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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635494/urea-cycle-disorder-misdiagnosed-as-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Hussein Algahtani, Seham Alameer, Yousef Marzouk, Bader Shirah
Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of metabolism caused by dysfunction of any of the six enzymes or two transport proteins involved in urea biosynthesis. In this paper, we report a patient who presented with neurological dysfunction and coma in the immediate postpartum period. She was misdiagnosed for many years as a case of multiple sclerosis. The importance of reporting this case is to illustrate that the wrong diagnosis of patients as being affected with multiple sclerosis for many years due to magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities rather than the classic relapsing-remitting nature of the disease may lead to catastrophic consequences...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632041/automated-volumetry-of-hippocampus-is-useful-to-confirm-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-in-patients-with-radiologically-positive-findings
#2
Guilherme Silva, Cristina Martins, Nádia Moreira da Silva, Duarte Vieira, Dias Costa, Ricardo Rego, José Fonseca, João Paulo Silva Cunha
Background and purpose We evaluated two methods to identify mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS): visual inspection by experienced epilepsy neuroradiologists based on structural magnetic resonance imaging sequences and automated hippocampal volumetry provided by a processing pipeline based on the FMRIB Software Library. Methods This retrospective study included patients from the epilepsy monitoring unit database of our institution. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in 1.5T and 3T scanners with protocols that included thin coronal T2, T1 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and isometric T1 acquisitions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629955/correlation-study-between-dki-and-conventional-dwi-in-brain-and-head-and-neck-tumors
#3
Silvia Minosse, Simona Marzi, Francesca Piludu, Antonello Vidiri
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) parameters and conventional metrics provided by Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients affected by Brain or Head and Neck (HN) cancer. METHODS: Ten patients affected by brain tumor and nine patients with HN tumor underwent a pre-treatment MR examination at 3 T. The largest tumor section was manually contoured by two expert neuroradiologists. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) and apparent diffusional kurtosis (Kapp) parameters were determined at the voxel level by using the DKI model, and compared to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the tissue diffusion coefficient (Dmono) obtained from mono-exponential fitting methods...
June 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627989/computed-tomography-detection-of-extracapsular-spread-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-in-metastatic-cervical-lymph-nodes
#4
Joshua A Carlton, Adam W Maxwell, Lyndsey B Bauer, Sara M McElroy, Lester J Layfield, Humera Ahsan, Ajay Agarwal
Background and purpose In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), extracapsular spread (ECS) of metastases in cervical lymph nodes affects prognosis and therapy. We assessed the accuracy of intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and the utility of imaging criteria for preoperative detection of ECS in metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with HNSCC. Materials and methods Preoperative intravenous contrast-enhanced neck CT images of 93 patients with histopathological HNSCC metastatic nodes were retrospectively assessed by two neuroradiologists for ECS status and ECS imaging criteria...
June 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623417/a-validated-clinical-mri-injury-scoring-system-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#5
Shamik B Trivedi, Zachary A Vesoulis, Rakesh Rao, Steve M Liao, Joshua S Shimony, Robert C McKinstry, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: Deep nuclear gray matter injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We previously published a qualitative MRI injury scoring system utilizing serial T1-weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the MRI scoring system with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI scans from neonates with moderate to severe HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615429/diagnostic-algorithm-for-relapsing-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#6
Yael Hacohen, Kshitij Mankad, W K Chong, Frederik Barkhof, Angela Vincent, Ming Lim, Evangeline Wassmer, Olga Ciccarelli, Cheryl Hemingway
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether children with relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes (RDS) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) show distinctive clinical and radiologic features and to generate a diagnostic algorithm for the main RDS for clinical use. METHODS: A panel reviewed the clinical characteristics, MOG-Ab and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Ab, intrathecal oligoclonal bands, and Epstein-Barr virus serology results of 110 children with RDS. A neuroradiologist blinded to the diagnosis scored the MRI scans...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604576/diagnosing-large-vestibular-aqueduct-radiological-review-of-high-resolution-ct-versus-high-resolution-volumetric-mri
#7
Nicholas L Deep, Matthew L Carlson, Steven M Weindling, David M Barrs, Colin L W Driscoll, Christine M Lohse, John I Lane, Joseph M Hoxworth
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic yield of high-resolution volumetric T2-weighted MRI (HRT2-MRI) with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosis of large vestibular aqueduct (LVA). STUDY DESIGN: Three board-certified neuroradiologists performed an independent, blinded radiological review for diagnosing LVA with 2:1 age-matched controls on patients with both HRCT and HRT2-MRI imaging. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: All patients between 2002 and 2016 with hearing loss who underwent both HRCT and HRT2-MRI and were diagnosed with LVA on either modality...
