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Health-associated infection

Shenglan Dai, Xiaohua Chen, Yongsheng Yu, Guoqing Zang, Zhenghao Tang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. T helper (Th)1‑associated cytokines are involved in HBV clearance during acute and persistent infection. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that lentiviral vectors encoding ubiquitinated hepatitis B core antigen (LV‑Ub‑HBcAg) effectively transduced dendritic cells (DCs) to induce maturation, which promoted T cell polarization to Th1 and generated HBcAg‑specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) ex vivo. In the present study, HBV transgenic mice were immunized with LV‑Ub‑HBcAg‑transduced DCs and HBcAg‑specific immune responses were evaluated...
September 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Darren Langdridge, Mark Davis, Lucyna Gozdzielewska, Joanna McParland, Lynn Williams, Mairi Young, Fraser Smith, Jennifer MacDonald, Lesley Price, Paul Flowers
OBJECTIVES: In an innovative approach to improve the contribution of health psychology to public health we have analysed the presence and nature of affect within the visual materials deployed in antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting the public identified through systematic review. DESIGN: A qualitative analysis focused on the affective content of visual materials garnered from a systematic review of antibiotic stewardship (k = 20). METHODS: A novel method was devised drawing on concepts from semiotics to analyse the affective elements within intervention materials...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Sarah King, Daniel Tancredi, Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Kelsie Gould, Hailey Vann, Grant Connors, Mary Ellen Sanders, Jeffrey A Linder, Andi L Shane, Dan Merenstein
Background: Overall reduction of antibiotic use is a widely adopted public health goal. Given evidence that consuming probiotics reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of certain types of common acute infections, we hypothesized that probiotics are associated with reduced antibiotic use. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed the impact of probiotic supplementation (any strain, dose or duration), compared to placebo, on antibiotic utilization for common, acute infections in otherwise healthy people of all ages...
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Supriya D Mehta, Rachel K Nordgren, Walter Agingu, Fredrick Otieno, Winnie Odongo, Finch Odhiambo, Robert C Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Sexual quality of life (SQoL) is a critical component of sexual health and is understudied in Sub-Saharan African settings with endemic HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI). AIM: We sought to assess SQoL among heterosexual couples in Kisumu, Kenya, and how this was associated with HIV status, STIs, and sexual practices. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of community-recruited couples. SQoL, HIV status, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 status, bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexual practices, and sociodemographics were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Hanne L P Tytgat, Franklin L Nobrega, John van der Oost, Willem M de Vos
Bacterial communities are known to impact human health and disease. Mixed species biofilms, mostly pathogenic in nature, have been observed in dental and gastric infections as well as in intestinal diseases, chronic gut wounds and colon cancer. Apart from the appendix, the presence of thick polymicrobial biofilms in the healthy gut mucosa is still debated. Polymicrobial biofilms containing potential pathogens appear to be an early-warning signal of developing disease and can be regarded as a tipping point between a healthy and a diseased state of the gut mucosa...
September 12, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Mario Morales, Claudia Rafful, Tommi L Gaines, Javier A Cepeda, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Pieter Baker, Erika Clairgue, Maria Luisa Mittal, Teresita Rocha-Jimenez, Jaime Arredondo, Thomas Kerr, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Steffanie A Strathdee, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Mexican law permits syringe purchase and possession without prescription. Nonetheless, people who inject drugs (PWID) frequently report arrest for syringe possession. Extrajudicial arrests not only violate human rights, but also significantly increase the risk of blood-borne infection transmission and other health harms among PWID and police personnel. To better understand how police practices contribute to the PWID risk environment, prior research has primarily examined drug user perspectives and experiences...
September 15, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Ji-Ae Kim, Rak-Kyun Seong, Sang Wook Son, Ok Sarah Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global pathogen causing significant public health concern. ZIKV infections in humans principally occur via mosquito bites. Thus, host skin cells are permissive to ZIKV infection and are the first line of defense against the virus. Here, we examined the role and mechanisms of antiviral skin immunity against ZIKV infection. ZIKV infection (African lineage MR766) in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKn), and HaCaT keratinocytes resulted in distinct expression changes in retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR), such as RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Valeria Belleudi, Francesco Trotta, Luigi Pinnarelli, Marina Davoli, Antonio Addis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of new reimbursement decisions for palivizumab treatment on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalisations and the concomitant number of palivizumab prescriptions for infants aged <2 years. DESIGN: We compared the RSV hospitalisation rates in infants before and after implementation of new limitations during three RSV seasons 2014-2017. SETTING: Population aged <2 years at the beginning of each RSV seasons extracted from regional health systems (Lazio region, 2016, 5 898 124 inhabitants and 47 595 births)...
September 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Jed Dimaisip-Nabuab, Denise Duijster, Habib Benzian, Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien, Amphayvan Homsavath, Bella Monse, Hak Sithan, Nicole Stauf, Sri Susilawati, Katrin Kromeyer-Hauschild
BACKGROUND: Untreated dental caries is reported to affect children's nutritional status and growth, yet evidence on this relationship is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dental caries in both the primary and permanent dentition and nutritional status (including underweight, normal weight, overweight and stunting) in children from Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR over a period of 2 years. A second objective was to assess whether nutritional status affects the eruption of permanent teeth...
