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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340218/user-centered-design-of-discharge-warnings-tool-for-colorectal-surgery-patients
#1
Aanand D Naik, Molly J Horstman, Linda T Li, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Bryan Campbell, Whitney L Mills, Levi I Herman, Daniel A Anaya, Barbara W Trautner, David H Berger
Objectives: Readmission following colorectal surgery, typically due to surgery-related complications, is common. Patient-centered discharge warnings may guide recognition of early complication signs after colorectal surgery. Materials and Methods: User-centered design of a discharge warnings tool consisted of iterative health literacy review and a heuristic evaluation with human factors and clinical experts as well as patient end users to establish content validity and usability...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338897/specialized-information-processing-deficits-and-distinct-metabolomic-profiles-following-tm-domain-disruption-of-nrg1
#2
Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Naina Mathur, Matthew J O'Callaghan, Lynsey MacIntyre, Richard Harvey, Donna Lai, John L Waddington, Benjamin S Pickard, David G Watson, Paula M Moran
Although there is considerable genetic and pathologic evidence for an association between neuregulin 1 (NRG1) dysregulation and schizophrenia, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Mutant mice containing disruption of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the NRG1 gene constitute a heuristic model for dysregulation of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in schizophrenia. The present study focused on hitherto uncharacterized information processing phenotypes in this mutant line. Using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we also quantified levels of unique metabolites in brain...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338338/the-strategies-of-heterosexuals-from-large-metropolitan-areas-for-assessing-the-risks-of-exposure-to-hiv-or-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-from-partners-met-online
#3
Karolynn Siegel, Helen-Maria Lekas, Marie Onaga, Rachel Verni, Hamish Gunn
Heterosexuals' use of the Internet for meeting romantic or sexual partners is rapidly increasing, raising concerns about the Internet's potential to facilitate encounters that place individuals at risk for acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, online sharing of personal information and self-revelations can foster virtual intimacy, promoting a false sense of familiarity that might accelerate progression to unprotected sex. Therefore, it is critical to understand how those who meet sexual partners online attempt to assess the possible risk of acquiring HIV or STIs posed by having unprotected sex with a new partner and decide whether to use a condom...
March 24, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335630/the-design-prototyping-and-formative-evaluation-of-an-assistive-robotic-table-art-for-stroke-patients
#4
Anthony L Threatt, Jessica Merino, Johnell O Brooks, Stan Healy, Constance Truesdail, Joseph Manganelli, Ian Walker, Keith Evan Green
OBJECTIVE: This article presents the results of an exploratory study in which 14 healthcare subject matter experts (H-SMEs) in addition to four research and design subject matter experts (RD-SMEs) at a regional rehabilitation hospital engaged in a series of complementary, participatory activities in order to design an assistive robotic table (ART). BACKGROUND: As designers, human factor experts, and healthcare professionals continue to work to integrate assistive human-robot technologies in healthcare, it is imperative to understand how the technology affects patient care from clinicians' perspectives...
April 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333592/dc-algorithm-for-extended-robust-support-vector-machine
#5
Shuhei Fujiwara, Akiko Takeda, Takafumi Kanamori
Nonconvex variants of support vector machines (SVMs) have been developed for various purposes. For example, robust SVMs attain robustness to outliers by using a nonconvex loss function, while extended [Formula: see text]-SVM (E[Formula: see text]-SVM) extends the range of the hyperparameter by introducing a nonconvex constraint. Here, we consider an extended robust support vector machine (ER-SVM), a robust variant of E[Formula: see text]-SVM. ER-SVM combines two types of nonconvexity from robust SVMs and E[Formula: see text]-SVM...
March 23, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332007/rethinking-critical-reflection-on-care-late-modern-uncertainty-and-the-implications-for-care-ethics
#6
Frans Vosman, Alistair Niemeijer
Care ethics as initiated by Gilligan, Held, Tronto and others (in the nineteen eighties and nineties) has from its onset been critical towards ethical concepts established in modernity, like 'autonomy', alternatively proposing to think from within relationships and to pay attention to power. In this article the question is raised whether renewal in this same critical vein is necessary and possible as late modern circumstances require rethinking the care ethical inquiry. Two late modern realities that invite to rethink care ethics are complexity and precariousness...
