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Chao Ding, Lijun Yang, Meng Wu
Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge...
January 15, 2017: Sensors
Behrang Keshavarz, Jennifer L Campos, Patricia R DeLucia, Daniel Oberfeld
Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background)...
January 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Andrea Weiss, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
The identification of effective and long-lasting cancer therapies still remains elusive, partially due to patient and tumor heterogeneity, acquired drug resistance, and single-drug dose-limiting toxicities. The use of drug combinations may help to overcome some limitations of current cancer therapies by challenging the robustness and redundancy of biological processes. However, effective drug combination optimization requires the careful consideration of numerous parameters. The complexity of this optimization problem is clearly nontrivial and likely requires the assistance of advanced heuristic optimization techniques...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
Okkyun Lee, Steffen Kappler, Christoph Polster, Katsuyuki Taguchi
Photon counting detector (PCD)-based computed tomography exploits spectral information from a transmitted x-ray spectrum to estimate basis line-integrals. The recorded spectrum, however, is distorted and deviates from the transmitted spectrum due to spectral response effect (SRE). Therefore, the SRE needs to be compensated for when estimating basis lineintegrals. One approach is to incorporate the SRE model with an incident spectrum into the PCD measurement model and the other approach is to perform a calibration process that inherently includes both the SRE and the incident spectrum...
October 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Liang Lin, Keze Wang, Deyu Meng, Wangmeng Zuo, Lei Zhang
This paper aims to develop a novel cost-effective framework for face identification, which progressively maintains a batch of classifiers with the increasing face images of different individuals. By naturally combining two recently rising techniques: active learning (AL) and self-paced learning (SPL), our framework is capable of automatically annotating new instances and incorporating them into training under weak expert recertification. We first initialize the classifier using a few annotated samples for each individual, and extract image features using the convolutional neural nets...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Fridolin Gross, Miles MacLeod
There are currently no widely shared criteria by which to assess the validity of computational models in systems biology. Here we discuss the feasibility and desirability of implementing validation standards for modeling. Having such a standard would facilitate journal review, interdisciplinary collaboration, model exchange, and be especially relevant for applications close to medical practice. However, even though the production of predictively valid models is considered a central goal, in practice modeling in systems biology employs a variety of model structures and model-building practices...
January 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Estrella R Montoya, Peter A Bos
Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems...
December 14, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Lisette C Roman, Jessica S Ancker, Stephen B Johnson, Yalini Senathirajah
OBJECTIVE: Inefficient navigation in electronic health records has been shown to increase users' cognitive load, which may increase potential for errors, reduce efficiency, and increase fatigue. However, navigation has received insufficient recognition and attention in the electronic health record (EHR) literature as an independent construct and contributor to overall usability. Our aims in this literature review were to (1) assess the prevalence of navigation-related topics within the EHR usability and safety research literature, (2) categorize types of navigation actions within the EHR, (3) capture relationships between these navigation actions and usability principles, and (4) collect terms and concepts related to EHR navigation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Lorraine A K Ayad, Solon P Pissis
BACKGROUND: A fundamental assumption of all widely-used multiple sequence alignment techniques is that the left- and right-most positions of the input sequences are relevant to the alignment. However, the position where a sequence starts or ends can be totally arbitrary due to a number of reasons: arbitrariness in the linearisation (sequencing) of a circular molecular structure; or inconsistencies introduced into sequence databases due to different linearisation standards. These scenarios are relevant, for instance, in the process of multiple sequence alignment of mitochondrial DNA, viroid, viral or other genomes, which have a circular molecular structure...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
S V Novikov
Hopping charge transport in amorphous semiconductors having spatially correlated exponential density of states has been considered. Average carrier velocity is exactly calculated for the quasi-equilibrium (nondispersive) transport regime. We suggest also a heuristic approach for the consideration of the carrier velocity for the non-equilibrium dispersive regime.
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Manuel Giollo, David T Jones, Marco Carraro, Emanuela Leonardi, Carlo Ferrari, Silvio C E Tosatto
The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) experiment is the first attempt to evaluate the state-of-the-art in genetic data interpretation. Among the proposed challenges, Crohn disease (CD) risk prediction has become the most classic problem spanning three editions. The scientific question is very hard: can anybody assess the risk to develop CD given the exome data alone? This is one of the ultimate goals of genetic analysis, which motivated most CAGI participants to look for powerful new methods...
