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Observation medicine

Sang Jin Kim, Kyung Sik Park
Chronic constipation is one of the most common digestive diseases frequently observed in a clinical setting. It has been known to cause considerable damage to the quality of life of patients. Despite recent developments, there are considerable limitations in the use of constipation-modulating agents in Korea. Chloride channel inhibitors, such as lubiprostone and linaclotide, have not been introduced in Korea yet, and prucalopride and several kinds of polyethylene glycol are not covered under medical insurance...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Juliana da Rosa, Gabriela Gomes Weber, Rafaela Cardoso, Felipe Górski, Paulo Roberto Da-Silva
Better knowledge of medicinal plant species and their conservation is an urgent need worldwide. Decision making for conservation strategies can be based on the knowledge of the variability and population genetic structure of the species and on the events that may influence these genetic parameters. Achyrocline flaccida (Weinm.) DC. is a native plant from the grassy fields of South America with high value in folk medicine. In spite of its importance, no genetic and conservation studies are available for the species...
2017: PloS One
Sunghyon Kyeong, Jae-Jin Kim, Eunjoo Kim
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous condition and identification of clinically meaningful subgroups would open up a new window for personalized medicine. Thus, we aimed to identify new clinical phenotypes in children and adolescents with ADHD and to investigate whether neuroimaging findings validate the identified phenotypes. Neuroimaging and clinical data from 67 children with ADHD and 62 typically developing controls (TDCs) from the ADHD-200 database were selected...
2017: PloS One
Victoria Divino, Soledad Cepeda, Paul Coplan, Jean-Yves Maziere, Yingli Yuan, Rolin L Wade
OBJECTIVE: The Food and Drug Administration approved the extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesics risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in July 2012 to educate healthcare providers and patients about safe and appropriate opioid analgesic use. The authors evaluated the impact of the REMS on ER/LA opioid analgesic utilization, overall and stratified by patient characteristics and prescriber type associated with greater expected need for analgesia. DESIGN: Retrospective repeated cross-sectional study...
May 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
Betty R Liu, Yue-Wern Huang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Shih-Yen Lo, Robert S Aronstam, Han-Jung Lee
BACKGROUND: Development of effective drug delivery systems (DDS) is a critical issue in health care and medicine. Advances in molecular biology and nanotechnology have allowed the introduction of nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can form the basis of drug delivery systems by virtue of their ability to support the transport of cargoes into the cell. Potential cargoes include proteins, DNA, RNA, liposomes, and nanomaterials. These cargoes generally retain their bioactivities upon entering cells...
August 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Letícia G Lucca, Sheila P de Matos, Tainá Kreutz, Helder F Teixeira, Valdir F Veiga, Bibiana V de Araújo, Renata P Limberger, Letícia S Koester
Copaiba oil is used as a popular medicine in the Amazonian forest region, especially due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper, we describe the formulation of hydrogel containing copaiba oil nanoemulsions (with positive and negative charges), its skin permeation, and its anti-inflammatory activity in two in vivo models: mouse ear edema and rat paw edema. Three hydrogels were tested (Carbopol(®), hydroxyethylcellulose and chitosan), but only Carbopol(®) and hydroxyethylcellulose hydrogels presented good stability and did not interfere with the nanoemulsions droplet size and polydispersity index...
August 21, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Parvati B Patel, Tejas K Patel, Snehal Anturlikar, Sahila Khatun, Prakash Bhabhor, Manoj Kumar Saurabh
BACKGROUND: An important challenge to spontaneous reporting system is underreporting. The sensitization and involvement of undergraduate medical students can reduce underreporting in pharmacovigilance program. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and reporting quality of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by undergraduate medical students in comparison with physicians' reporting. METHODS: We sensitized the second professional year undergraduate medical students about pharmacovigilance and asked them to submit reports of ADR observed during their clinical posting from January to December 2015...
July 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Haiyan Long, Kunlong Ma, Zhenghua Xiao, Xiaomei Ren, Gang Yang
Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) was used as a crosslinking agent in the preparation of gelatin sponges. The physical properties of the materials were evaluated by measuring their material porosity, water absorption, and elastic modulus. The stability of the sponges were assessed via hydrolysis and enzymolysis. To study the material degradation in vivo, subcutaneous implantations of sponges were performed on rats for 1-3 months, and the implanted sponges were analyzed. To evaluate the cell compatibility of the mTG crosslinked gelatin sponges (mTG sponges), adipose-derived stromal stem cells were cultured and inoculated into the scaffold...
2017: PeerJ
A Jdey, H Falleh, S Ben Jannet, K Mkadmini Hammi, X Dauvergne, C Magné, R Ksouri
Six medicinal halophytes widely represented in North Africa and commonly used in traditional medicine were screened for pharmacological properties to set out new promising sources of natural ingredients for cosmetic or nutraceutical applications. Thus, Citrullus colocynthis, Cleome arabica, Daemia cordata, Haloxylon articulatum, Pituranthos scoparius and Scorzonera undulata were examined for their in vitro antioxidant (DPPH scavenging and superoxide anion-scavenging, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and iron-reducing tests), antibacterial (microdilution method, against four human pathogenic bacteria) and anti-tyrosinase activities...
