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Aviation medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720185/statin-therapy-in-low-risk-air-force-aviators-with-isolated-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Heather J Mahaney, Valarie M Schroeder, Genny M Maupin
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the use of statin therapy in U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators with isolated hypercholesterolemia in terms of compliance with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and effectiveness in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS: This was a mixed design, 8-yr retrospective study that included 8185 participants with isolated hypercholesterolemia, of which 1458 (17.81%) were prescribed statin monotherapy...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667224/improving-patient-safety-through-better-teamwork-how-effective-are-different-methods-of-simulation-debriefing-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-prospective-and-randomised-study
#2
Julia Freytag, Fabian Stroben, Wolf E Hautz, Dorothea Eisenmann, Juliane E Kämmer
INTRODUCTION: Medical errors have an incidence of 9% and may lead to worse patient outcome. Teamwork training has the capacity to significantly reduce medical errors and therefore improve patient outcome. One common framework for teamwork training is crisis resource management, adapted from aviation and usually trained in simulation settings. Debriefing after simulation is thought to be crucial to learning teamwork-related concepts and behaviours but it remains unclear how best to debrief these aspects...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639650/mechanisms-of-h-and-co-loss-from-the-uracil-nucleobase-following-low-energy-electron-irradiation
#3
Mark A Fennimore, Tolga N V Karsili, Spiridoula Matsika
Ionising radiation in cells generates secondary low energy electrons (LEEs) which can induce biomolecular damage when incident upon a particular biomolecule. Notable biomolecules include those contained within double-stranded DNA and RNA helices, which upon exposure to LEEs, may form reactive intermediate products that show detriment to their specific structures and functions. Such damaging processes are understood to proceed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Using anion resonance stabilisation methods, coupled to state-of-the-art electronic structure methods, and reaction path mapping, the work presented herein highlights the detailed mechanisms associated with molecular elimination of CO and H from the uracil nucleobase following LEE irradiation - providing a rationale for earlier experiments...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616639/-assessment-of-physicians-results-of-a-sample-analysis-for-the-selection-of-physicians-for-staff-positions
#4
P Anheuser, J Kranz, K P Dieckmann, J Steffens, V Oubaid
As in aviation and other organizations requiring high levels of safety, medical complications and errors can in most cases be traced back to the human factor as a main cause. The correct selection of medical students and physicians is therefore very important, especially in leadership and key positions. This is not only a necessary safety aspect but also the prerequisite for the stipulated efficiency of modern medicine.
June 14, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557343/progression-of-early-repolarization-patterns-at-a-four-year-follow-up-in-a-female-flight-crew-population-implications-for-aviation-medicine
#5
Gwénolé Rohel, Eric Perrier, Aurélien Delluc, Jonathan Monin, Olivier Manen, Philippe Paule, Marie Piquemal, Jacques Mansourati, Ulric Vinsonneau
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence, the appearance, and the distribution, as well as the fluctuation over time of early repolarization patterns after four years in a female population derived from the French aviation sector. METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study from 1998 to 2010 of a population of female employees who received a full clinical examination and an electrocardiogram (ECG) upon their recruitment and after a period of four years. RESULTS: A total of 306 women were included (average of 25...
May 30, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536727/comment-on-what-to-do-during-inflight-medical-emergencies-practice-pointers-from-a-medical-ethicist-and-an-aviation-medicine-specialist
#6
Zohar Lederman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510736/go-no-go-decision-in-anaesthesia-wide-variation-in-risk-tolerance-amongst-anaesthetists
#7
P R Greig, H E Higham, J L Darbyshire, C Vincent
Background: The variability in risk tolerance in medicine is not well understood. Parallels are often drawn between aviation and anaesthesia. The aviation industry is perceived as culturally risk averse, and part of preflight checks involves a decision on whether the flight can operate. This is sometimes termed a go/no-go decision. This questionnaire study was undertaken to explore the equivalent go/no-go decision in anaesthesia. We presented anaesthetists with a range of situations in which additional risk might be expected and asked them to decide whether they would proceed with the case...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484609/interactive-numerals
#8
Harold Thimbleby, Paul Cairns
Although Arabic numerals (like '2016' and '3.14') are ubiquitous, we show that in interactive computer applications they are often misleading and surprisingly unreliable. We introduce interactive numerals as a new concept and show, like Roman numerals and Arabic numerals, interactive numerals introduce another way of using and thinking about numbers. Properly understanding interactive numerals is essential for all computer applications that involve numerical data entered by users, including finance, medicine, aviation and science...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441505/error-detection-based-model-to-assess-educational-outcomes-in-crisis-resource-management-training-a-pilot-study
#9
Sarah Bouhabel, Emily Kay-Rivest, Carol Nhan, Ilana Bank, Peter Nugus, Rachel Fisher, Lily Hp Nguyen
Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) residents face a variety of difficult, high-stress situations, which may occur early in their training. Since these events occur infrequently, simulation-based learning has become an important part of residents' training and is already well established in fields such as anesthesia and emergency medicine. In the domain of OTL-HNS, it is gradually gaining in popularity. Crisis Resource Management (CRM), a program adapted from the aviation industry, aims to improve outcomes of crisis situations by attempting to mitigate human errors...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417838/transferring-aviation-practices-into-clinical-medicine-for-the-promotion-of-high-reliability
#10
REVIEW
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Mark K McPherson, Joseph S Pina, Steven J Gaydos
BACKGROUND: Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. METHODS: A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291846/are-human-factors-the-primary-cause-of-complications-in-the-field-of-implant-dentistry
#11
REVIEW
Franck Renouard, René Amalberti, Erell Renouard
Complications in medicine and dentistry are usually analyzed from a purely technical point of view. Rarely is the role of human behavior or judgment considered as a reason for adverse outcomes. When the role of human factors is considered, these are usually described in general terms rather than specifically identifying the factors responsible for an adverse event. The impact of cognitive and behavioral factors in the explanation of adverse events has been studied in other high-stakes areas such as aviation and nuclear power...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260956/in-flight-medical-emergencies-during-airline-operations-a-survey-of-physicians-on-the-incidence-nature-and-available-medical-equipment
#12
Jochen Hinkelbein, Christopher Neuhaus, Lennert Böhm, Steffen Kalina, Stefan Braunecker
BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using unipark...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228722/transcranial-doppler-sonography-reveals-reductions-in-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-healthy-older-adults-during-vigilance
#13
Amanda E Harwood, Pamela M Greenwood, Tyler H Shaw
Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18-24) and healthy older (aged 66-77) adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061921/bipolar-disorder-in-aviation-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Alpo Vuorio, Tanja Laukkala, Pooshan Navathe, Bruce Budowle, Robert Bor, Antti Sajantila
BACKGROUND: One of the most difficult challenges in aviation medicine is to diagnose, as early as possible, pilots with psychiatric disorders that may impair pilot performance and increase the risk of incidents and accidents. This diagnosis applies particularly to bipolar disorder (BD), where return to flying duty is not an option in the majority of cases. BD is a long-term mental disorder presenting remittent depressive, hypomanic, manic, or mixed episodes between low symptomatic or asymptomatic intermediate periods...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994084/ernsting-s-aviation-and-space-medicine
#15
Lachlan Mackay Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898553/the-aeromedical-physician-assistant
#16
Joshua Radi, Michael Brisson, Michael Line
The US Army aeromedical physician assistant (PA) serves aviation units in regards to crewmember medical readiness. All PAs are graduates of a 6-week flight surgeon course. They are responsible for conducting nearly 40% of the annual US Army flight physicals. This unique training and deployment illustrates the growing adaptability of PAs to assume a greater role in military medicine.
December 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779958/aeromedical-evaluation-for-an-f-16-candidate-with-incomplete-paraplegia
#17
Monica Chahal-Kummen, Trond-Eirik Strand, Jan Ove Owe, Eigil Gulliksen, Anthony S Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. CASE REPORT: Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662350/middle-ear-resonance-frequency-in-pilots-and-pilot-candidates
#18
Melisa Melek Tuncer, Seda Turkoglu Babakurban, Erdinc Aydin
BACKGROUND: Barotrauma is a frequent problem in aviation medicine. Eustachian tube dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of barotrauma. Function of the Eustachian tube can be indirectly assessed by multifrequency tympanometry, which provides valuable information about the resistance and permeability of the middle ear in a wide frequency range. The aim of this study was to research whether multifrequency tympanometry could be used for assessing middle ear impairments in pilots...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634705/endovascular-treatment-of-a-severe-stroke-occurring-in-a-commercial-airplane-over-the-sahara
#19
Christian Foerch, Christoph A Mayer, Joachim Berkefeld, Se-Jong You
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of an acute stroke syndrome during a long-distance flight demands critical decisions from the crew and attendant physicians. One in particular is whether the flight should be continued or be detoured to a nearby airport. CASE REPORT: We describe a 42-yr-old woman who suffered from a severe stroke in a commercial airplane over the Sahara. The captain, together with a physician aboard and the next of kin, decided not to detour to north African or south European airports, but to continue flying to Frankfurt, Germany (final destination; remaining flight time 4 h), where an efficient transfer infrastructure and an advanced medical standard were presumed...
September 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623822/patient-safety-in-otolaryngology-a-descriptive-review
#20
REVIEW
Julian Danino, Jameel Muzaffar, Chris Metcalfe, Chris Coulson
Human evaluation and judgement may include errors that can have disastrous results. Within medicine and healthcare there has been slow progress towards major changes in safety. Healthcare lags behind other specialised industries, such as aviation and nuclear power, where there have been significant improvements in overall safety, especially in reducing risk of errors. Following several high profile cases in the USA during the 1990s, a report titled "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System" was published...
March 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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