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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924116/epistemic-benefits-of-elaborated-and-systematized-delusions-in-schizophrenia
#1
Lisa Bortolotti
In this article I ask whether elaborated and systematized delusions emerging in the context of schizophrenia have the potential for epistemic innocence. Cognitions are epistemically innocent if they have significant epistemic benefits that could not be attained otherwise. In particular, I propose that a cognition is epistemically innocent if it delivers some significant epistemic benefit to a given agent at a given time, and if alternative cognitions delivering the same epistemic benefit are unavailable to that agent at that time...
September 2016: British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924115/-genetic-coding-reconsidered-an-analysis-of-actual-usage
#2
Ulrich E Stegmann
This article reconsiders the theoretical role of the genetic code. By drawing on published and unpublished sources from the 1950s, I analyse how the code metaphor was actually employed by the scientists who first promoted its use. The analysis shows that the term 'code' picked out mechanism sketches, consisting of more or less detailed descriptions of ordinary molecular components, processes, and structural properties of the mechanism of protein synthesis. The sketches provided how-possibly explanations for the ordering of amino acids by nucleic acids (the 'coding problem')...
September 2016: British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923872/dopamine-directly-increases-mitochondrial-mass-and-thermogenesis-in-brown-adipocytes
#3
Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian Michael Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, Karl Alexander Iwen
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is key to energy homeostasis. By virtue of its thermogenic potential it may dissipate excessive energy, regulate body weight, and increase insulin sensitivity. Catecholamines are critically involved in the regulation of BAT-thermogenesis, yet research has focussed on the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Some evidence suggests a role of dopamine (DA) in BAT-thermogenesis but the cellular mechanisms involved have not been addressed. We employed our extensively characterised murine brown adipocyte cells...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922105/interplay-of-coupling-and-common-noise-at-the-transition-to-synchrony-in-oscillator-populations
#4
Anastasiya V Pimenova, Denis S Goldobin, Michael Rosenblum, Arkady Pikovsky
There are two ways to synchronize oscillators: by coupling and by common forcing, which can be pure noise. By virtue of the Ott-Antonsen ansatz for sine-coupled phase oscillators, we obtain analytically tractable equations for the case where both coupling and common noise are present. While noise always tends to synchronize the phase oscillators, the repulsive coupling can act against synchrony, and we focus on this nontrivial situation. For identical oscillators, the fully synchronous state remains stable for small repulsive coupling; moreover it is an absorbing state which always wins over the asynchronous regime...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919603/preparation-of-quantum-dots-cdte-decorated-graphene-composite-for-sensitive-detection-of-uric-acid-and-dopamine
#5
Hong-Wei Yu, Jing-Hui Jiang, Ze Zhang, Guang-Cai Wan, Zhi-Yong Liu, Dong Chang, Hong-Zhi Pan
The assembly of quantum dots (QDs) in a simply method opens up opportunities to obtain access to the full potential of assembled QDs by virtue of the collective properties of the ensembles. In this study, quantum dots CdTe and graphene (Gr) nanocomposite was constructed for the simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and dopamine (DA). The CdTe QDs-Gr nanocomposite was prepared by ultrasonication and was characterized with microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite modified electrode was characterized by cyclicvoltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
December 2, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918471/polyphenols-and-dna-damage-a-mixed-blessing
#6
REVIEW
Amaya Azqueta, Andrew Collins
Polyphenols are a very broad group of chemicals, widely distributed in plant foods, and endowed with antioxidant activity by virtue of their numerous phenol groups. They are widely studied as putative cancer-protective agents, potentially contributing to the cancer preventive properties of fruits and vegetables. We review recent publications relating to human trials, animal experiments and cell culture, grouping them according to whether polyphenols are investigated in whole foods and drinks, in plant extracts, or as individual compounds...
December 3, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915180/self-primed-isothermal-amplification-for-genomic-dna-detection-of-human-papillomavirus
#7
Wei Lu, Qingpan Yuan, Zhiliu Yang, Bo Yao
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is an isothermal amplification technique with high efficiency and perfect accuracy for nucleic acids detection. However, RCA technique suffers the limitation to detect short DNA or RNA molecules. For long nucleic acid molecules, enzymatic restriction as well as heat denaturation process is usually required, which makes the amplification not effective and strictly isothermal. In this article, a simple and efficient one-pot self-primed isothermal amplification (SIA) was developed for detection of genomic DNA directly based on the combination of nicking endonuclease assisted strand displacement amplification (SDA) and exponential RCA...
