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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822002/food-insecurity-hiv-disease-progression-and-access-to-care-among-hiv-infected-russians-not-on-art
#1
Bulat Idrisov, Karsten Lunze, Debbie M Cheng, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Gregory J Patts, Carly Bridden, Ronald E Kleinman, Sheri D Weiser, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Food insecurity (FI) has been associated with HIV disease progression among people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), presumably a consequence of poor medication adherence. We assessed whether there is a longitudinal association between FI and two primary outcomes reflecting on HIV disease progression (i.e., CD4 count and time to ART initiation) among people not on ART. Analyses used linear mixed effects and Cox models controlling for confounders. In this cohort (n = 310) FI was common (53%). Most (71.3%) reported past month heavy alcohol use and 37...
August 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820881/vector-competence-of-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-from-three-distinct-cities-in-kenya-for-chikungunya-virus
#2
Sheila B Agha, Edith Chepkorir, Francis Mulwa, Caroline Tigoi, Samwel Arum, Milehna M Guarido, Peris Ambala, Betty Chelangat, Joel Lutomiah, David P Tchouassi, Michael J Turell, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820648/natural-bioactive-food-components-for-improving-enteral-tube-feeding-tolerance-in-adult-patient-populations
#3
Adam J Kuchnia, Beth Conlon, Norman Greenberg
Tube feeding (TF) is the most common form of nutrition support. In recent years, TF administration has increased among patient populations within and outside hospital settings, in part due to greater insurance coverage, reduced use of parenteral nutrition, and improved formularies suitable for sole source nutrition. With increasing life expectancy and improved access to TFs, the number of adults dependent on enteral nutrition is expected to grow. However, enteral TF intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication of TFs, typically presenting with at least 1 adverse gastrointestinal event, including nausea, diarrhea, and constipation...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820507/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipient-and-caregiver-factors-affecting-length-of-stay-and-readmission
#4
Thiruppavai Sundaramurthi, Leslie Wehrlen, Erika Friedman, Sue Thomas, Margaret Bevans
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contributions of patient and caregiver factors to length of stay (LOS) and 30-day readmission status for recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis from a phase 2 clinical trial.
. SETTING: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.
. SAMPLE: 68 dyads (N = 136) comprised of patients receiving HSCT and their caregivers...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820498/interference-of-apoptosis-by-hepatitis-b-virus
#5
REVIEW
Shaoli Lin, Yan-Jin Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases that have been a consistent problem for human health, leading to more than one million deaths every year worldwide. A large proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases across the world are closely associated with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and is frequently altered in cancer development. HBV infection interferes with the apoptosis signaling to promote HCC progression and viral proliferation. The HBV-mediated alteration of apoptosis is achieved via interference with cellular signaling pathways and regulation of epigenetics...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820468/resveratrol-in-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin-reduces-sleep-disturbance
#6
Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Caterina Gagliano, Michele Malaguarnera, Rita Bella, Antonio Maria Borzì, Roberto Madeddu, Filippo Drago, Giulia Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. AIM: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820347/association-between-eye-diagnosis-and-positive-syphilis-test-results-in-a-large-urban-sexually-transmitted-infection-primary-care-clinic-population
#7
Ann-Marie Lobo, Yan Gao, Laura Rusie, Magda Houlberg, Supriya D Mehta
In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) released clinical advisories on rising cases of ocular syphilis. We examined the association between eye disease and syphilis infection among primary care and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients attending an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health center. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients who underwent syphilis testing at Howard Brown Health between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819511/male-partner-involvement-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-infection-in-mwanza-region-tanzania
#8
Munda Elias, Elia John Mmbaga, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there are 3.3 million children < 15 years of age living with HIV infection. About 95% of HIV infected children have acquired infection from their mothers. Although new pediatric HIV infection in Tanzania has declined by 48% and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) coverage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has increased to 77%, the MTCT rate remains high (15%). Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819508/perceived-risk-of-reinfection-among-individuals-treated-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-northern-ethiopia-implication-for-use-in-clinical-practice
#9
Mache Tsadik, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Wondwossen Terefe
INTRODUCTION: The prevention of reinfection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is highly dependent on the level of risk perception and the subsequent adoption of preventive behaviors. While perceived risk is assumed to be key to adoption of preventive measures, the evidence regarding the predictors of perceived risk to STI reinfection are limited. METHODS: This paper is based on a cross sectional facility based survey conducted in North Ethiopia from January to June; 2015...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819256/fbn30-in-wild%C3%A2-anopheles-gambiae-functions-as-a-pathogen-recognition-molecule-against-clinically-circulating-plasmodium-falciparum-in-malaria-endemic-areas-in-kenya