September 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Yeqing Tong, Xuhua Guan, Shuangyi Hou, Li Cai, Yadong Huang, Lei Wang, Faxian Zhan, Yuqin Shi, Jiafa Liu
Background The prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in low and middle-income countries is a significant public health and social concern. TB is a common infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, which has a widespread infection rate. Health care-seeking delay maybe one of the most important neglected risk factors for the spread of TB. Objectives The aim of this study was to understand the situation of health care-seeking delay among rural tuberculosis patients in Hubei Province, and explore its risk factors...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mackenzie D M Whipps, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Jill R Demirci
Patterns of breastfeeding over time are not currently well understood. Limited qualitative and quantitative evidence suggests that there may be latent subgroups of mothers in the United States following very different trajectories of breast milk provision for their infants. This study used a quantitative modelling method (group-based trajectory modelling) to identify and describe these subgroups. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (n = 3,023), the authors identified four distinct trajectories of breastfeeding intensity, each of which included a substantial subset of the total sample...
September 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Scott C Bell, David Armstrong, Glenys Harrington, Luke Jardine, Rebekah Divakaran, Bebe Loff, Peter G Middleton, Tim McDonald, Karen Rowland, Michael Wishart, Michelle E Wood, Rhonda L Stuart
In Australia and New Zealand, >50% of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are adults and many of these people are pursuing vocational training and undertaking paid employment. More than 6% of adults with CF are working in health care. There is limited guidance in literature to support health care workers with CF (HCWcf) in training and in employment to support safe practice and to provide protection for themselves and their patients from the acquisition of health care associated infection. A multidisciplinary team of CF and Infectious Disease Clinicians, Infection Prevention and Control Practitioners, HCWcf, academic experts in medical ethics and representatives from universities, appraised the available evidence on the risk posed to and by HCWcf...
September 14, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Haijun Han, Zhongli Yang, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
Nicotine, one of the key active ingredients in tobacco smoke, exerts its effects via binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Although both negative and positive pharmacological effects of nicotine have been shown in numerous animals and human studies, its interaction with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have not been fully elucidated. Even though combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) limits the progression of HIV-1 to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Gemechu Kumera, Dereje Gedle, Animut Alebel, Fetuma Feyera, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Under nutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting the well-being of millions of pregnant women in the developing world. Only limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and determinants of maternal nutritional status in Ethiopia. Particularly, data on the nutritional status of pregnant women are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Yeshwondm Mamuye GebreSilasie, Kassu Desta Tullu, Addisu Gize Yeshanew
Background: Diarrheal illness remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, especially in developing countries. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children in the developing world and is associated with high resistance levels to antibiotics. The aims of this study were to isolate and determine susceptibility patterns of DEC among children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea and to assess maternal knowledge, attitude and practice towards childhood diarrhea...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Zahid A Butt, Nabin Shrestha, Dionne Gesink, Michelle Murti, Jane A Buxton, Mark Gilbert, Robert F Balshaw, Stanley Wong, Margot Kuo, Jason Wong, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Hasina Samji, David Roth, Theodora Consolacion, Mark W Hull, Gina Ogilvie, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
Background: Understanding differences in HIV incidence among people living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can help inform strategies to prevent HIV infection. We estimated the time to HIV diagnosis among HCV-positive individuals and evaluated factors that could affect HIV-infection risk in this population. Patients and methods: The British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort includes all BC residents (~1.5 million: about a third of all residents) tested for HCV and HIV from 1990 to 2013 and is linked to administrative health care and mortality data...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Oliver Robineau, Jérome Robert, Christian Rabaud, Jean-Pierre Bedos, Emmanuelle Varon, Yves Péan, Rémy Gauzit, Serge Alfandari
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are severe infections that can be community or hospital acquired. Effects of time to appropriate treatment and impact of antimicrobial management team are discussed in terms of outcome of BSI. We sought to evaluate the impact of initial BSI management on short-term mortality. Patients and methods: A prospective, multicenter survey was conducted in 121 French hospitals. Participants declaring BSI during a 1-month period were included consecutively...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Andrew N Berrett, Shawn D Gale, Lance D Erickson, Evan L Thacker, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) infects humans resulting in acute toxoplasmosis, an infection that in immunocompetent people is typically mild but results in persistent latent toxoplasmosis. In that T. gondii appears to affect dopamine synthesis and because addicting drugs affect midbrain dopamine transmission, latent toxoplasmosis could influence substance use. Using both the third and continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we used logistic regression to test for associations between T...
September 10, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Philipp Kirchhoff, Henry Hoffmann, Ferdinand Köckerling, Daniela Adolf, Reinhard Bittner, Ralph F Staerkle
BACKGROUND: Several meta-analyses showed that laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is associated with lower surgical site infection (SSI) rates compared to open repair. However, the efficiency of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) in laparoscopic incisional hernia repair alone is unknown and needs evaluation. Due to increasing antimicrobial resistance, a major global health care problem, AP needs to be critically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of AP on the rate of SSI and complication-related reoperations in patients undergoing laparoscopic incisional hernia repair...
September 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Yung-Feng Yen, Jia-Yih Feng, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Pei-Hung Chuang, Ming-Chung Ko, Chu-Chieh Chen, Yi-Jie Li, Sheng-Wei Pan, Wei-Juin Su
BACKGROUND: Case reports indicated that HIV itself may be a direct cause of uveitis. However, the association of HIV with incident uveitis has not been extensively studied. This nationwide cohort study determined the association of HIV with incident uveitis. METHODS: Since January 1, 2003, we identified adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance Database. A control cohort without HIV infection, matched for age and sex, was selected for comparison from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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