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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352580/individual-student-characteristics-and-attainment-in-pre-registration-physiotherapy-a-retrospective-multi-site-cohort-study
#1
Meriel Norris, John A Hammond, Annabel Williams, Robert Grant, Sandra Naylor, Catherine Rozario
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is a desire to diversify the physiotherapy workforce. However, limited research indicates that some student characteristics linked to under-representation in pre registration physiotherapy education have lower attainment and greater attrition. This study explored the relationship between individual characteristics and success of students in pre registration physiotherapy education within South East England. DESIGN: A retrospective multi site cohort study including pre registration physiotherapy programmes in the South East of England...
October 31, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352572/phase-i-combination-study-of-the-parp-inhibitor-veliparib-plus-carboplatin-and-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-advanced-ovarian-cancer-and-other-solid-malignancies
#2
Heidi J Gray, Katherine Bell-McGuinn, Gini F Fleming, Mihaela Cristea, Hao Xiong, Danielle Sullivan, Yan Luo, Mark D McKee, Wijith Munasinghe, Lainie P Martin
OBJECTIVE: Determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of veliparib combined with carboplatin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and other nonhematologic malignancies. METHODS: In this phase I study, patients with metastatic or unresectable solid tumors and ≤2 prior chemotherapy regimens received veliparib combined with carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 4 on day 1 and gemcitabine 800mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for maximum 10cycles, followed by optional veliparib maintenance therapy...
January 15, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352418/effect-of-patient-experience-on-bypassing-a-primary-care-gatekeeper-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study-in-japan
#3
Takuya Aoki, Yosuke Yamamoto, Tatsuyoshi Ikenoue, Makoto Kaneko, Morito Kise, Yasuki Fujinuma, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: To discuss how best to implement the gatekeeping functionality of primary care; identifying the factors that cause patients to bypass their primary care gatekeepers when seeking care should be beneficial. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between patient experience with their primary care physicians and bypassing them to directly obtain care from higher-level healthcare facilities. DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in 13 primary care clinics in Japan...
January 19, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352145/integrating-modality-specific-expectancies-for-the-deployment-of-spatial-attention
#4
Paola Mengotti, Frank Boers, Pascasie L Dombert, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel
The deployment of spatial attention is highly sensitive to stimulus predictability. Despite evidence for strong crossmodal links in spatial attentional systems, it remains to be elucidated how concurrent but divergent predictions for targets in different sensory modalities are integrated. In a series of behavioral studies, we investigated the processing of modality-specific expectancies using a multimodal cueing paradigm in which auditory cues predicted the location of visual or tactile targets with modality-specific cue predictability...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351297/a-fast-combination-method-in-dsmt-and-its-application-to-recommender-system
#5
Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Yihai Liu
In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments (BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one needs to make a decision in the decision making problems. In this paper, we present a new fast combination method, called modified rigid coarsening (MRC), to obtain the final Bayesian BBAs based on hierarchical decomposition (coarsening) of the frame of discernment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350309/population-genetics-of-the-endangered-and-wild-edible-plant-ottelia-acuminata-in-southwestern-china-using-novel-ssr-markers
#6
Shu Hua Zhai, Gen Shen Yin, Xiao Hong Yang
Ottelia acuminata is an edible aquatic plant species that is endemic to southwestern China. This plant has experienced habitat degradation resulting from environmental change and extensive human disturbance. Determining the genetic variation and genetic structure of O. acuminata populations could help develop strategies to collect, evaluate, utilize and conserve the species. To this end, we genotyped 183 individuals sampled throughout the species distribution using twelve novel nuclear microsatellite loci (nSSRs)...