#10
Guodong Niu, Genwei Zhang, Caio Franca, Yingjun Cui, Stephen Munga, Yaw Afrane, Jun Li
Malaria is a worldwide health problem that affects two-thirds of the world population. Plasmodium invasion of anopheline mosquitoes is an obligatory step for malaria transmission. However, mosquito-malaria molecular interactions in nature are not clear. A genetic variation within mosquito fibrinogen related-protein 30 (FBN30) was previously identified to be associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in natural Anopheles gambiae populations at malaria endemic areas in Kenya, and reducing FBN30 expression by RNAi makes mosquitoes more susceptible to P...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818849/egfr-and-the-risk-of-community-acquired-infections
#11
Hong Xu, Alessandro Gasparini, Junichi Ishigami, Khaled Mzayen, Guobin Su, Peter Barany, Johan Ärnlöv, Bengt Lindholm, Carl Gustaf Elinder, Kunihiro Matsushita, Juan Jesús Carrero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired infections are common, contributing to adverse outcomes and increased health care costs. We hypothesized that, with lower eGFR, the incidence of community-acquired infections increases, whereas the pattern of site-specific infections varies. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Among 1,139,470 health care users (mean age =52±18 years old, 53% women) from the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements Project, we quantified the associations of eGFR with the risk of infections, overall and major types, over 12 months...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818651/genomic-characterization-of-a-paediatric-mrsa-outbreak-by-next-generation-sequencing
#12
Elisabetta Ugolotti, Eddi Di Marco, Roberto Bandettini, Roberto Biassoni
INTRODUCTION: Twelve strains of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated during a suspected outbreak in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit were analyzed by Whole Genome Sequence (WGS). AIM: To define the clonality of MRSA strains to a high discriminative power and to evaluate the presence of genetic determinants responsible for antibiotic resistance and for virulence. RESULTS: Ten out of 12 strains belonged to the MLST ST2625, while the other two were ST8...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818574/antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-and-susceptibility-profiles-of-pneumococcal-isolates-recovered-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#13
Paulina A Hawkins, Patrick E Akpaka, Michele Nurse-Lucas, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Lesley McGee, William H Swanston
INTRODUCTION: In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcal infections were estimated to account for 12,000-18,000 deaths, 327,000 cases of pneumonia, 4,000 cases of meningitis and 1,229 cases of sepsis each year in children under five years old. Resistance of pneumococci to antimicrobial agents has evolved into a worldwide health problem in the last few decades. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 98 pneumococcal isolates collected in Trinidad and Tobago and associated genetic determinants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818480/-infection-control-practices-while-performing-prostate-biopsies-in-france-a-ciafu-survey
#14
P Leduc, J D Doublet, F Bruyère, S Malavaud
In 2008, the French Public Health Committee admitted that associating ultrasound probe protection, and related precautions, and low-level disinfection would be equivalent to the intermediate level disinfection. In 2010, the French Urology Association (AFU) updated guidelines regarding trans-rectal prostate biopsies, namely preventive measures related to cross-transmission of infections. We report an evaluation of compliance to them, driven in 2016 by AFU's infection committee. Although not recommended, almost one third of the urologists still perform biopsies under general anesthesia, and two thirds of them ask for a urine culture before biopsies...
August 14, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818246/cancer-prevention-during-early-adulthood-highlights-from-a-meeting-of-experts
#15
Dawn M Holman, Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Greta M Massetti, Mary C Puckett, Claire D Brindis
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818085/a-rare-case-of-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-a-stray-dog-due-to-infection-of-t-gondii-clonal-type-i-public-health-concern-in-urban-settings-with-stray-animals
#16
Sergio Migliore, Salvatore La Marca, Cristian Stabile, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Maria Vitale
BACKGROUND: Typing of Toxoplasma gondii strains is important in epidemiological surveys, to understand the distribution and virulence of different clones of the parasite among human and animal populations. Stray dogs can be consider sentinel animals for contaminated environments playing an important but probably under- evaluated role in the epidemiology of T. gondii. We reported a rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a stray dog due to clonal type I infection. The clonal type I, sporadic in Europe, is frequently associated with severe toxoplasmosis in humans and the control of its circulation is particularly relevant for public health...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#17
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#18
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815361/factors-associated-with-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-a-highly-insured-population-of-urban-men-who-have-sex-with-men-2014
#19
R Monina Klevens, Brett M Martin, Rose Doherty, H Dawn Fukuda, Kevin Cranston, Alfred DeMaria
In the United States, an estimated 25% of men who have sex with men (MSM) have indications for receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection (PrEP), but <4% reported PrEP use in the past 12 months. We evaluate factors associated with having heard of, willingness to use, and use of PrEP in a venue-based, time-spaced sample of 316 urban, highly insured Boston MSM in the 2014 NHBS. We found that 53.7% of respondents reported receiving usual medical care from a doctor's office or health maintenance organization, 57...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#20
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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