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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431361/uncertainty-quantification-and-validation-of-3d-lattice-scaffolds-for-computer-aided-biomedical-applications
#1
Recep M Gorguluarslan, Seung-Kyum Choi, Christopher J Saldana
A methodology is proposed for uncertainty quantification and validation to accurately predict the mechanical response of lattice structures used in the design of scaffolds. Effective structural properties of the scaffolds are characterized using a developed multi-level stochastic upscaling process that propagates the quantified uncertainties at strut level to the lattice structure level. To obtain realistic simulation models for the stochastic upscaling process and minimize the experimental cost, high-resolution finite element models of individual struts were reconstructed from the micro-CT scan images of lattice structures which are fabricated by selective laser melting...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431121/starbeast2-brings-faster-species-tree-inference-and-accurate-estimates-of-substitution-rates
#2
Huw A Ogilvie, Remco R Bouckaert, Alexei J Drummond
Fully Bayesian multispecies coalescent (MSC) methods like *BEAST estimate species trees from multiple sequence alignments. Today thousands of genes can be sequenced for a given study, but using that many genes with *BEAST is intractably slow. An alternative is to use heuristic methods which compromise accuracy or completeness in return for speed. A common heuristic is concatenation, which assumes that the evolutionary history of each gene tree is identical to the species tree. This is an inconsistent estimator of species tree topology, a worse estimator of divergence times, and induces spurious substitution rate variation when incomplete lineage sorting is present...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430544/trust-and-the-compliance-reliance-paradigm-the-effects-of-risk-error-bias-and-reliability-on-trust-and-dependence
#3
Eric T Chancey, James P Bliss, Yusuke Yamani, Holly A H Handley
OBJECTIVE: This study provides a theoretical link between trust and the compliance-reliance paradigm. We propose that for trust mediation to occur, the operator must be presented with a salient choice, and there must be an element of risk for dependence. BACKGROUND: Research suggests that false alarms and misses affect dependence via two independent processes, hypothesized as trust in signals and trust in nonsignals. These two trust types manifest in categorically different behaviors: compliance and reliance...
May 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430120/autonomous-multi-robot-search-for-a-hazardous-source-in-a-turbulent-environment
#4
Branko Ristic, Daniel Angley, Bill Moran, Jennifer L Palmer
Finding the source of an accidental or deliberate release of a toxic substance into the atmosphere is of great importance for national security. The paper presents a search algorithm for turbulent environments which falls into the class of cognitive (infotaxi) algorithms. Bayesian estimation of the source parameter vector is carried out using the Rao-Blackwell dimension-reduction method, while the robots are controlled autonomously to move in a scalable formation. Estimation and control are carried out in a centralised replicated fusion architecture assuming all-to-all communication...
April 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429965/bayesian-sem-for-specification-search-problems-in-testing-factorial-invariance
#5
Dexin Shi, Hairong Song, Xiaolan Liao, Robert Terry, Lori A Snyder
Specification search problems refer to two important but under-addressed issues in testing for factorial invariance: how to select proper reference indicators and how to locate specific non-invariant parameters. In this study, we propose a two-step procedure to solve these issues. Step 1 is to identify a proper reference indicator using the Bayesian structural equation modeling approach. An item is selected if it is associated with the highest likelihood to be invariant across groups. Step 2 is to locate specific non-invariant parameters, given that a proper reference indicator has already been selected in Step 1...
April 21, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429842/linking-macroecology-and-community-ecology-refining-predictions-of-species-distributions-using-biotic-interaction-networks
#6
Phillip P A Staniczenko, Prabu Sivasubramaniam, K Blake Suttle, Richard G Pearson
Macroecological models for predicting species distributions usually only include abiotic environmental conditions as explanatory variables, despite knowledge from community ecology that all species are linked to other species through biotic interactions. This disconnect is largely due to the different spatial scales considered by the two sub-disciplines: macroecologists study patterns at large extents and coarse resolutions, while community ecologists focus on small extents and fine resolutions. A general framework for including biotic interactions in macroecological models would help bridge this divide, as it would allow for rigorous testing of the role that biotic interactions play in determining species ranges...
April 21, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429639/review-of-doing-bayesian-data-analysis-a-tutorial-with-r-jags-and-stan-second-edition
#7
Charles E Gaudet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429470/meta-analysis-combining-parallel-and-cross-over-trials-with-random-effects
#8
François Curtin
Meta-analysis can necessitate the combination of parallel and cross-over trial designs. Because of the differences in the trial designs and potential biases notably associated with the crossover trials, one often combines trials of the same designs only, which decreases the power of the meta-analysis. To combine results of clinical trials from parallel and cross-over designs, we extend the method proposed in an accompanying study to account for random effects. We propose here a hierarchical mixed model allowing the combination of the 2 types of trial designs and accounting for additional covariates where random effects can be introduced to account for heterogeneity in trial, treatment effect, and interactions...
