xiaowei Zou, Blaine L Hart, Marc Mabray, Mary R Bartlett, Wei Bian, Jeffrey Nelson, Leslie A Morrison, Charles E McCulloch, Christopher P Hess, Janine M Lupo, Helen Kim
PURPOSE: Familial cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) patients present with multiple lesions that can grow both in number and size over time and are reliably detected on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Manual counting of lesions is arduous and subject to high variability. We aimed to develop an automated algorithm for counting CCM microbleeds (lesions <5 mm in diameter) on SWI images. METHODS: Fifty-seven familial CCM type-1 patients were included in this institutional review board-approved study...
May 22, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527081/chiari-malformation-type-1-related-headache-the-importance-of-a-multidisciplinary-study
#7
Marcella Curone, L G Valentini, I Vetrano, E Beretta, M- Furlanetto, L Chiapparini, A Erbetta, G Bussone
Chiari type 1 Malformation (CM 1) is a structural defect consisting of a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum causing obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. CM 1 has a variety of presentation with headache being the most common symptom. The evaluation and treatment of headache related to CM 1 are often difficult, because the pain in the occipital-suboccipital region or headache that is of cough-type suggests symptomatic CM 1, but patients suffering from CM 1 can also report migraine or tension-type headache...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522667/baseline-survey-of-the-neuroradiology-work-environment-in-the-united-states-with-reported-trends-in-clinical-work-nonclinical-work-perceptions-of-trainees-and-burnout-metrics
#8
J Y Chen, F J Lexa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroradiologists have faced continuously increasing clinical workloads. Our aim was to establish and report a baseline survey of the current neuroradiology work environment in the United States and of experiential changes in recent years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary survey was sent to practicing and out-of-training members of the American Society of Neuroradiology in the United States. Selected measures included workday volume and length, burnout symptoms, participation in academic and practice-building duties; effects on perceived interpretation quality, communication of abnormal results, and consideration of early retirement or career changes, among others...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508091/-mr-spectroscopy-in-metabolic-disorders-of-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
U Yilmaz
CLINICAL ISSUE: Metabolic disorders of the brain often present a particular challenge for the neuroradiologist, since the disorders are rare, changes on conventional MR are often non-specific and there are numerous differential diagnoses for the white substance lesions. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: As a complementary method to conventional brain MRI, MR spectroscopy may help to reduce the scope of the differential diagnosis. Entities with specific MR spectroscopy patterns are Canavan disease, maple syrup urine disease, nonketotic hyperglycinemia and creatine deficiency...
May 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502273/modiolar-ossification-in-paediatric-patients-with-auditory-neuropathy
#10
L Wang, Z Wang, F Gao, K A Peng
OBJECTIVE: To describe our finding of increased ossification of the modiolus in paediatric patients with auditory neuropathy who met criteria for cochlear implantation. METHODS: A retrospective case series with a comparison group at a tertiary referral centre is described. Seven paediatric patients with auditory neuropathy who met criteria for and underwent cochlear implantation were identified. Fifteen paediatric implantees with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss were included as the comparison group...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497263/radiologic-head-ct-interpretation-errors-in-pediatric-abusive-and-non-abusive-head-trauma-patients
#11
Stephen F Kralik, Whitney Finke, Isaac C Wu, Roberta A Hibbard, Ralph A Hicks, Chang Y Ho
BACKGROUND: Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495942/tipic-syndrome-beyond-the-myth-of-carotidynia-a-new-distinct-unclassified-entity
#12
A Lecler, M Obadia, J Savatovsky, H Picard, F Charbonneau, N Menjot de Champfleur, O Naggara, B Carsin, M Amor-Sahli, J P Cottier, J Bensoussan, E Auffray-Calvier, A Varoquaux, S De Gaalon, C Calazel, N Nasr, G Volle, D C Jianu, O Gout, F Bonneville, J C Sadik
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The differential diagnosis of acute cervical pain includes nonvascular and vascular causes such as carotid dissection, carotid occlusion, or vasculitis. However, some patients present with unclassified vascular and perivascular changes on imaging previously reported as carotidynia. The aim of our study was to improve the description of this as yet unclassified clinico-radiologic entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2009 through April 2016, 47 patients from 10 centers presenting with acute neck pain or tenderness and at least 1 cervical image showing unclassified carotid abnormalities were included...
May 11, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492932/population-based-prevalence-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-in-older-adults-mayo-clinic-study-of-aging
#13
Kelly D Flemming, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Jeremiah Aakre, Kejal Kantarci, Giuseppe Lanzino, Robert D Brown, Michelle M Mielke, Rosebud O Roberts, Walter Kremers, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Importance: The prevalence of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is unknown. Case ascertainment in most previous studies was based on autopsy data or clinical convenience samples, often without detailed clinical or radiologic information. Objective: To determine the prevalence of CCM in a population-based sample of older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective imaging study included 4721 participants aged 50 to 89 years who were enrolled between January 1, 2004, and December 15, 2015, in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal, population-based study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota...
