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Health-associated infection

Jiashen Shao, Huixin Zhang, Bing Yin, Jia Li, Yanbin Zhu, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aims to quantitatively summarize risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. METHODS: Relevant original studies were searched in Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database (all through April 2018). Studies eligible had to meet the quality assessment criteria by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Damaris Berbel, Purificación Martos, Juan Manuel Verge, Cristian Tebe, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Evelyn Shaw, Laura Gavaldà, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Short-term peripheral venous catheters are a significant source of health-care acquired bloodstream infections and a preventable cause of death. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of interventions applied to reduce the incidence and mortality associated with short peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVCR-BSI). METHODS: The intervention included continuous PVCR-BSI surveillance, implementation of preventive measures related to catheter insertion and maintenance in accordance with evidence-based recommendations and the hospital's own data, front-line staff educational campaigns, and assessment of adherence to hospital guidelines by ward rounds...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Kishor Kumar Paul, Parnali Dhar-Chowdhury, C Emdad Haque, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Doli Rani Goswami, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Michael A Drebot, L Robbin Lindsay, Gias Uddin Ahsan, W Abdullah Brooks
Dengue viruses are responsible for over 100 million infections a year worldwide and are a public health concern in Bangladesh. Although risk of transmission is high, data on vector population characteristics are scanty in Bangladesh; therefore, a comprehensive prediction of the patterns of local virus transmission is not possible. Recognizing these gaps, multi-year entomological surveys were carried out in Dhaka, where the disease is most frequently reported. The specific objectives of the present study are threefold: i) to determine the risk factors for the presence of Aedes mosquitoes; ii) to identify the types of most productive and key containers; and iii) to estimate the effects of climatic factors on Aedes abundance in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh...
2018: PloS One
Jamille Gregório Dombrowski, Rodrigo Medeiros de Souza, Natércia Regina Mendes Silva, André Barateiro, Sabrina Epiphanio, Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Claudio Romero Farias Marinho
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in tropical regions, causing maternal anemia, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and low birth weight (LBW). The integration of the information systems on pregnancy and malaria could prove to be a useful method of improved decision making for better maternal-child health. METHODS: A population-based observational study acquired information retrospectively from all live births that occurred between 2006 and 2014 in Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)...
2018: PloS One
Xia Wang, Adam Bourne, Pulin Liu, Jiangli Sun, Thomas Cai, Gitau Mburu, Matteo Cassolato, Bangyuan Wang, Wang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM's willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited through snowball sampling in physical locations frequented by MSM and through social media applications...
2018: PloS One
Alemnesh H Mirkuzie
About 40% of the new HIV infections in Ethiopia are among children < 15 years of age. The great majority of these infections occur through Mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT). For prevention of MTCT, the national guidelines has been revised to incorporate scientific advances in HIV prevention, treatment and care. Since 2005, the country has been implementing a peer mentor programme called Mother Support Group (MSG), which provides psychosocial and adherence support for HIV positive mothers. This study examined implementation of PMTCT guidelines revisions and outcomes of HIV exposed babies in the MSG in Addis Ababa...
2018: PloS One
D E Smith, I J Woolley, D B Russell, F Bisshop, V Furner
As treatment improves, people living with HIV (PLWHIV) can now expect to live longer, which means that the foci of HIV-related care for them and their medical practitioners continue to change. With an increasingly older cohort of patients with HIV infection, practitioners' key considerations are shifting from issues of acute treatment and patient survival to multiple comorbidities, toxicities associated with chronic therapy, and ongoing health maintenance. Within this context, this paper explores the current standard of practice for the management of HIV infection in Australia...
August 2018: HIV Medicine
Priscila Ruppel, Claudia R Felipe, Jose O Medina-Pestana, Liliane Lumi Hiramoto, Laila Viana, Alexandra Ferreira, Wilson Aguiar, Mayara Ivani, Adrieli Bessa, Marina Cristelli, Melissa Gaspar, Helio Tedesco-Silva
INTRODUCTION: The risk of death after kidney transplant is associated with the age of the recipient, presence of comorbidities, socioeconomic status, local environmental characteristics and access to health care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the causes and risk factors associated with death during the first 5 years after kidney transplantation. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective, matched case-control study. RESULTS: Using a consecutive cohort of 1,873 kidney transplant recipients from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2009, there were 162 deaths (case group), corresponding to 5-year patient survival of 91...
June 4, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill, Jasper S Lee, Conall O'Cleirigh, Julia Tomassili, Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVE: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV sexual risk and poor self-care behavior is associated with syndemics, or co-occurring psychosocial problems. Though prior research has demonstrated an additive total effect of syndemics on HIV risk behavior and infection, mostly within cross-sectional designs, it is possible that these associations are not direct but rather that syndemics disrupt relevant individual-level mediating psychological variables. One of the more common individual-level psychological variables that predicts health behavior generally, and HIV risk behavior specifically, is self-efficacy...
June 21, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Iacovelli Alessandra, Spaziante Martina, Al Moghazi Samir, Giordano Alessandra, Ceccarelli Giancarlo, Venditti Mario
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia (KPC-Kp) has become a significant problem in terms of public health and clinical outcome in many hospitals in Southern Europe. Treatment options are usually limited and effective treatment of infections caused by these pathogens is a considerable challenge for clinicians. Ceftazidime-avibactam has been recently approved for the treatment of difficult-to-treat infections due to aerobic Gram-negative organisms in patients with limited treatment options...