March 22, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329465/youtube-as-a-source-of-health-information-analysis-of-sun-protection-and-skin-cancer-prevention-related-issues
#7
Linda Ruppert, Brian Køster, Anna Maria Siegert, Christian Cop, Lindsay Boyers, Chante Karimkhani, Helena Winston, Jessica Mounessa, Robert P Dellavalle, Daphne Reinau, Thomas Diepgen, Christian Surber
Although social media ubiquitously supplementstraditional information sources such as newspapers,magazines, radio, and television, investigation of onlinehealth information related to sun protection and skincancer prevention has been scarce and largely limitedto English language sources. Using the search terms"sun protection," "sunscreen," "skin cancer prevention,"tanning bed" and "vitamin D," we investigated 281YouTube videos presented in 6 languages: English,German, French, Spanish, Swedish, and Danish. Foreach video, we used a four-sectioned checklist toassess general information, popularity, expert drivenmeasures, and heuristic driven measures...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329420/towards-a-symptom-cluster-model-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-structural-equation-approach
#8
Hayfa Almutary, Clint Douglas, Ann Bonner
AIMS: To test a symptom cluster model in chronic kidney disease patients based on the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms, accounting for the relationships between influencing factors, symptom experience and consequences for quality of life. BACKGROUND: The evaluation of symptom clusters is a new field of scientific inquiry directed toward more focused symptom management. Yet, little is known about relationships between symptom clusters, predictors and the synergistic effect of multiple symptoms on outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328885/introducing-therioepistemology-the-study-of-how-knowledge-is-gained-from-animal-research
#9
REVIEW
Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Elin M Weber, Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
This focus issue of Lab Animal coincides with a tipping point in biomedical research. For the first time, the scale of the reproducibility and translatability crisis is widely understood beyond the small cadre of researchers who have been studying it and the pharmaceutical and biotech companies who have been living it. Here we argue that an emerging literature, including the papers in this focus issue, has begun to congeal around a set of recurring themes, which themselves represent a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift can be characterized at the micro level as a shift from asking "what have we controlled for in this model?" to asking "what have we chosen to ignore in this model, and at what cost?" At the macro level, it is a shift from viewing animals as tools (the furry test tube), to viewing them as patients in an equivalent human medical study...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328513/a-confident-information-first-principle-for-parameter-reduction-and-model-selection-of-boltzmann-machines
#10
Xiaozhao Zhao, Yuexian Hou, Dawei Song, Wenjie Li
Typical dimensionality reduction (DR) methods are data-oriented, focusing on directly reducing the number of random variables (or features) while retaining the maximal variations in the high-dimensional data. Targeting unsupervised situations, this paper aims to address the problem from a novel perspective and considers model-oriented DR in parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. Specifically, we propose a general parameter reduction criterion, called confident-information-first (CIF) principle, to maximally preserve confident parameters and rule out less confident ones...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327225/accurate-perceptions-do-not-need-complete-information-to-reflect-reality
#11
Shabnam Mousavi, David C Funder
Social reality of a group emerges from interpersonal perceptions and beliefs put to action under a host of environmental conditions. By extending the study of fast-and-frugal heuristics, we view social perceptions as judgment tools and assert that perceptions are ecologically rational to the degree that they adapt to the social reality. We maintain that the veracity of both stereotypes and base rates, as judgment tools, can be determined solely by accuracy research.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326966/cognitive-load-during-route-selection-increases-reliance-on-spatial-heuristics
#12
Tad T Brunyé, Shaina B Martis, Holly A Taylor
Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326538/integrating-lipid-storage-into-general-representations-of-fish-energetics
#13
Benjamin T Martin, Ron Heintz, Eric M Danner, Roger M Nisbet
1.Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density (energy per unit wet weight). Most of this variation is due to differences in the amount of storage lipids. In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavorable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth, reproduction) is critical for any general theory of organismal energetics...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323895/stage-and-continuum-approaches-in-prehistoric-biface-production-a-north-american-perspective