October 10, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914341/single-crystalline-titanium-dioxide-hollow-tetragonal-nanocones-with-large-exposed-101-facets-for-excellent-photocatalysis
#8
Zhengcui Wu, Yejing Xue, Zexian Zou, Xia Wang, Feng Gao
Crystal facet engineering and surface modification of semiconductor have become important strategies to improve photocatalytic activity by optimizing surface charge carrier separation/transfer and extending solar spectrum utilization. In this work, we report anatase single-crystalline TiO2 hollow tetragonal nanocones with large exposed (101) facets by a facile liquid-phase interfacial synthetic strategy, using the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate with adscititious water in the organic solvent of cyclohexane and a capping agent of 1, 6-hexanediamine...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#9
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908629/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-mucus-permeation-capacity-of-several-surface-modified-poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-designed-for-oral-drug-delivery
#10
T Iglesias, A López de Cerain, Juan Manuel Irache, N Martín-Arbella, M Wilcox, J Pearson, A Azqueta
The main concerns with drugs designed for oral administration are their inactivation or degradation in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, their poor solubility through the gastrointestinal mucus gel layer, the poor intestinal epithelium permeability that limits their absorption, and their toxicity. In this context, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are capable of protecting the drug from the harsh environment, reduce the drug's toxicity and, by virtue of surface modification, to enhance or reduce their mucus permeability and the bioadhesion to specific target cells...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906203/two-phase-slipi-for-instantaneous-lif-and-mie-imaging-of-transient-fuel-sprays
#11
Michael Storch, Yogeshwar Nath Mishra, Matthias Koegl, Elias Kristensson, Stefan Will, Lars Zigan, Edouard Berrocal
We report in this Letter a two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging [two-pulse SLIPI (2p-SLIPI)] optical setup where the "lines structure" is spatially shifted by exploiting the birefringence property of a calcite crystal. By using this optical component and two cross-polarized laser pulses, the shift of the modulated pattern is not "time-limited" anymore. Consequently, two sub-images with spatially mismatched phases can be recorded within a few hundred of nanoseconds only, freezing the motion of the illuminated transient flow...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905588/phase-specific-dispersion-of-functional-nanoparticles-in-soft-nanocomposites-resulting-in-enhanced-electromagnetic-screening-ability-dominated-by-absorption
#12
Aishwarya V Menon, Giridhar Madras, Suryasarathi Bose
The effect of phase specific localisation of MWNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) and magnetic FeNi (iron-nickel) alloy particles on bulk electrical conductivity and electromagnetic (EM) wave attenuation was investigated in biphasic co-continuous blends of PVDF/SMA (polyvinylidene fluoride/styrene maleic anhydride). It is envisaged that packing different functional nanoparticles in a given phase of a co-continuous blend can impede the charge transport phenomenon and the overall dispersion state. Therefore, phase specific localisation can facilitate the tuning of the functional properties in biphasic blends...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904702/ethanol-extracts-from-portulaca-oleracea-l-attenuated-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-rat-neural-injury-through-inhibition-of-hmgb1-induced-inflammation
#13
Chenggang Zheng, Chen Liu, Wanyin Wang, Gusheng Tang, Liwei Dong, Juan Zhou, Zhengrong Zhong
It is well demonstrated that the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation has been implicated as one of the important causes for brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we assessed the neuro-protective and anti-inflammation effects of the ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) against cerebral I/R injury in the rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Rats were administrated with their respective treatment for 7 days before the MCA occlusion...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904522/inducing-apolipoprotein-a-i-synthesis-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-from-assert-to-sustain-and-beyond
#14
Belinda A Di Bartolo, Daniel J Scherer, Stephen J Nicholls
