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Vassilis E Papadopoulos, Georgia Nikolopoulou, Ivi Antoniadou, Antonia Karachaliou, Giovanna Arianoglou, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, S Pablo Sardi, Leonidas Stefanis, Kostas Vekrellis
Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) mutations are the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are associated with decreased Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzymatic activity in PD. PD patients without GBA mutations also exhibit lower levels of GCase activity in the central nervous system (CNS) suggesting a potential contribution of the enzyme activity in disease pathogenesis, possibly by alteration of lysosomal function. α-synuclein, a protein with a central role in PD pathogenesis, has been shown to be secreted partly in association with exosomes...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Shelley HuaLei Zhang, Stephan E Maier, Lawrence P Panych
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), under low-spatial resolution settings, often suffers signal contamination from neighboring voxels due to ringing artifacts. Spatial localization can be improved by constraining the point-spread-function (PSF). Here the effectiveness of the two-dimensional PSF-Choice technique in providing improved spatial localization for MRSI is demonstrated. THEORY AND METHODS: The PSF-Choice technique constrains the PSF to a desired shape by manipulating the weighting of RF excitation pulse throughout phase-encode steps...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Latifah Alazmi, Grace E Gadsby, Nicola R Heneghan, T David Punt
BACKGROUND: Left/right judgment tasks (LRJTs) are used in the management of chronic pain. This use is predicated on their ability to elicit the simulation of movements (i.e. motor imagery), including those where the execution of the same movements induces pain. While established for limb-based LRJTs, the ability of trunk-based LRJTs to elicit motor imagery of trunk movements has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether data from a trunk-based LRJT are indicative of motor imagery being elicited for the specific lateralised trunk postures presented...
March 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Robert Beaulieu, Kaden Andre, Ronald Mancini
PURPOSE: To determine if frontalis muscle contraction can be induced by manipulating visual and eyelid proprioceptive inputs through simulating visual deprivation and ptosis. METHODS: Volunteers without prior eyelid or forehead pathologic study were recruited for this nonrandomized, prospective study. Baseline and study phase brow positions were documented. The first phase was to simulate visual deprivation and the second to simulate ptosis. The dominant eye was used for each phase...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Caleb J Bashor, James J Collins
Engineering synthetic gene regulatory circuits proceeds through iterative cycles of design, building, and testing. Initial circuit designs must rely on often-incomplete models of regulation established by fields of reductive inquiry-biochemistry and molecular and systems biology. As differences in designed and experimentally observed circuit behavior are inevitably encountered, investigated, and resolved, each turn of the engineering cycle can force a resynthesis in understanding of natural network function...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
L J Cornelissen, J Liu, B J van Wees, R A Duine
Efficient manipulation of magnon spin transport is crucial for developing magnon-based spintronic devices. In this Letter, we provide proof of principle of a method for modulating the diffusive transport of thermal magnons in an yttrium iron garnet channel between injector and detector contacts. The magnon spin conductance of the channel is altered by increasing or decreasing the magnon chemical potential via spin Hall injection of magnons by a third modulator electrode. We obtain a modulation efficiency of 1...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Rui Liu, Huimin Chen, Liping Fang, Cuihong Xu, Zuoliang He, Yujian Lai, Huachao Zhao, Deribachew Bekana Hirpa, Jing-Fu Liu
AuPd bimetallic nanocatalysts exhibit superior catalytic performance in the cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds (C-X) in the hazardous halogenated pollutants. A better understanding of how Au atoms promote the reactivity of Pd sites rather than vaguely interpreting as bimetallic effect, and determining which type of Pd sites are necessary for these reactions are crucial factors for the design of atomically precise nanocatalysts that make full use of both the Pd and Au atoms. Herein, we systematically manipulated the coordination number of Pd-Pd, d-orbital occupation state and Au-Pd interface of the Pd reactive centers, and studied the structure-activity relationship of Au-Pd in the catalyzed cleavage of C-X bonds...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Masao Morita, Yuichi Kobayashi
The stereoselective synthesis of resolvin D4 (RvD4) was achieved using the Wittig reaction of the C1-C10 dienal with the known C11-C22 phosphonium salt. The (S,E)-enantiomer (S)-10, corresponding to the C1-C8 part, was synthesized in 95% ee by the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reaction of the corresponding acetylenic ketone followed by Red-Al reduction. Sharpless epoxidation of this alcohol using Ti(O-i-Pr)4/L-(+)-DIPT as a catalyst produced anti epoxy alcohol with >99% ee as the sole product in 82% yield...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Syeda Sabrina, Mykola Tasinkevych, Suzanne Ahmed, Allan M Brooks, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Thomas E Mallouk, Kyle J M Bishop
The propulsion of micro- and nanoparticles using ultrasound is an attractive strategy for the remote manipulation of colloidal matter using biocompatible energy inputs. However, the physical mechanisms underlying acoustic propulsion are poorly understood, and our ability to transduce acoustic energy into different types of particle motions remains limited. Here, we show that the three-dimensional shape of a colloidal particle can be rationally engineered to direct desired particle motions powered by ultrasound...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Lesley W Chan, Daniel E Morse, Michael J Gordon
Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes...