May 8, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492296/italian-consensus-in-neuroradiological-anaesthesia-icona-managing-anaesthesia-during-endovascular-procedures
#14
Carlo A Castioni, Andrea Amadori, Federico Bilotta, Moreno Bolzon, Edoardo Barboni, Anselmo Caricato, Guido Dall'acqua, Francesco DI Paola, Andrea Forastieri Molinari, Paolo Gritti, Italia LA Rosa, Marcello Longo, Carla Maglione, Pietro Martorano, Marina Munari, Valerio Perotti, Frank Rasulo, Maria Ruggiero, Antonio Santoro, Luigia Scudeller, Miriam Tumolo, Anna T Mazzeo
Anaesthetic management of patients undergoing endovascular procedures for treating intracranial aneurysms or cerebrovascular malformations must consider a number of specific challenges, in addition to those associated with anaesthesia for other specialties. In addition to maintenance of physiological stability, manipulation of systemic and cerebral haemodynamic parameters may be required to treat any sudden unexpected catastrophic neurological events. A multidisciplinary group including neuro- and pediatric anaesthesiologists, interventional neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and a clinical methodologist contributed to this document...
May 11, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488754/virtual-endovascular-treatment-of-intracranial-aneurysms-models-and-uncertainty
#15
REVIEW
Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Toni Lassila, Alejandro F Frangi
Virtual endovascular treatment models (VETMs) have been developed with the view to aid interventional neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons to pre-operatively analyze the comparative efficacy and safety of endovascular treatments for intracranial aneurysms. Based on the current state of VETMs in aneurysm rupture risk stratification and in patient-specific prediction of treatment outcomes, we argue there is a need to go beyond personalized biomechanical flow modeling assuming deterministic parameters and error-free measurements...
May 10, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481806/the-association-of-intracranial-vascular-calcification-and-stenosis-with-acute-ischemic-cerebrovascular-events
#16
Brendan Quiney, Stephen M Ying, Daniel S Hippe, Niranjan Balu, Alfonso R Urdaneta-Moncada, Mahmud Mosa-Basha
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to evaluate the association of intracranial artery calcification (IAC) with acute downstream ischemic stroke (dAIS)/transient ischemic attack while considering stenosis. METHODS: Consecutive stroke computed tomography angiography head/neck examinations from January 2010 to April 2010 were reviewed. Per-vessel IAC and stenosis of greater than or equal to 30% were documented by 2 neuroradiologists. Associations between calcification and dAIS were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for traditional risk factors and stenosis...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479101/the-frequency-and-severity-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-abnormalities-in-infants-with-mild-neonatal-encephalopathy
#17
Brian H Walsh, Jeffrey Neil, JoAnn Morey, Edward Yang, Michelle V Silvera, Terrie E Inder, Cynthia Ortinau
OBJECTIVE: To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473341/neuroradiologists-compared-with-non-neuroradiologists-in-the-detection-of-new-multiple-sclerosis-plaques
#18
W Wang, J van Heerden, M A Tacey, F Gaillard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis monitoring is based on the detection of new lesions on brain MR imaging. Outside of study populations, MS imaging studies are reported by radiologists with varying expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of MS reporting performed by neuroradiologists (someone who had spent at least 1 year in neuroradiology subspecialty training) versus non-neuroradiologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ≥2 MS studies with 3T MR imaging that included a volumetric T2 FLAIR sequence performed between 2009 and 2011 inclusive were recruited into this study...
May 4, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470350/emerging-challenges-for-neuroradiologists
#19
EDITORIAL
Horst Urbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468952/reliability-of-an-automatic-classifier-for-brain-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-burden-and-comparison-with-human-performance
#20
Victor Gonzalez-Castro, Maria Del Carmen Valdes-Hernandez, Francesca Chappell, Paul A Armitage, Stephen Makin, Joanna Wardlaw
In the brain, enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) relate to cerebral small vessel disease, poor cognition, inflammation and hypertension. We propose a fully automatic scheme that uses a support vector machine(SVM) to classify the burden of PVS in the basal ganglia(BG) region as low or high. We assess the performance of three different types of descriptors extracted from the BG region in T2-weighted MRI images: 1)statistics obtained from Wavelet transform's coefficients, 2)local binary patterns and 3)bag of visual words (BoW)-based descriptors characterising local keypoints obtained from a dense grid with the scale-invariant feature transform characteristics...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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