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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353357/heath-risk-among-pesticide-sellers-in-bamenda-cameroon-and-peripheral-areas
#1
Jean Sonchieu, Edouard Nantia Akono, Cheche Tanwi Ngwamitang, Benoït Martin Ngassoum
In Bamenda and peripheral zones, studies have been focused on the effects of pesticides on farmers (pesticide users) while nothing has been done to assess the exposure of sellers to pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the exposure of pesticide sellers in the same area. Thirty-two questionnaires were administered to 32 pesticide sellers systematically selected, and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. From each shop, a respondent was chosen among the workers according to its daily time spent in the workplace...
January 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353353/peripheral-th17-treg-imbalance-in-elderly-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#2
Sanam Dolati, Majid Ahmadi, Mohammad Khalili, Ali Akabar Taheraghdam, Homayoon Siahmansouri, Zohreh Babaloo, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells play important roles in peripheral immunity. Immune responses are main elements in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). The contribution of Th17 cells in IS patients has not been proved, and whether the balance of Treg/Th17 cells is changed in IS patients remains unidentified. In the present study, we studied Th17 and Treg cell frequency, cytokine secretion, expression of transcription factors, and microRNAs related to Th17 and Treg cells differentiation, which is compared between IS patients and control group...
January 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353309/methods-for-enhancing-cyanobacterial-stress-tolerance-to-enable-improved-production-of-biofuels-and-industrially-relevant-chemicals
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca L Kitchener, Amy M Grunden
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that can fix atmospheric CO2 and can be engineered to produce industrially important compounds such as alcohols, free fatty acids, alkanes used in next-generation biofuels, and commodity chemicals such as ethylene or farnesene. They can be easily genetically manipulated, have minimal nutrient requirements, and are quite tolerant to abiotic stress making them an appealing alternative to other biofuel-producing microbes which require additional carbon sources and plants which compete with food crops for arable land...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353241/inhibition-of-endothelial-notch-signaling-impairs-fatty-acid-transport-and-leads-to-metabolic-and-vascular-remodeling-of-the-adult-heart
#4
Markus Jabs, Adam J Rose, Lorenz H Lehmann, Jacqueline Taylor, Iris Moll, Tjeerd P Sijmonsma, Stefanie E Herberich, Sven W Sauer, Gernot Poschet, Giuseppina Federico, Carolin Mogler, Eva-Maria Weis, Hellmut G Augustin, Minhong Yan, Norbert Gretz, Roland M Schmid, Ralf H Adams, Hermann-Joseph Gröne, Rüdiger Hell, Jürgen G Okun, Johannes Backs, Peter P Nawroth, Stephan Herzig, Andreas Fischer
Background -Nutrients are transported through endothelial cells before being metabolized in muscle cells. However, little is known about the regulation of endothelial transport processes. Notch signaling is a critical regulator of metabolism and angiogenesis during development. Here, we studied how genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endothelial Notch signaling in adult mice affects endothelial fatty acid transport, cardiac angiogenesis, and heart function. Methods -Endothelial-specific Notch inhibition was achieved by conditional genetic inactivation of Rbp-jκ in adult mice to analyze fatty acid metabolism and heart function...
January 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353094/effects-of-scaling-task-constraints-on-emergent-behaviours-in-children-s-racquet-sports-performance
#5
Anna Fitzpatrick, Keith Davids, Joseph A Stone
Manipulating task constraints by scaling key features like space and equipment is considered an effective method for enhancing performance development and refining movement patterns in sport. Despite this, it is currently unclear whether scaled manipulation of task constraints would impact emergent movement behaviours in young children, affording learners opportunities to develop relevant skills. Here, we sought to investigate how scaling task constraints during 8 weeks of mini tennis training shaped backhand stroke development...
January 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353091/adding-vibrotactile-feedback-to-a-myoelectric-controlled-hand-improves-performance-when-online-visual-feedback-is-disturbed
#6
Eitan Raveh, Sigal Portnoy, Jason Friedman
We investigated whether adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand, when visual feedback is disturbed, can improve performance during a functional test. For this purpose, able-bodied subjects, activating a myoelectric-controlled hand attached to their right hand performed the modified Box & Blocks test, grasping and manipulating wooden blocks over a partition. This was performed in 3 conditions, using a repeated-measures design: in full light, in a dark room where visual feedback was disturbed and no auditory feedback - one time with the addition of tactile feedback provided during object grasping and manipulation, and one time without any tactile feedback...