June 20, 2018: Infection
Yolene Gousse, Denise Bruno, Michael A Joseph, Aimee Afable, Mardge H Cohen, Kathleen M Weber, Joel Milam, Rebecca M Schwartz
Stress is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. In the United States (U.S.), little is known about perceived stress and associated factors among HIV-infected and immigrant women. Here, we examine these associations within a sample of 305 HIV-infected and uninfected, U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born women who were part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) at three sites (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles). Perceived stress was measured using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10); HIV infection was serologically confirmed, and nativity status was self-reported...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Megha Thakur, Paulien A W Nuyts, Esther A Boudewijns, Javier Flores Kim, Timor Faber, Giridhara R Babu, Onno C P van Schayck, Jasper V Been
OBJECTIVES: Improved biomass cookstoves may help reduce the substantial global burden of morbidity and mortality due to household air pollution (HAP) that disproportionately affects women and children in low and middle income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of (quasi-)experimental studies identified from 13 electronic databases (last update: 6 April 2018), reference and citation searches and via expert consultation. SETTING: LMICs PARTICIPANTS: Women and children INTERVENTIONS: Improved biomass cookstoves MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, perinatal mortality, paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and COPD among women...
June 20, 2018: Thorax
Janneke C M Heijne, Ingrid V F van den Broek, Sylvia M Bruisten, Jan E A van Bergen, Hanneke de Graaf, Birgit H B van Benthem
OBJECTIVES: National prevalence estimates of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) are important for providing insights in the occurrence and control of these STIs. The aim was to obtain national prevalence estimates for chlamydia and gonorrhoea and to investigate risk factors associated with infection. METHODS: Between November 2016 and January 2017, we performed a national population-based cross-sectional probability sample survey among men and women aged 18-34 years in the Netherlands...
June 20, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Min Zhao, Junbo Chen, Shuguang Tan, Tao Dong, Hui Jiang, Jiandong Zheng, Chuansong Quan, Qiaohong Liao, Hangjie Zhang, Xiling Wang, Qianli Wang, Yuhai Bi, Fengfeng Liu, Luzhao Feng, Peter W Horby, Paul Klenerman, George F Gao, William J Liu, Hongjie Yu
Since 2013, influenza A/H7N9 has emerged as the commonest avian influenza subtype causing human infection, and is associated with a high fatality risk. However, the characteristics of immune memory in patients who have recovered from H7N9 infection are not well understood. We assembled a cohort of forty-five H7N9 survivors followed for up to 15 months after infection. Humoral and cellular immune responses were analyzed in sequential samples obtained at 1.5-4 months, 6-8 months and 12-15 months post-infection...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Qingshan Lin, Tingting Li, Yixin Chen, Siu-Ying Lau, Minxi Wei, Yuyun Zhang, Zhenyong Zhang, Qiaobin Yao, Jinjin Li, Zhihai Li, Daning Wang, Qingbing Zheng, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Honglin Chen, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses lead to cause severe diseases and fatalities. We previously identified a potent and broad-neutralizing antibody (bnAb), 13D4, against the H5N1 virus. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of 13D4 in complex with the hemagglutinin of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1). We show that the heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) of 13D4 confers H5N1 broad yet specific neutralization against H5N1, undergoing conformational rearrangement to bind to the receptor-binding site (RBS)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Fangyou Yu, Jingnan Lv, Siqiang Niu, Hong Du, Yi-Wei Tang, Johann D D Pitout, Robert A Bonomo, Barry N Kreiswirth, Liang Chen
Carbapenem-resistant and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged recently. These strains are both hypervirulent and multidrug resistant, and may also be highly transmissible and able to cause severe infections in both the hospital and in the community. Clinical and public health need is required for a rapid and comprehensive molecular detection assay to identify and track their spread and provide timely infection control information. Here we develop a rapid multiplex PCR assay capable of distinguishing K...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Philip R Harvey, Tom Thomas, Joht S Chandan, Jemma Mytton, Ben Coupland, Neeraj Bhala, Felicity Evison, Prashant Patel, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Nigel J Trudgill
BACKGROUND: Achalasia is an uncommon condition characterised by failed lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation. Data regarding its incidence, prevalence, disease associations and long-term outcomes are very limited. METHODS: Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) include demographic and diagnostic data for all English hospital attendances. The Health Improvement Network (THIN) includes the primary care records of 4.5 million UK subjects, representative of national demographics...
June 20, 2018: Gut
Dana Westmeier, Djamschid Solouk-Saran, Cecilia Vallet, Svenja Siemer, Dominic Docter, Hermann Götz, Linda Männ, Anja Hasenberg, Angelina Hahlbrock, Kathrin Erler, Christoph Reinhardt, Oliver Schilling, Sven Becker, Matthias Gunzer, Mike Hasenberg, Shirley K Knauer, Roland H Stauber
Airborne fungal pathogens, predominantly Aspergillus fumigatus , can cause severe respiratory tract diseases. Here we show that in environments, fungal spores can already be decorated with nanoparticles. Using representative controlled nanoparticle models, we demonstrate that various nanoparticles, but not microparticles, rapidly and stably associate with spores, without specific functionalization. Nanoparticle-spore complex formation was enhanced by small nanoparticle size rather than by material, charge, or "stealth" modifications and was concentration-dependently reduced by the formation of environmental or physiological biomolecule coronas...
June 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carmen H Logie, Kathleen S Kenny, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Kandasi Levermore, Nicolette Jones, Tyrone Ellis, Annecka Marshall
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at elevated risk for sexually transmissible infection (STI) acquisition globally. Yet, limited research has explored STI testing practices among MSM in contexts where same-sex practices are criminalised, such as in Jamaica. METHODS: A cross-sectional, tablet-based survey with MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios and Montego Bay, Jamaica, was conducted. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the adjusted risk ratio for lifetime STI testing and lifetime STI diagnosis...
June 21, 2018: Sexual Health
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