January 19, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347942/infant-and-child-mortality-in-relation-to-malaria-transmission-in-kemri-cdc-hdss-western-kenya-validation-of-verbal-autopsy
#7
Nyaguara O Amek, Annemieke Van Eijk, Kim A Lindblade, Mary Hamel, Nabie Bayoh, John Gimnig, Kayla F Laserson, Laurence Slutsker, Thomas Smith, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission reduction is a goal of many malaria control programmes. Little is known of how much mortality can be reduced by specific reductions in transmission. Verbal autopsy (VA) is widely used for estimating malaria specific mortality rates, but does not reliably distinguish malaria from other febrile illnesses. Overall malaria attributable mortality includes both direct and indirect deaths. It is unclear what proportion of the deaths averted by reducing malaria transmission are classified as malaria in VA...
January 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347420/bayesian-inference-with-information-content-model-check-for-langevin-equations
#8
Jens Krog, Michael A Lomholt
The Bayesian data analysis framework has been proven to be a systematic and effective method of parameter inference and model selection for stochastic processes. In this work, we introduce an information content model check that may serve as a goodness-of-fit, like the χ^{2} procedure, to complement conventional Bayesian analysis. We demonstrate this extended Bayesian framework on a system of Langevin equations, where coordinate-dependent mobilities and measurement noise hinder the normal mean-squared displacement approach...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347355/inverse-ising-problem-in-continuous-time-a-latent-variable-approach
#9
Christian Donner, Manfred Opper
We consider the inverse Ising problem: the inference of network couplings from observed spin trajectories for a model with continuous time Glauber dynamics. By introducing two sets of auxiliary latent random variables we render the likelihood into a form which allows for simple iterative inference algorithms with analytical updates. The variables are (1) Poisson variables to linearize an exponential term which is typical for point process likelihoods and (2) Pólya-Gamma variables, which make the likelihood quadratic in the coupling parameters...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347107/hawkes-process-model-with-a-time-dependent-background-rate-and-its-application-to-high-frequency-financial-data
#10
Takahiro Omi, Yoshito Hirata, Kazuyuki Aihara
A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346915/efficient-method-for-estimating-the-number-of-communities-in-a-network
#11
Maria A Riolo, George T Cantwell, Gesine Reinert, M E J Newman
While there exist a wide range of effective methods for community detection in networks, most of them require one to know in advance how many communities one is looking for. Here we present a method for estimating the number of communities in a network using a combination of Bayesian inference with a novel prior and an efficient Monte Carlo sampling scheme. We test the method extensively on both real and computer-generated networks, showing that it performs accurately and consistently, even in cases where groups are widely varying in size or structure...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346518/determinants-of-health-trajectories-in-england-and-the-us-an-approach-to-identify-different-patterns-of-healthy-aging
#12
Javier de la Fuente, Francisco Félix Caballero, Albert Sánchez-Niubó, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Matthew A Prina, Holger Arndt, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
Background: Aging is a multidimensional process with a remarkable inter-individual variability. This study is focused on identifying groups of population with similar aging patterns, and to define the health trajectories of these groups. Socio-demographic and health determinants of these trajectories are also identified. Methods: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. A set of self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a latent health metric by means of a Bayesian multilevel IRT model, assessing the ability of the metric to predict mortality...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346394/decision-time-and-confidence-predict-choosers-identification-performance-in-photographic-showups
#13
Melanie Sauerland, Anna Sagana, Siegfried L Sporer, John T Wixted
In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of positive showup decisions using confidence-accuracy characteristic curves and Bayesian analyses. Three-hundred-eighty-four participants viewed a stimulus event and were subsequently presented with two showups which could be target-present or target-absent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346019/independent-attention-mechanisms-control-the-activation-of-tactile-and-visual-working-memory-representations
#14
Tobias Katus, Martin Eimer
Working memory (WM) is limited in capacity, but it is controversial whether these capacity limitations are domain-general or are generated independently within separate modality-specific memory systems. These alternative accounts were tested in bimodal visual/tactile WM tasks. In Experiment 1, participants memorized the locations of simultaneously presented task-relevant visual and tactile stimuli. Visual and tactile WM load was manipulated independently (one, two, or three items per modality), and one modality was unpredictably tested after each trial...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345743/refining-mortality-estimates-in-shark-demographic-analyses-a-bayesian-inverse-matrix-approach
