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Health-associated infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457150/the-links-between-agriculture-anopheles-mosquitoes-and-malaria-risk-in-children-younger-than-5-years-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-population-based-cross-sectional-spatial-study
#1
Mark M Janko, Seth R Irish, Brian J Reich, Marc Peterson, Stephanie M Doctor, Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Joris L Likwela, Antoinette K Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick, Michael E Emch
Background: The relationship between agriculture, Anopheles mosquitoes, and malaria in Africa is not fully understood, but it is important for malaria control as countries consider expanding agricultural projects to address population growth and food demand. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of agriculture on Anopheles biting behaviour and malaria risk in children in rural areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). Methods: We did a population-based, cross-sectional, spatial study of rural children (<5 years) in the DR Congo...
February 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456043/colistin-alone-versus-colistin-plus-meropenem-for-treatment-of-severe-infections-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Mical Paul, George L Daikos, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Dafna Yahav, Yehuda Carmeli, Yael Dishon Benattar, Anna Skiada, Roberto Andini, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Amir Nutman, Oren Zusman, Anastasia Antoniadou, Pia Clara Pafundi, Amos Adler, Yaakov Dickstein, Ioannis Pavleas, Rosa Zampino, Vered Daitch, Roni Bitterman, Hiba Zayyad, Fidi Koppel, Inbar Levi, Tanya Babich, Lena E Friberg, Johan W Mouton, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Leonard Leibovici
BACKGROUND: Colistin-carbapenem combinations are synergistic in vitro against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We aimed to test whether combination therapy improves clinical outcomes for adults with infections caused by carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: A randomised controlled superiority trial was done in six hospitals in Israel, Greece, and Italy. We included adults with bacteraemia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, or urosepsis caused by carbapenem-non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria...
February 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455553/correlates-of-missed-clinic-visits-among-youth-living-with-hiv
#3
Nicholas Tarantino, Larry K Brown, Laura Whiteley, M Isabel Fernández, Sharon L Nichols, Gary Harper
Youth living with HIV (YLH) have significant problems with attending their medical appointments. Poor attendance, consequently, predicts viral non-suppression and other negative health outcomes. To identity targets of intervention, this cross-sectional study examined correlates of past-year missed clinic visits among YLH (N = 2125) attending HIV clinics in the United States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-six percent of YLH missed two or more visits in the past year. Several factors were associated with missed visits in our regression model...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454848/a-multi-center-derivation-and-validation-of-a-simple-predictive-index-for-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
Meghann L Davis, Harlan G Sparrow, Judy O Ikwuagwu, William L Musick, Kevin W Garey, Katherine K Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Despite well-established risk factors, very little research has focused on use of these variables to identify a patient population at high-risk for CDI to target with primary prevention strategies. A predictive index for healthcare-associated CDI could improve clinical care and guide research for primary prevention trials. Our objective was to develop a predictive index to identify patients at high-risk for healthcare-associated CDI...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454707/crystal-structure-of-the-capsid-protein-from-zika-virus
#5
Zifang Shang, Hao Song, Yi Shi, Jianxun Qi, George F Gao
Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global public health concern, and is distinct from other flaviviruses in many aspects, e.g., causing transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector-independent transmission through body fluids in humans. The capsid (C) protein is a multifunctional protein, since it binds to viral RNA in the process of nucleocapsid assembly and plays important roles in virus infection processes by interacting with cellular proteins, modulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis and immune response...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454340/risk-perception-of-blood-transfusions-a-comparison-of-patients-and-allied-healthcare-professionals
#7
Jan A Graw, Katja Eymann, Felix Kork, Martin Zoremba, Rene Burchard
BACKGROUND: Due to an increasing demand in health care services plans to substitute selective physician-conducted medical activities have become attractive. Because administration of a blood transfusion is a highly standardized procedure, it might be evaluated if obtaining a patient's consent for a blood transfusion can be delegated to allied healthcare professionals. Physicians and patients perceive risks of transfusions differently. However, it is unknown how allied healthcare professionals perceive risks of transfusion-associated adverse events...
February 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453874/outcomes-of-early-dermatology-consultation-for-inpatients-diagnosed-with-cellulitis
#8
David G Li, Fan Di Xia, Hasan Khosravi, Anna K Dewan, Daniel J Pallin, Christopher W Baugh, Karl Laskowski, Cara Joyce, Arash Mostaghimi
Importance: Many inflammatory skin dermatoses mimic cellulitis (pseudocellulitis) and are treated with antibiotics and/or hospitalization, leading to unnecessary patient morbidity and substantial health care spending. Objective: To evaluate the impact of early dermatology consultation on clinical and economic outcomes associated with misdiagnosed cellulitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with presumed diagnosis of cellulitis in the emergency department, in the emergency department observation unit, or within 24 hours of admission to an inpatient unit of a large urban teaching hospital between February and September 2017...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453863/aeromonas-hydrophila-from-marketed-mullet-mugil-cephalus-in-egypt-pcr-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-and-virulence-genes
#9
Hazem Ramadan, Nermin Ibrahim, Mohamed Samir, Amany Abd El-Moaty, Tamer Gad
AIMS: Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) has been isolated from various fish species in Egypt and is known to carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, which pose risk for public health. The aim of the present study is to report, for the first time, the infection of mullet (Mugil cephalus) with A. hydrophila and to clarify the potential association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits encoded in A. hydrophila. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the occurrence of A...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453796/using-a-hospital-admission-survey-to-estimate-the-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-in-one-province-of-cambodia-methods-used-and-lessons-learned
#10
Rebekah J Stewart, Sovann Ly, Borann Sar, Vanra Ieng, Seng Heng, Kheng Sim, Chiedza Machingaidze, Katherine Roguski, Erica Dueger, Ann Moen, Reiko Tsuyuoka, A Danielle Iuliano
BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) is important for setting national influenza surveillance and vaccine priorities. Estimating influenza-associated SARI rates requires hospital-based surveillance data and a population-based denominator, which can be challenging to determine. OBJECTIVES: We present an application of the World Health Organization's recently developed manual (WHO Manual) including hospital admission survey (HAS) methods for estimating the burden of influenza-associated SARI, with lessons learned to help others calculate similar estimates...