June 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601259/validation-of-serial-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-as-an-outcome-predictor-in-thrombolyzed-stroke-patients
#8
Wan-Yee Kong, Benjamin Y Q Tan, Nicholas J H Ngiam, Deborah Y C Tan, Christine H Yuan, Staffan Holmin, Tommy Andersson, Erik Lundström, Hock Luen Teoh, Bernard P L Chan, Rahul Rathakrishnan, Eric Y S Ting, Vijay K Sharma, Leonard L L Yeo
BACKGROUND: The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on baseline imaging is an established predictor of functional outcome in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We studied ASPECTS before intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and at 24 hours to assess its prognostic value. METHODS: Data for consecutive anterior circulation AIS patients treated with IVT from 2006 to 2013 were extracted from a prospectively managed registry at our tertiary center...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596188/retrospective-validation-of-a-computer-assisted-quantification-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-volume-on-accuracy-precision-and-acquisition-time-compared-with-standard-abc-2-manual-volume-calculation
#9
W Xue, S Vegunta, C M Zwart, M I Aguilar, A C Patel, J M Hoxworth, B M Demaerschalk, J R Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for 6.5%-19.6% of all acute strokes. Initial intracerebral hemorrhage volume and expansion are both independent predictors of clinical outcomes and mortality. Therefore, a rapid, unbiased, and precise measurement of intracerebral hemorrhage volume is a key component of clinical management. The most commonly used method, ABC/2, results in overestimation. We developed an interactive segmentation program, SegTool, using a novel graphic processing unit, level set algorithm...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594923/computer-aided-detection-of-brain-metastasis-on-3d-mr-imaging-observer-performance-study
#10
Leonard Sunwoo, Young Jae Kim, Seung Hong Choi, Kwang-Gi Kim, Ji Hee Kang, Yeonah Kang, Yun Jung Bae, Roh-Eul Yoo, Jihang Kim, Kyong Joon Lee, Seung Hyun Lee, Byung Se Choi, Cheolkyu Jung, Chul-Ho Sohn, Jae Hyoung Kim
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) of brain metastasis (BM) on radiologists' diagnostic performance in interpreting three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using follow-up imaging and consensus as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. The study cohort consisted of 110 consecutive patients with BM and 30 patients without BM. The training data set included MR images of 80 patients with 450 BM nodules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591389/cranial-venous-sinus-dominance-what-to-expect-analysis-of-100-cerebral-angiographies
#11
Matheus Augusto Pinto Kitamura, Leonardo Ferraz Costa, Danilo Otávio de Araújo Silva, Laécio Leitão Batista, Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda, Marcelo Moraes Valença
Methods: Data of 100 cerebral angiographies were retrospectively analyzed (p = 0.05). Results: Mean age was 56.3 years, 62% female and 38% male. Measurements and dominance are shown in the Tables. There was no association between age or gender and dominance. Right parasagittal division of the superior sagittal sinus was associated with right dominance of the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein; and left parasagittal division of the superior sagittal sinus was associated with left dominance of the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein...
May 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578511/cranial-ultrasound-is-a-reliable-first-step-imaging-in-children-with-suspected-craniosynostosis
#12
L Pogliani, G V Zuccotti, M Furlanetto, V Giudici, A Erbetta, L Chiapparini, L Valentini
PURPOSE: Skull radiography (SR) and Computed Tomography (CT) are still proposed as the first-line imaging choice for the diagnosis of craniosynostosis (CS) in children with abnormal head shape, but both techniques expose infants to ionizing radiation. Several studies shown that ultrasound may play an important role in the diagnosis of craniosynostosis. The aim of our study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cranial ultrasound scan (CUS) and confirm if it is a reliable first step imaging evaluation for the diagnosis of craniosynostosis in newborn...