#15
Jonathan J Smart, André E Punt, William T White, Colin A Simpfendorfer
Leslie matrix models are an important analysis tool in conservation biology that are applied to a diversity of taxa. The standard approach estimates the finite rate of population growth (λ) from a set of vital rates. In some instances, an estimate of λ is available, but the vital rates are poorly understood and can be solved for using an inverse matrix approach. However, these approaches are rarely attempted due to pre-requisites of information on the structure of age or stage-classes. This study addressed this issue by using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and the sample-importance-resampling (SIR) algorithm to solve the inverse matrix problem without data on population structure...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345484/journal-article-reporting-standards-for-quantitative-research-in-psychology-the-apa-publications-and-communications-board-task-force-report
#16
Mark Appelbaum, Harris Cooper, Rex B Kline, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Arthur M Nezu, Stephen M Rao
Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Quantitative Research Reporting Standards recommended some modifications to the original standards. Examples of modifications include division of hypotheses, analyses, and conclusions into 3 groupings (primary, secondary, and exploratory) and some changes to the section on meta-analysis...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344763/visual-awareness-negativity-is-an-early-neural-correlate-of-awareness-a-preregistered-study-with-two-gabor-sizes
#17
Rasmus Eklund, Stefan Wiens
Electrophysiological recordings are commonly used to study the neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Previous research is inconsistent as to whether awareness can be indexed with visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms or if it occurs later. The present study was preregistered with two main aims: First, to provide independent evidence for or against the presence of VAN, and second, to study whether stimulus size may account for the inconsistent findings. Subjects were shown low-contrast Gaussian filtered gratings (Gabor patches) in the four visual quadrants...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344362/development-of-biomarker-combinations-for-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-via-bayesian-model-selection-in-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#18
Allison Meisner, Kathleen F Kerr, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Francis Perry Wilson, Amit X Garg, Michael G Shlipak, Peter Kavsak, Richard P Whitlock, Steven G Coca, Chirag R Parikh
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery. We sought prognostic combinations of postoperative biomarkers measured within 6 h of surgery, potentially in combination with cardiopulmonary bypass time (to account for the degree of insult to the kidney). We used data from a large cohort of patients and adapted methods for developing biomarker combinations to account for the multicenter design of the study. Methods: The primary endpoint was sustained mild AKI, defined as an increase of 50% or more in serum creatinine over preoperative levels lasting at least 2 days during the hospital stay...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344193/identification-of-differentially-expressed-molecular-functions-associated-with-breast-cancer-using-gibbs-sampling
#19
Gang Zhou, Ming-Qian Lu, Dao-Jun Li, Bao-An Gao, Rong Guo
The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed molecular functions (DEMFs) for breast cancer using the Gibbs sampling approach. Molecular functions (MFs) were obtained on the basis of the Bayesian Approach for Geneset Selection package. Subsequently, MFs were converted into Markov chains (MCs) prior to calculating their probabilities, utilizing the MC Monte Carlo algorithm. DEMFs were identified with probabilities ≥0.8 and the gene compositions were studied. Finally, a co-expression network was constructed via the empirical Bayes method and a pathway enrichment analysis of genes in DEMFs was performed...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343863/genetic-analyses-favour-an-ancient-and-natural-origin-of-elephants-on-borneo
#20
Reeta Sharma, Benoit Goossens, Rasmus Heller, Rita Rasteiro, Nurzhafarina Othman, Michael W Bruford, Lounès Chikhi
The origin of the elephant on the island of Borneo remains elusive. Research has suggested two alternative hypotheses: the Bornean elephant stems either from a recent introduction in the 17th century or from an ancient colonization several hundreds of thousands years ago. Lack of elephant fossils has been interpreted as evidence for a very recent introduction, whereas mtDNA divergence from other Asian elephants has been argued to favor an ancient colonization. We investigated the demographic history of Bornean elephants using full-likelihood and approximate Bayesian computation analyses...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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