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Aviation medicine

Amanda E Harwood, Pamela M Greenwood, Tyler H Shaw
Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18-24) and healthy older (aged 66-77) adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alpo Vuorio, Tanja Laukkala, Pooshan Navathe, Bruce Budowle, Robert Bor, Antti Sajantila
BACKGROUND: One of the most difficult challenges in aviation medicine is to diagnose, as early as possible, pilots with psychiatric disorders that may impair pilot performance and increase the risk of incidents and accidents. This diagnosis applies particularly to bipolar disorder (BD), where return to flying duty is not an option in the majority of cases. BD is a long-term mental disorder presenting remittent depressive, hypomanic, manic, or mixed episodes between low symptomatic or asymptomatic intermediate periods...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Lachlan Mackay Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Occupational Medicine
Joshua Radi, Michael Brisson, Michael Line
The US Army aeromedical physician assistant (PA) serves aviation units in regards to crewmember medical readiness. All PAs are graduates of a 6-week flight surgeon course. They are responsible for conducting nearly 40% of the annual US Army flight physicals. This unique training and deployment illustrates the growing adaptability of PAs to assume a greater role in military medicine.
December 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Monica Chahal-Kummen, Trond-Eirik Strand, Jan Ove Owe, Eigil Gulliksen, Anthony S Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. CASE REPORT: Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Melisa Melek Tuncer, Seda Turkoglu Babakurban, Erdinc Aydin
BACKGROUND: Barotrauma is a frequent problem in aviation medicine. Eustachian tube dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of barotrauma. Function of the Eustachian tube can be indirectly assessed by multifrequency tympanometry, which provides valuable information about the resistance and permeability of the middle ear in a wide frequency range. The aim of this study was to research whether multifrequency tympanometry could be used for assessing middle ear impairments in pilots...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Christian Foerch, Christoph A Mayer, Joachim Berkefeld, Se-Jong You
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of an acute stroke syndrome during a long-distance flight demands critical decisions from the crew and attendant physicians. One in particular is whether the flight should be continued or be detoured to a nearby airport. CASE REPORT: We describe a 42-yr-old woman who suffered from a severe stroke in a commercial airplane over the Sahara. The captain, together with a physician aboard and the next of kin, decided not to detour to north African or south European airports, but to continue flying to Frankfurt, Germany (final destination; remaining flight time 4 h), where an efficient transfer infrastructure and an advanced medical standard were presumed...
September 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Julian Danino, Jameel Muzaffar, Chris Metcalfe, Chris Coulson
Human evaluation and judgement may include errors that can have disastrous results. Within medicine and healthcare there has been slow progress towards major changes in safety. Healthcare lags behind other specialised industries, such as aviation and nuclear power, where there have been significant improvements in overall safety, especially in reducing risk of errors. Following several high profile cases in the USA during the 1990s, a report titled "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System" was published...
September 13, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Esra Yuce, Gulperi Koçer, Turan Atila Çini
Aerospace medicine is the medical discipline responsible for assessing and conserving the health, safety, and performance of individuals involved in air and space travel. With the upward trend in airline travel, flight-related oral conditions requiring treatment have become a source of concern for aircrew members. Awareness and treatment of any potential physiological problems for these aircrews have always been critical components of aviation safety. In a flight situation, oral and maxillofacial problems may in fact become life-threatening clinical conditions...
September 2016: General Dentistry
Shu Fang Ho, T Thirumoorthy, Benjamin Boon Lui Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
Linda A Hunter
Over the past several decades, simulation-based learning and postsimulation debriefing have become a mainstay of clinical education in healthcare. With origins in both the military and aviation industries, debriefing in particular has been used across multiple nursing and medicine disciplines to promote team training and reflective learning. Self-reflection and improvement in practice are at the core of effective debriefing. Feedback and simulation experts have continued to develop more effective debriefing strategies...
July 2016: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Lucy N Walker, Lynne Russon
Simulation training has been adopted by other industries, particularly aviation, for many years. With patient safety on every agenda, more recently there has been considerable interest and investment in its use for the acute medical specialities. Evidence in palliative medicine, for the use of simulation is mainly limited to advanced communication skills but little is described about its use in developing acute clinical skills. This article describes how in the Yorkshire and Humber Deanery a simulation training day was set up for Palliative Medicine specialty trainees, to assess their knowledge and develop the skills required to deal with acute medical emergencies, as described in the specialty training curriculum for palliative medicine...