January 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352887/the-development-of-an-alginate-polycaprolactone-composite-scaffold-for-in-situ-transfection-application
#7
Wei-Wen Hu, Yun-Chung Wu, Zhe-Chen Hu
Alginate and polycaprolactone (PCL) were coelectrospun using a dual-jet system to prepare composite nanofibers in defined ratios, and hence both chemical properties and hydrophobicity of scaffolds can be manipulated. These nanofibers were applied in gene immobilization: positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI)/DNA polyplexes were adsorbed onto anionic alginate fibers, and the higher ratios of alginate resulted in the more immobilized nonviral vectors. Through the incorporation of PCL, biocompatibility of scaffolds was highly improved...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352797/physical-origins-of-temperature-continuity-at-an-interface-between-a-crystal-and-its-melt
#8
Truong Quoc Vo, BoHung Kim
We justify and discuss the physical origins for the assumption of temperature continuity at crystal/melt interfaces by performing atomistic simulations. We additionally answer why the crystal/melt interfaces differ from the typical solid/liquid interfaces, which usually exhibit dissimilarities and a resulting temperature drop. We present results for pure silver modeled using the embedded-atom method and Lennard-Jones potential function and contrast the results with each other. We find that the temperature continuity at an interface between a crystal and its melt originates from the perfect vibrational coupling, which is caused by the interfacial structural diffusivity...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352683/discharge-to-inpatient-rehab-does-not-result-in-improved-functional-outcomes-following-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty
#9
Douglas E Padgett, Alexander B Christ, Amethia D Joseph, You-Yu Lee, Stephen B Haas, Stephen Lyman
BACKGROUND: Monitored rehabilitation has long been considered an essential part of the recovery process in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the optimal setting for rehabilitation remains uncertain. We sought to determine whether inpatient rehabilitation settings result in improved functional and patient-reported outcomes after primary TKA. METHODS: All patients undergoing primary TKA from May 2007 to February 2011 were identified from our institutional total joint registry...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352493/effect-of-dietary-manipulation-and-vaccination-of-turkey-breeder-hens-on-immunoglobulin-levels-of-yolk-yolk-sac-and-neonate-poults
#10
A Bhattacharyya, S Majumdar, S K Bhanja, A B Mandal, B B Dash
Two hundred turkey breeder hens and 24 viable toms of 30-35 weeks age of small white variety were distributed into two treatment groups having four replicates of 25 hens and three toms in each treatment. First four replicates were offered a turkey breeder diet (Diet A) (Nutrient requirements of poultry, 1994, National Academic Press, Washington, DC) and the rest four replicates were maintained on a higher plane of nutrition (Diet B) for 8-week duration. After 6 weeks of experimental feeding, two replicates from each treatment groups were vaccinated with ND (R2 B) vaccine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352466/experimental-evidence-that-density-dependence-strongly-influences-plant-invasions-through-fragmented-landscapes
#11
Jennifer L Williams, Jonathan M Levine
Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when modeled populations are composed of discrete individuals, patchiness causes populations to build up to high density before dispersing past unsuitable habitat, introducing an important influence of density dependence on spread velocity...