January 13, 2017: Human Mutation
Zhong-Yuan Jiang, Jian-Feng Ma
In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vebjørn Ekroll, Bilge Sayim, Johan Wagemans
When magicians perform spectacles that seem to defy the laws of nature, they do so by manipulating psychological reality. Hence, the principles underlying the art of conjuring are potentially of interest to psychological science. Here, we argue that perceptual and cognitive principles governing how humans experience hidden things and reason about them play a central role in many magic tricks. Different from tricks based on many other forms of misdirection, which require considerable skill on the part of the magician, many elements of these tricks are essentially self-working because they rely on automatic perceptual and cognitive processes...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Peng Wang, Li-Jie Zhang, Xin-Jian Xu, Gaoxi Xiao
Individual decision to accept a new idea or product is often driven by both self-adoption and others' persuasion, which has been simulated using a double threshold model [Huang et al., Scientific Reports 6, 23766 (2016)]. We extend the study to consider the case with limited persuasion. That is, a set of individuals is chosen from the population to be equipped with persuasion capabilities, who may succeed in persuading their friends to take the new entity when certain conditions are satisfied. Network node centrality is adopted to characterize each node's influence, based on which three heuristic strategies are applied to pick out persuaders...
2017: PloS One
Emma Hart, Kevin Sim
Although the use of ensemble methods in machine-learning is ubiquitous due to their proven ability to outperform their constituent algorithms, ensembles of optimisation algorithms have received relatively little attention. Existing approaches lag behind machine-learning in both theory and practice, with no principled design guide-lines available. In this paper, we address fundamental questions regarding ensemble composition in optimisation using the domain of bin-packing as a example; in particular we investigate the trade-off between accuracy and diversity, and whether diversity metrics can be used as a proxy for constructing an ensemble, proposing a number of novel metrics for comparing algorithm diversity...
January 10, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
Muhammad Owais Khan, Christophe Chnafa, Diego Gallo, Filippo Molinari, Umberto Morbiducci, David A Steinman, Kristian Valen-Sendstad
Turbulent-like flows without cycle-to-cycle variations are more frequently being reported in studies of cardiovascular flows. The associated stimuli might be of mechanobiological relevance, but how to quantify them objectively is not obvious. Classical Reynolds decomposition, where the flow is separated into mean and fluctuating velocity components, is not applicable as the phase-average is zero. We therefore expanded on established techniques and present the idea, analogous to Reynolds decomposition, to decompose a flow with transient instabilities into low- versus high frequency components, respectively, to discriminate flow instabilities from the underlying cardiac pulsatility...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Patrick Wohlfahrt, Christian Möhler, Volker Hietschold, Stefan Menkel, Steffen Greilich, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann, Wolfgang Enghardt, Christian Richter
PURPOSE: To determine whether a standardized clinical application of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for proton treatment planning based on pseudomonoenergetic CT scans (MonoCTs) is feasible and increases the precision of proton therapy in comparison with single-energy CT (SECT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: To define an optimized DECT protocol, CT scan settings were analyzed experimentally concerning beam hardening, image quality, and influence on the heuristic conversion of CT numbers into stopping-power ratios (SPRs) and were compared with SECT scans with identical CT dose...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
David Simoncini, Thomas Schiex, Kam Y J Zhang
Conformational search space exploration remains a major bottleneck for protein structure prediction methods. Population-based meta-heuristics typically enable the possibility to control the search dynamics and to tune the balance between local energy minimization and search space exploration. EdaFold is a fragment-based approach that can guide search by periodically updating the probability distribution over the fragment libraries used during model assembly. We implement the EdaFold algorithm as a Rosetta protocol and provide two different probability update policies: a cluster-based variation (EdaRosec ) and an energy-based one (EdaRoseen ) We analyze the search dynamics of our new Rosetta protocols and show that EdaRosec EdaRosec is able to provide predictions with lower Cα RMSD to the native structure than EdaRoseen and Rosetta AbInitio Relax protocol...
January 9, 2017: Proteins
Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra, Edward S Dove, Graeme T Laurie, Samuel Taylor-Alexander
Despite the growing importance of 'social value' as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure its variegated approaches...
February 2017: Bioethics
Janos C Keresztes, R John Koshel, Karlien D'huys, Bart De Ketelaere, Jan Audenaert, Peter Goos, Wouter Saeys
A novel meta-heuristic approach for minimizing nonlinear constrained problems is proposed, which offers tolerance information during the search for the global optimum. The method is based on the concept of design and analysis of computer experiments combined with a novel two phase design augmentation (DACEDA), which models the entire merit space using a Gaussian process, with iteratively increased resolution around the optimum. The algorithm is introduced through a series of cases studies with increasing complexity for optimizing uniformity of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) illumination system (IS)...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
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