June 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574665/simultaneous-multislice-based-5-minute-lumbar-spine-mri-protocol-initial-experience-in-a-clinical-setting
#13
Maria G Longo, Joana Fagundes, Susie Huang, William Mehan, Thomas Witzel, Himanshu Bhat, Keith Heberlein, Bruce R Rosen, Daniel Rosenthal, Ramon G Gonzalez, Pamela W Schaefer, Otto Rapalino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have used parallel imaging (PI) techniques to decrease spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol acquisition times. Recently developed MRI sequences allow even faster acquisitions. Our purpose was to develop a lumbar spine MRI protocol using PI with GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition) and a simultaneous multislice (SMS)-based sequence and to evaluate its diagnostic performance compared to a standard lumbar spine MRI protocol...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574627/ct-versus-mr-techniques-in-the-detection-of-cervical-artery-dissection
#14
Uta Hanning, Peter B Sporns, Meilin Schmiedel, Erich B Ringelstein, Walter Heindel, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Niederstadt, Ralf Dittrich
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is an important etiology of juvenile stroke. The gold standard for the diagnosis of sCAD is convential angiography. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/MR angiography (MRA) and computed tomography (CT)/CT angiography (CTA) are frequently used alternatives. New developments such as multislice CT/CTA have enabled routine acquisition of thinner sections with rapid imaging times. The goal of this study was to compare the capability of recent developed 128-slice CT/CTA to MRI/MRA to detect radiologic features of sCAD...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570418/cochlear-implant-electrode-localization-using-an-ultra-high-resolution-scan-mode-on-conventional-64-slice-and-new-generation-192-slice-multi-detector-computed-tomography
#15
Matthew L Carlson, Shuai Leng, Felix E Diehn, Robert J Witte, Karl N Krecke, Josh Grimes, Kelly K Koeller, Michael R Bruesewitz, Cynthia H McCollough, John I Lane
HYPOTHESIS: A new generation 192-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) clinical scanner provides enhanced image quality and superior electrode localization over conventional MDCT. BACKGROUND: Currently, accurate and reliable cochlear implant electrode localization using conventional MDCT scanners remains elusive. METHODS: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric temporal bones were implanted with full-length cochlear implant electrodes. Specimens were subsequently scanned with conventional 64-slice and new generation 192-slice MDCT scanners utilizing ultra-high resolution modes...
May 31, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541157/isolated-medial-longitudinal-fasciculus-syndrome-review-of-imaging-anatomy-pathophysiology-and-differential-diagnosis
#16
Puneet S Kochar, Yogesh Kumar, Pranav Sharma, Vikash Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Pradeep Goyal
Isolated medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome due to infarction limited only to the midbrain is a rare occurrence. The MLF are a group of fiber tracts located in the paramedian area of the midbrain and pons. They control horizontal eye movements by interconnecting oculomotor and abducens nuclei in the brain stem. Such small infarcts can easily be overlooked by young neuroradiologists and trainees. In this review, we discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics, comprehensive review of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541017/extracranial-internal-carotid-artery-calcium-volume-measurement-using-computer-tomography
#17
Hediyeh Baradaran, Chuen R Ng, Ajay Gupta, Norliza M Noor, Khalid W Al-Dasuqi, Edward E Mtui, Omar M Rijal, Argiris Giannopoulos, Andrew Nicolaides, John R Laird, Luca Saba, Jasjit S Suri
BACKGROUND: The extent of calcium volume in the carotid arteries of contrast-based Computer Tomography (CT) is a valuable indicator of stroke risk. This study presents an automated, simple and fast calcium volume computation system. Since the high contrast agent can sometimes obscure the presence of calcium in the CT slices, it is therefore necessary to identify these slices before the corrected volume can be estimated. METHODS: The system typically consists of segmenting the calcium region from the CT scan into slices based on Hounsfield Unit-based threshold, and subsequently computing the summation of the calcium areas in each slice...
May 24, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538065/squamosal-suture-synostosis-incidence-associations-and-implications-for-treatment
#18
Blake D Murphy, Navid Ajabshir, Nolan Altman, S Anthony Wolfe, Chad Perlyn
Squamosal suture craniosynostosis is thought to be a relatively rare entity. In the authors' experience, it is underreported in imaging examinations and the existing literature. The authors sought to determine the incidence of squamosal synostosis, whether it is increasing in frequency, and its relationship with synostosis of the major calvarial sutures.Patients undergoing computed tomography imaging for suspected craniosynostosis over a 15-year period were reviewed by a plastic surgeon and pediatric neuroradiologist...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536179/prevalence-of-developmental-venous-anomalies-increases-with-age
#19
Waleed Brinjikji, Ali El-Rida El-Masri, John T Wald, Giuseppe Lanzino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) may develop in the postnatal period, we studied the age-related prevalence of DVAs on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Reports from a consecutive series of head magnetic resonance images with intravenous contrast performed over a 2-year period at our institution were reviewed. Studies reporting the presence of a DVA were retrieved and reviewed by a neuroradiologist...
May 23, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534419/correlation-between-hypoxic-area-in-primary-brain-tumors-and-who-grade-differentiation-from-malignancy-using-18f-fluoromisonidazole-positron-emission-tomography
#20
Masafumi Kanoto, Kazukuni Kirii, Toshitada Hiraka, Yuuki Toyoguchi, Yukio Sugai, Kenichiro Matsuda, Kaori Sakurada, Yukihiko Sonoda, Jun Hatazawa, Takaaki Hosoya
Background 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography (FMISO-PET) has been used for identification of hypoxic areas in tumors, and since hypoxia causes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and enhancement of tumor growth, identifying the hypoxic area in the tumor tissue is important. Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of FMISO-PET in the grading of primary brain tumors. Material and Methods FMISO-PET was performed preoperatively on 41 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed brain tumor. A neuroradiologist retrospectively measured both maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean) in the tumor and normal cerebellar parenchyma...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
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