2017: EXCLI journal
Dachriyanus Hamidi, Hilyatul Aulia, Meri Susanti
CONTEXT: Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. AIMS: This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Luiz Alexandre Chisini, Sarah Arangurem Karam, Thaís Gioda Noronha, Letícia Regina Morello Sartori, Alissa Schmidt San Martin, Flávio Fernando Demarco, Marcus Cristian Muniz Conde
The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferation and adhesion of mesenchymal cells (3T3/NIH) in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium(DMEM) supplemented with Platelet-Poor Plasma (PPP) in aPlatelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) scaffold. Human blood was obtained and processed in a centrifuge considering the equation G=1.12xRx(RPM/1000)(2) to obtain PRF and PPP.Cell adhesion and maintenance analyses were performed by MTTassays in a 96 well plate withsupplemented DMEM: PPP (90:10) for 24 hours. Besides, the PRF was deposited in a 48 well plate and 10x10(4) cells were seeded above each PRF (n=3) with 800µl of DMEM: PPP (90:10) and cultured for 7 days...
June 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
Julia Körner, Christopher F Reiche, Rasha Ghunaim, Robert Fuge, Silke Hampel, Bernd Büchner, Thomas Mühl
The investigation of properties of nanoparticles is an important task to pave the way for progress and new applications in many fields of research like biotechnology, medicine and magnetic storage techniques. The study of nanoparticles with ever decreasing size is a challenge for commonly employed methods and techniques. It requires increasingly complex measurement setups, often low temperatures and a size reduction of the respective sensors to achieve the necessary sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present results on how magnetic properties of individual nanoparticles can be measured at room temperature and with a conventional scanning force microscopy setup combined with a co-resonant cantilever magnetometry approach...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jian He
Hypertension has been recognized as one of the highest risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Anti-hypertension agent screening and development has been recognized as a pharmaceutical therapy approach for the cardiovascular diseases treatment. Many kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, such as pine needle, have been used for the treatment of hypertension for a long time, but the bioactive ingredients which responsible for their therapeutic effectiveness are remain unclear. Therefore, screening bioactive chemicals in natural sources is still the most straightforward strategy for novel Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi)-based anti-hypertension agents discovery...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Diana E Stewart, Bich N Dang, Barbara Trautner, Cecilia Cai, Sergio Torres, Teri Turner
OBJECTIVES: Patient satisfaction impacts healthcare quality and outcomes. Residents play an important role in patient satisfaction at academic institutions. This study aims to assess residents' patient satisfaction knowledge and determine which learning experiences contributed to their knowledge acquisition. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at a health science university in a large, urban, tertiary-care academic medical centre in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: All residents from internal medicine (n=185) and paediatrics (n=156) were asked to participate...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Hanna Tarhonskaya, Radoslaw P Nowak, Catrine Johansson, Aleksandra Szykowska, Anthony Tumber, Rebecca L Hancock, Pauline Lang, Emily Flashman, Udo Oppermann, Christopher J Schofield, Akane Kawamura
Methylation of lysine-4 of histone H3 (H3K4men) is an important regulatory factor in eukaryotic transcription. Removal of the transcriptionally activating H3K4 methylation is catalysed by histone demethylases, including the JmjC KDM5 subfamily. The JmjC KDMs are Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases, some of which are associated with cancer. Altered levels of TCA cycle intermediates, and the associated metabolites D- and L-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), can cause changes in chromatin methylation status...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
Noorjahan Aibani, Paola Fontoura da Costa, Jodie Masterson, Nino Marino, Francisco M Raymo, John Callan, Bridgeen Callan
The ability to control drug release at a specific physiological target enables the possibility of an enhanced therapeutic effect with reduced off-target toxic side effects. The discipline of controlled drug release has grown to include most areas of medicine with examples in the literature of targeted drug delivery to the majority of organs within the human body. In addition, a variety of external stimuli used to meditate the drug release process have also been investigated. Nonetheless, the concurrent real time monitoring of drug release has not been widely studied...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Giriprasath Ramanathan, Thangavelu Muthukumar, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam
Exploring the importance of nanofibrous scaffold with traditionally important medicine as a wound dressing material prevents infection and aids in faster healing of wounds. In the present study, the Collagen (COL) from the marine fish skin was extracted and employed for coating the Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (P)-Gelatin (G) nanofibrous scaffold with a bioactive Coccinia grandis extract (CPE) fabricated through electrospinning. Further, the fabricated collagen coated nanofibrous scaffold (PG-CPE-COL) applied to the experimental wound of rats and the wound healing was analyzed with by physiochemical and biological techniques...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Sanjeev Rastogi
Ayurvedic drugs are anecdotally considered safe and are sparingly reported for adversity upon their usage. Reporting adversity however helps understanding the drug pharmacodynamics in a given case and prompts for its safe future application. The patient here has reported urticarial rashes upon use of an Ayurvedic guggulu preparation. The observations were repeated upon the repeated use of the drug. These symptoms were compelling enough to look for a rescue medicine and to withdraw the primary medicine. Guggulu is known for its gastrointestinal and hepatic adversities in some cases...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Marie Auvray, Marc-Antoine Benderra, Marie Bretagne, Sara Faouzi, Loïc Lebellec, Linda Majhoubi, Mathilde Saint-Ghislain, Stéphane Vignot
Since the advent of the HER2 biomarker allowing access to treatment with trastuzumab, we observe an explosion in research for biomarkers, in which the economic pressure linked to the costs of developing new products must not be overlooked, in order to better select the molecules to be developed and the patients who can benefit from them. Personalized medicine takes a little more space each year in the overall care of our patients and the search for specific indicators, has become unavoidable. Rapid identification of oncogenic changes, their therapeutic targeting and the anticipation of resistance or toxicity mechanisms is a challenge...
August 18, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
Sibel Sevinç
INTRODUCTION: The increasing flow of Syrian refugees to Turkey, coupled with their extended stay, highlights the need for culturally competent health care, which includes nursing interventions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of nurses who provide care for Syrian refugees in internal medicine clinics in a hospital located in Turkey. METHOD: This descriptive study was based on qualitative content analysis using an inductive approach and involved discovery and description of the data...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
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