March 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Martin A Bewley, Richard C Budd, Eilise Ryan, Joby Cole, Paul Collini, Jennifer Marshall, Umme Kolsum, Gussie Beech, Richard D Emes, Irina Tcherniaeva, Guy A M Berbers, Sarah R Walmsley, Gavin Donaldson, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Iain Kilty, William Rumsey, Yolanda Sanchez, Christopher E Brightling, Louise E Donnelly, Peter J Barnes, Dave Singh, Moira K B Whyte, David H Dockrell
RATIONALE: Previous studies have identified defects in bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the mechanisms and clinical consequences remain incompletely defined. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of COPD on AM phagocytic responses and identify the mechanisms, clinical consequences and potential for therapeutic manipulation of these defects. METHODS: We isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from a cohort of COPD patients and controls within the MRC COPD-MAP consortium and measured phagocytosis of bacteria in relation to opsonic conditions and clinical features...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Y J Son, H S Kim, W Mao, J B Park, D Lee, H Lee, H S Yoo
A two-step strategy for coaxial electrospinning and postelectrospinning is an effective method for fabricating superfine nanofibers composed of highly swellable hydrogels. Alginate and poly(ε-caprolactone) [PCL] were coelectrospun via fibrous meshes with a coaxial nozzle; alginate at the core was subsequently cross-linked in calcium chloride solution. The PCL sheath was removed from the meshes by repeated organic-phase washing. The peeling process was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, and the complete removal of the PCL outer layers was confirmed by the thinning of the fiber volume...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Corey Heffernan, Patrice Maurel
Lentiviral transduction is a gene delivery method that provides numerous advantages over direct transfection and traditional retroviral or adenoviral delivery methods. It facilitates for the transduction of primary cells inherently difficult to transfect, delivers constructs of interest to nondividing as well as dividing cells, and permits the long-term expression of sizable DNA inserts (e.g., <7 kb). The study of peripheral nerve myelination at the molecular level has long benefited from the Schwann cells/dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons myelinating co-culture system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tamara Weiss, Sabine Taschner-Mandl, Peter F Ambros, Inge M Ambros
This chapter emphasizes detailed protocols for the effective establishment of highly enriched human Schwann cell cultures and their characterization via immunostaining. The Schwann cells are isolated from immediately dissociated fascicle tissue and expanded prior to purification. Two purification methods are described that use either fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the Schwann cell marker TNR16 (p75NTR ) or a less-manipulative two-step enrichment exploiting the differential adhesion properties of Schwann cells and fibroblasts, which is especially useful for low Schwann cell numbers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
A Kornuijt, D Das, T Sijbesma, L de Vries, W van der Weegen
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of the stiff knee after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is largely unknown, although excessive scar tissue due to arthrofibrosis is an important reason for a limited range of motion (ROM) after this procedure. Persistent limited ROM after TKA results in poor patient-reported outcomes and is increasingly becoming a more prominent reason for TKA revision surgery. METHODS: A narrative review of current literature on manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) after TKA analyzing etiology and risk factors for stiffness after TKA, effectiveness of MUA and what is known about rehabilitation after MUA...
March 15, 2018: Musculoskeletal Surgery
Andre Roelke, Nicole Franke, Chris Biemann, Ralph Radach, Arthur M Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann
The theoretical "difficulty in separating association strength from [semantic] feature overlap" has resulted in inconsistent findings of either the presence or absence of "pure" associative priming in recent literature (Hutchison, 2003, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(4), p. 787). The present study used co-occurrence statistics of words in sentences to provide a full factorial manipulation of direct association (strong/no) and the number of common associates (many/no) of the prime and target words...
March 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yuki Yoshimura, Miyuki Ida-Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Hiramaki, Motohito Goto, Tsutomu Kamisako, Tomoo Eto, Mika Yagoto, Kenji Kawai, Takeshi Takahashi, Manabu Nakayama, Mamoru Ito
DNA site-specific recombination by Cre/loxP is a powerful tool for gene manipulation in experimental animals. VCre/VloxP and SCre/SloxP are novel site-specific recombination systems, consisting of a recombinase and its specific recognition sequences, which function in a manner similar to Cre/loxP. Previous reports using Escherichia coli and Oryzias latipes demonstrated the existence of stringent specificity between each recombinase and its target sites; VCre/VloxP, SCre/SloxP, and Cre/loxP have no cross-reactivity with each other...
March 15, 2018: Transgenic Research
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