#14
Michael J Shott
North American lithic analysis often assigns biface preforms to discrete, successive stages defined in Callahan's influential study. Yet recent research questions the stage concept, emphasizing instead a continuous view of the reduction process. To compare stage and continuum approaches, their assumptions are tested in experimental replicas, including Callahan's, and empirical Paleoindian preform assemblages. In these samples, biface reduction is a process that can be tracked and measured by continuous measures of size and reduction allometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322257/a-novel-procedure-for-the-identification-of-chaos-in-complex-biological-systems
#15
D Bazeia, M B P N Pereira, A V Brito, B F de Oliveira, J G G S Ramos
We demonstrate the presence of chaos in stochastic simulations that are widely used to study biodiversity in nature. The investigation deals with a set of three distinct species that evolve according to the standard rules of mobility, reproduction and predation, with predation following the cyclic rules of the popular rock, paper and scissors game. The study uncovers the possibility to distinguish between time evolutions that start from slightly different initial states, guided by the Hamming distance which heuristically unveils the chaotic behavior...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320677/intermanual-apparent-tactile-motion-and-its-extension-to-3d-interactions
#16
Siyan Zhao, Ali Israr, Micah Fenner, Roberta Klatzky
Information provided by sensory systems is inherently ambiguous as to its source in the physical world. To arrive at a coherent representation, perception deploys heuristic rules and multimodal input, which potentially produce errors such as illusions. The current work uses these effects to create apparent tactile motion and illusory depth motion using sparse vibrotactile stimulation across the hands. Experiment 1 showed the effects of vibrotactile duration and temporal separation between the hands on the quality of perceived illusory linear motion...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318286/asking-better-questions-how-presentation-formats-influence-information-search
#17
Charley M Wu, Björn Meder, Flavia Filimon, Jonathan D Nelson
While the influence of presentation formats have been widely studied in Bayesian reasoning tasks, we present the first systematic investigation of how presentation formats influence information search decisions. Four experiments were conducted across different probabilistic environments, where subjects (N = 2,858) chose between 2 possible search queries, each with binary probabilistic outcomes, with the goal of maximizing classification accuracy. We studied 14 different numerical and visual formats for presenting information about the search environment, constructed across 6 design features that have been prominently related to improvements in Bayesian reasoning accuracy (natural frequencies, posteriors, complement, spatial extent, countability, and part-to-whole information)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302594/a-human-centered-design-methodology-to-enhance-the-usability-human-factors-and-user-experience-of-connected-health-systems-a-three-phase-methodology
#18
Richard Harte, Liam Glynn, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Paul Ma Baker, Thomas Scharf, Leo R Quinlan, Gearóid ÓLaighin
BACKGROUND: Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry...
March 16, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301531/the-myopia-of-crowds-cognitive-load-and-collective-evaluation-of-answers-on-stack-exchange
#19
Keith Burghardt, Emanuel F Alsina, Michelle Girvan, William Rand, Kristina Lerman
Crowds can often make better decisions than individuals or small groups of experts by leveraging their ability to aggregate diverse information. Question answering sites, such as Stack Exchange, rely on the "wisdom of crowds" effect to identify the best answers to questions asked by users. We analyze data from 250 communities on the Stack Exchange network to pinpoint factors affecting which answers are chosen as the best answers. Our results suggest that, rather than evaluate all available answers to a question, users rely on simple cognitive heuristics to choose an answer to vote for or accept...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296049/qsar-and-molecular-docking-studies-on-designing-inhibitors-of-the-perforin
#20
Fucheng Song, Lianhua Cui, Jinmei Piao, Hui Liang, Hongzong Si, Yunbo Duan, Honglin Zhai
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed on a series of 5-Arylidene-2thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones derivatives as the inhibitors of perforin, and to gain insights about the structural determinants for designing new drug molecules. The heuristic method (HM) could explore the descriptors responsible for bioactivity and gain a best linear model with R(2) 0.82. Gene expression programming (GEP) method generated a novel nonlinear function model with R(2) 0.92 for training set, and R(2) 0...
March 14, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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