April 21, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429157/scenes-as-micro-cultures-examining-heterogeneity-of-hiv-risk-behavior-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-toronto-canada
#9
Syed W Noor, Barry D Adam, David J Brennan, David A Moskowitz, Sandra Gardner, Trevor A Hart
Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined patterns of participation in multiple scenes, how sexual risk practices vary by scene, and psychosocial factors associated with these patterns among 470 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) recruited from Toronto. We calculated posterior probability of being in a class from participation in nine separate scenes. We used Entropy, the Bayesian information criterion and the Lo-Mendel-Rubin likelihood ratio test to identify the best fit model. Fit indices suggested a four-class solution...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428869/rapid-maximum-likelihood-ancestral-state-reconstruction-of-continuous-characters-a-rerooting-free-algorithm
#10
Eric W Goolsby
Ancestral state reconstruction is a method used to study the evolutionary trajectories of quantitative characters on phylogenies. Although efficient methods for univariate ancestral state reconstruction under a Brownian motion model have been described for at least 25 years, to date no generalization has been described to allow more complex evolutionary models, such as multivariate trait evolution, non-Brownian models, missing data, and within-species variation. Furthermore, even for simple univariate Brownian motion models, most phylogenetic comparative R packages compute ancestral states via inefficient tree rerooting and full tree traversals at each tree node, making ancestral state reconstruction extremely time-consuming for large phylogenies...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428322/glycemic-control-during-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-versus-multiple-daily-insulin-injections-in-type-2-diabetes-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
John C Pickup, Yves Reznik, Alex J Sutton
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycemic control during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) in people with type 2 diabetes to identify patient characteristics that determine those best treated by CSII. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials were selected comparing HbA1c during CSII versus MDI in people with type 2 diabetes. Data sources included Cochrane database and Ovid Medline. We explored patient-level determinants of final HbA1c level and insulin dose using Bayesian meta-regression models of individual patient data and summary effects using two-step meta-analysis...
May 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428139/use-and-reporting-of-bayesian-methods-for-primary-data-analysis-in-epidemiological-research-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte Rietbergen, Thomas Pa Debray, Irene Klugkist, Kristel Jm Janssen, Karel Gm Moons
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the use of Bayesian data analysis in epidemiology in the past decade, and particularly to evaluate the quality of research papers reporting the results of these analyses. METHODS: Complete volumes of five major epidemiological journals in the period 2005-2015 were searched via Pubmed. In addition we performed an extensive within-manuscript search using a specialized Java application. Details of reporting on Bayesian statistics were examined in original research papers with primary Bayesian data analyses...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427935/the-manifolded-dynamics-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-northern-alberta-a-combined-analysis-of-virus-genetic-and-public-health-data
#13
B Vrancken, D Adachi, M Benedet, A Singh, R Read, S Shafran, G D Taylor, S Houston, K Simmonds, S Plitt, C Sikora, P Lemey, C L Charlton, J W Tang
Molecular epidemiology has become a key tool for tracking infectious disease epidemics. Here, the spread of the most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes in Northern Alberta, Canada, was characterized with a Bayesian phylogenetic approach using 1146 HIV-1 pol sequences collected between 2007 and 2013 for routine clinical management purposes. Available patient metadata were qualitatively interpreted and correlated with onwards transmission using Fisher exact tests and logistic regression. Most infections were from subtypes A (n=36), B (n=815) and C (n=211)...
April 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427363/a-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-suicide-in-el-salvador
#14
Carlos Carcach
BACKGROUND: In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427355/identifying-and-characterizing-hepatitis-c-virus-hotspots-in-massachusetts-a-spatial-epidemiological-approach
#15
Thomas J Stopka, Michael A Goulart, David J Meyers, Marga Hutcheson, Kerri Barton, Shauna Onofrey, Daniel Church, Ashley Donahue, Kenneth K H Chui
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have increased during the past decade but little is known about geographic clustering patterns. METHODS: We used a unique analytical approach, combining geographic information systems (GIS), spatial epidemiology, and statistical modeling to identify and characterize HCV hotspots, statistically significant clusters of census tracts with elevated HCV counts and rates. We compiled sociodemographic and HCV surveillance data (n = 99,780 cases) for Massachusetts census tracts (n = 1464) from 2002 to 2013...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#16
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427324/genomic-prediction-from-observed-and-imputed-high-density-ovine-genotypes
#17
Nasir Moghaddar, Andrew A Swan, Julius H J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: Genomic prediction using high-density (HD) marker genotypes is expected to lead to higher prediction accuracy, particularly for more heterogeneous multi-breed and crossbred populations such as those in sheep and beef cattle, due to providing stronger linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms and quantitative trait loci controlling a trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible improvement in genomic prediction accuracy of production traits in Australian sheep breeds based on HD genotypes (600k, both observed and imputed) compared to prediction based on 50k marker genotypes...
April 20, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427321/in-silico-assessment-of-biomedical-products-the-conundrum-of-rare-but-not-so-rare-events-in-two-case-studies
#18
Marco Viceconti, Claudio Cobelli, Tarek Haddad, Adam Himes, Boris Kovatchev, Mark Palmer
In silico clinical trials, defined as "The use of individualized computer simulation in the development or regulatory evaluation of a medicinal product, medical device, or medical intervention," have been proposed as a possible strategy to reduce the regulatory costs of innovation and the time to market for biomedical products. We review some of the the literature on this topic, focusing in particular on those applications where the current practice is recognized as inadequate, as for example, the detection of unexpected severe adverse events too rare to be detected in a clinical trial, but still likely enough to be of concern...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426818/alternative-glacial-interglacial-refugia-demographic-hypotheses-tested-on-cephalocereus-columna-trajani-cactaceae-in-the-intertropical-mexican-drylands
#19
Amelia Cornejo-Romero, Carlos Fabián Vargas-Mendoza, Gustavo F Aguilar-Martínez, Javier Medina-Sánchez, Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar, Pedro Luis Valverde, Jose Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado, Alejandra Serrato, Sombra Rivas-Arancibia, Marco Aurelio Pérez-Hernández, Gerardo López-Ortega, Cecilia Jiménez-Sierra
Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426782/peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-a-neglected-tropical-disease-in-maghreb-region-of-north-africa-and-its-threat-to-europe
#20
Ratiba Baazizi, Mana Mahapatra, Brian Donald Clarke, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Djamel Khelef, Satya Parida
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle...
2017: PloS One
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