January 20, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352284/sensitive-detection-of-fluorescence-in-western-blotting-by-merging-images
#12
Yukari Kondo, Shinichiro Higa, Takeshi Iwasaki, Tomoya Matsumoto, Kazumitsu Maehara, Akihito Harada, Yoshihiro Baba, Masatoshi Fujita, Yasuyuki Ohkawa
The western blotting technique is widely used to analyze protein expression levels and protein molecular weight. The chemiluminescence method is mainly used for detection due to its high sensitivity and ease of manipulation, but it is unsuitable for detailed analyses because it cannot be used to detect multiple proteins simultaneously. Recently, more attention has been paid to the fluorescence detection method because it is more quantitative and is suitable for the detection of multiple proteins simultaneously...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352145/integrating-modality-specific-expectancies-for-the-deployment-of-spatial-attention
#13
Paola Mengotti, Frank Boers, Pascasie L Dombert, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel
The deployment of spatial attention is highly sensitive to stimulus predictability. Despite evidence for strong crossmodal links in spatial attentional systems, it remains to be elucidated how concurrent but divergent predictions for targets in different sensory modalities are integrated. In a series of behavioral studies, we investigated the processing of modality-specific expectancies using a multimodal cueing paradigm in which auditory cues predicted the location of visual or tactile targets with modality-specific cue predictability...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352088/an-archaeal-fluoride-responsive-riboswitch-provides-an-inducible-expression-system-for-hyperthermophiles
#14
Michael Clayton Speed, Brett W Burkhart, Jonathan W Picking, Thomas J Santangelo
Robust genetic systems for the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales have facilitated overexpression of native genes, allowed for the addition of sequences encoding secretion signals, epitope, and affinity tags to coding regions, and permitted the introduction of sequences encoding new proteins in these fast growing fermentative heterotrophs. Tightly controlled and easily manipulated systems permitting regulated gene expression are however limited for these hosts. Here we describe an alternative method for regulatory control reliant on a cis-encoded functional riboswitch in the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis Despite the hyperthermophilic growth temperatures, the proposed structure of the riboswitch conforms to a fluoride-responsive riboswitch encoded in many bacteria, and similarly functions to regulate a component conserved fluoride export pathway...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352045/eliminating-glutamatergic-input-onto-horizontal-cells-changes-the-dynamic-range-and-receptive-field-organization-of-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cells
#15
Sebastian Ströh, Christian Puller, Sebastian Swirski, Maj-Britt Hölzel, Lea I S van der Linde, Jasmin Segelken, Konrad Schultz, Christoph Block, Hannah Monyer, Klaus Willecke, Reto Weiler, Martin Greschner, Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold, Karin Dedek
In the mammalian retina, horizontal cells receive glutamatergic inputs from many rod and cone photoreceptors and return feedback signals to them, thereby changing photoreceptor glutamate release in a light-dependent manner. Horizontal cells also provide feedforward signals to bipolar cells. It is unclear, however, how horizontal cell signals also affect the temporal, spatial and contrast tuning in retinal output neurons, the ganglion cells. To study this, we generated a genetically modified mouse line in which we eliminated the light dependency of feedback by deleting glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352033/data-driven-criteria-to-assess-fear-remission-and-phenotypic-variability-of-extinction-in-rats
#16
Jason Shumake, Carolyn Jones, Allison Auchter, Marie-Hélène Monfils
Fear conditioning is widely employed to examine the mechanisms that underlie dysregulations of the fear system. Various manipulations are often used following fear acquisition to attenuate fear memories. In rodent studies, freezing is often the main output measure to quantify 'fear'. Here, we developed data-driven criteria for defining a standard benchmark that indicates remission from conditioned fear and for identifying subgroups with differential treatment responses. These analyses will enable a better understanding of individual differences in treatment responding...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352032/the-surprising-subtleties-of-changing-fear-memory-a-challenge-for-translational-science
#17
REVIEW
Merel Kindt
Current pharmacological and psychological treatments for disorders of emotional memory only dampen the affective response while leaving the original fear memory intact. Under adverse circumstances, these original memories regain prominence, causing relapses in many patients. The (re)discovery in neuroscience that after reactivation consolidated fear memories may return to a transient labile state, requiring a process of restabilization in order to persist, offers a window of opportunity for modifying fear memories with amnestic agents...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#18
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351905/cancer-treatment-in-childhood-and-testicular-function-the-role-of-the-somatic-environment
#19
Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka, Rod T Mitchell
Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial stem cell niche involves many signaling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ stem cell niche in human and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood...
January 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351818/obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-patients-with-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-ventilated-by-diaphragm-pacing-without-tracheostomy
#20
Annie Wang, Sheila Kun, Bonnie Diep, Sally L Davidson Ward, Thomas G Keens, Iris A Perez
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) ventilated by diaphragm pacing (DP) without tracheostomy, and to determine if OSA can be improved by DP setting changes. METHODS: We reviewed polysomnography (PSG) results of 15 patients with CCHS from October 2001 to April 2014, age 15.4 ± 7.8 years, body mass index 22.0 ± 6.0 kg/m2, and 60% female. RESULTS: Of the 22 PSG results obtained for the 15 patients with CCHS, 9 were performed with tracheostomy capped, and 13 were performed after patients underwent decannulation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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