December 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Hui Liu, Xiao-Yan Qian, Jian-Xiong An, Cai-Cai Liu, Yi-De Jiang, Doris K Cope, John P Williams
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) is widely applied to treat neuropathic pain. Brachial plexus neuralgia (BPN) is a common form of chronic persistent pain. Few studies have evaluated the analgesic effects and mechanism of EA using the novel animal model of BPN. OBJECTIVE: To observe the curative effects of repeated EA on curing BPN induced by administration of cobra venom to the lower trunk of the right brachial plexus. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled animal study...
March 2016: Pain Physician
Mary Pat McKay, Loren Groff
UNLABELLED: Use of over-the-counter, prescription, and illicit drugs is increasing in the United States (US). Many of these drugs are psychoactive and can affect the user's ability to safely operate a vehicle. However, data about drug use by vehicle operators is typically limited to a small proportion of operators and a short list of drugs. For instance, required testing for commercial vehicle operators following most accidents is limited to a urine test for 11 drugs. By comparison, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), routinely tests fatally injured pilots' blood and tissues for hundreds of compounds...
May 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jared M Saletin, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Stephanie M Greer, Shauna Stark, Craig E Stark, Matthew P Walker
Sleep deprivation impairs the formation of new memories. However, marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sleep loss compromises learning, the mechanistic reasons for which are unclear. Furthermore, which physiological sleep processes restore learning ability following sleep deprivation are similarly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the structural morphology of human hippocampal subfields represents one factor determining vulnerability (and conversely, resilience) to the impact of sleep deprivation on memory formation...
February 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A L Chaplyuk, V S Vovkodav, Yu K Churilov, A N Klepikov
Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis...
July 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Malini D Sur, Nancy Schindler, Puneet Singh, Peter Angelos, Alexander Langerman
BACKGROUND: Poor communication is a known contributor to disasters in aviation and medicine. Crew members are trained to raise concerns about superiors' plans, yet literature exploring surgical trainees' responses to analogous concerns is sparse. METHODS: Surgical residents were interviewed about approaches to concerns about supervisors' clinical decisions using a semistructured guide. Emerging themes were developed using the constant comparative method. RESULTS: Eighteen residents participated...
February 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Samir T Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a decidedly devastating event for any patient, but particularly for a military aviator in a single-seat aircraft. Incidence of acute ischemic infarct in men ages 25 to 29 ranges from 3.4 to 5.6/100,000. The neurological sequelae of stroke can have a lasting and profound impact on an aviator's career. Literature review revealed a relatively small number of cases where stroke was attributable to cervical manipulation. CASE REPORT: A 29-yr-old male jet pilot with a 2-wk history of cervicalgia following a mountain bike ride performed self-manipulation of his neck at home following a visit to a chiropractor...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Qian-Qian Zhao, Xiao-Yan Qian, Jian-Xiong An, Cai-Cai Liu, Qi-Wu Fang, Yong Wang, Yi-De Jiang, Doris K Cope, John P Williams
BACKGROUND: A new animal model of trigeminal neuralgia produced by injecting cobra venom into the infraorbital nerve (ION) trunk in rats had been developed. We tested and extended the model by observing the ultrastructural alterations of neurons and ameliorative effect of pregabalin in cobra venom-induced pain behaviors of rats. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to prove the feasibility of the cobra venom-induced model of trigeminal neuralgia and to demonstrate the demyelination change of ION and medulla oblongata is the major pathological change of trigeminal neuralgia...
November 2015: Pain Physician
M V Dvornikov, A A Medenkov
In the current paper authors discuss problems of marine and aerospace medicine and psychophysiology, which Georgii Zarakovskii (1925-2014), a prominent domestic experts in the field of military medicine, psychology and ergonomics, solved. Authors focused on methodological approaches and results of the study of psychophysiological characteristics and human capabilities took into account for design of tools and organization of flight crews, astronauts and military experts. Authors marked the contribution to the creation of a system integrating psychophysiological features and characteristics of the person neccessary for development, testing and maintenance of aerospace engineering and organization of its professional activities...
April 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
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