February 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452941/surgical-site-infection-after-gastrointestinal-surgery-in-high-income-middle-income-and-low-income-countries-a-prospective-international-multicentre-cohort-study
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common infections associated with health care, but its importance as a global health priority is not fully understood. We quantified the burden of SSI after gastrointestinal surgery in countries in all parts of the world. METHODS: This international, prospective, multicentre cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection within 2-week time periods at any health-care facility in any country...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452623/currently-available-radiopharmaceuticals-for-imaging-infection-and-the-holy-grail
#12
REVIEW
Ebru Salmanoglu, Sung Kim, Mathew L Thakur
Infection is ubiquitous. However, its management is challenging for both the patients and the health-care providers. Scintigraphic imaging of infection dates back nearly half a century. The advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease at cellular and molecular levels have paved the way to the development of a large number of radiopharmaceuticals for scintigraphic imaging of infection. These include radiolabeling of blood elements such as serum proteins, white blood cells (WBCs), and cytokines, to name a few...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452361/iui-review-and-systematic-assessment-of-the-evidence-that-supports-global-recommendations
#13
Ben Cohlen, Aartjan Bijkerk, Sheryl Van der Poel, Willem Ombelet
BACKGROUND: IUI with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) has become a first-line treatment option for many infertile couples, worldwide. The appropriate treatment modality for couples and their clinical management through IUI or IUI/OS cycles must consider maternal and perinatal outcomes, most notably the clinical complication of higher-order multiple pregnancies associated with IUI-OS. With a current global emphasis to continue to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) had established a multi-year project to review the evidence for the establishment of normative guidance for the implementation of IUI as a treatment to address fertility problems, and to consider its cost-effectiveness for lower resource settings...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452109/dengue-infection-in-patients-with-febrile-illness-and-its-relationship-to-climate-factors-a-case-study-in-the-city-of-jeddah-saudi-arabia-for-the-period-2010-2014
#14
Anwar M Hashem, Turki Abujamel, Rowa Alhabbab, Mansour Almazroui, Esam I Azhar
Dengue is an important global arboviral disease with expanding geographical range. It is a major public health concern in Western Saudi Arabia since its first detection in the city of Jeddah in 1994. In this retrospective study, we examined dengue incidence among febrile patients suspected for acute dengue infection at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah from 2010 to 2014 and we tried to determine the effect of climate factors on dengue incidence in the city. Acute dengue incidence rates among clinically suspected patients showed annual variation with a range from 29...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451592/prevalence-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-colonization-in-pregnant-women-from-the-18th-health-region-of-paran%C3%A3-state
#15
Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo, Aline Balandis Costa, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro da Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra Silva, Cristiano Massao Tashima, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso, Rúbia Andreia F de Pádua, Isolde Previdelli, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho, Sandra Marisa Pelloso
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women in a public health service. Methods A study of 496 pregnant women at 35-37 gestational weeks was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in 21 municipalities of the 18th Health Region of Paraná State. Vaginal and anorectal samples of each woman were plated on sheep blood agar, and in HPTH and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broths. Results Of the 496 pregnant women, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS based on the combination of the three culture media with vaginal and anorectal samples...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451368/public-health-response-to-an-imported-case-of-canine-melioidosis
#16
C W Ryan, K Bishop, D D Blaney, S J Britton, F Cantone, C Egan, M G Elrod, C W Frye, A M Maxted, G Perkins
Melioidosis in humans presents variably as fulminant sepsis, pneumonia, skin infection and solid organ abscesses. It is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which in the United States is classified as a select agent, with "potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, to plant health or to animal and plant products" (Federal Select Agent Program, http://www.selectagents.gov/, accessed 22 September 2016). Burkholderia pseudomallei is found in soil and surface water in the tropics, especially South-East Asia and northern Australia, where melioidosis is endemic...
February 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450676/comorbid-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-increased-risk-for-sickle-cell-disease-morbidity
#17
Tal Katz, Jeffrey Schatz, Carla W Roberts
PURPOSE: Sickle cell disease (SCD) imparts an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in childhood. Studies of pediatric SCD have identified an increased risk for pain and neurologic complications with comorbid OSA. We determined the rate of a broad range of SCD-related medical complications to better characterize the spectrum of SCD complications related to OSA. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at a single hematology clinic identified 641 youth with SCD who received consistent screenings for OSA as part of routine hematological health maintenance visits over an 11-year period...
February 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449842/pan-influenza-a-protection-by-prime-boost-vaccination-with-cold-adapted-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#19
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#20
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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