Increasing attention has focused on efforts to promote the biological activities of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Targeting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein carried on HDL particles, represents an attractive approach to promoting HDL by virtue of its ability to increase endogenous synthesis of functional HDL particles. A number of pharmacological strategies that target apoA-I, including upregulation of its production with the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein inhibitor RVX-208, development of short peptide sequences that mimic its action, and administration as a component of reconstituted HDL particles, have undergone clinical development...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903650/structural-analysis-of-single-domain-antibodies-bound-to-a-second-neutralizing-hot-spot-on-ricin-toxin-s-enzymatic-subunit
#15
Michael J Rudolph, David J Vance, Michael S Cassidy, Yinghui Rong, Nicholas J Mantis
Ricin toxin is a heterodimer consisting of RTA, a ribosome-inactivating protein, and RTB, a lectin that facilitates receptor-mediated uptake into mammalian cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that toxin-neutralizing antibodies target four spatially distinct hotspots on RTA, which we refer to as epitope Clusters I-IV. In this report we identified and characterized three single domain camelid antibodies (VHH) against Cluster II. One of these VHHs, V5E1, ranks as one of the most potent ricin-neutralizing antibodies described to date...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903298/meal-rich-in-carbohydrate-but-not-protein-or-fat-reveals-adverse-immunometabolic-responses-associated-with-obesity
#16
Ehsan Parvaresh Rizi, Sonia Baig, Muhammad Shabeer, Yvonne Teo, Shao Feng Mok, Tze Ping Loh, Faidon Magkos, Sam Virtue, Antonio Vidal-Puig, E Shyong Tai, Chin Meng Khoo, Sue-Anne Toh
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related insulin resistance is linked to inflammation. Immunometabolic function differs between lean and obese subjects, but whether macronutrient composition of ingested meals affects these responses is not well known. We examined the effects of a single meal rich in fat, protein, or carbohydrate on immunometabolic responses. METHODS: Nine lean insulin sensitive (LIS) men and 9 obese insulin resistant (OIR) men ingested high-carbohydrate (HC), high-fat (HF) or high-protein (HP) mixed meals in random order...
December 1, 2016: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897297/facile-one-pot-synthesis-of-fe3o4-chitosan-nanospheres-for-mri-and-fluorescence-imaging-guided-chemo-photothermal-combinational-cancer-therapy
#18
Zhifang Gao, Xijian Liu, Yeying Wang, Guoying Deng, Feng Zhou, Qian Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Jie Lu
Multifunctional nanoplatforms that integrate imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy for highly efficient cancer diagnostics and therapeutics have gained great interest in recent years. Herein, we designed and synthesized biodegradable and biocompatible magnetic chitosan nanospheres (Fe3O4@CS) by a facile one-pot synthesis method. Doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) and indocyanine green (ICG) can be co-loaded into the Fe3O4@CS nanospheres (Fe3O4@CS-ICG/DOX nanocomposites) by virtue of the mesoporous structure and electrostatic interactions of CS...
November 29, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897284/ytterbium-erbium-ion-doped-strontium-molybdate-srmoo4-synthesis-characterization-photophysical-properties-and-application-in-solar-cells
#19
Weifu Sun, Zihan Chen, Junli Zhou, Dongyu Li, Zhen Huang, Xiao Jin, Qin Zhang, Feng Li, Qinghua Li
In this work, ytterbium-erbium co-doped strontium molybdate (SrMoO4, SMO) nanophosphors (NPs), denoted as SMO:Yb/Er, have been successfully prepared. These NPs were then incorporated into TiO2 acceptor films in hybrid solar cells to enhance light harvesting by virtue of an up-conversion process where low energy photons can be converted into high energy photons through multi-photon processes. The results showed that the SMO:Yb/Er single crystal NPs are capable of turning near infrared photons into visible ones that can be easily captured by poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene) (PTB7)...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897215/novel-ti-ta-hf-zr-alloys-with-promising-mechanical-properties-for-prospective-stent-applications
#20
Jixing Lin, Sertan Ozan, Yuncang Li, Dehai Ping, Xian Tong, Guangyu Li, Cuie Wen
Titanium alloys are receiving increasing research interest for the development of metallic stent materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, non-magnetism and radiopacity. In this study, a new series of Ti-Ta-Hf-Zr (TTHZ) alloys including Ti-37Ta-26Hf-13Zr, Ti-40Ta-22Hf-11.7Zr and Ti-45Ta-18.4Hf-10Zr (wt.%) were designed using the d-electron theory combined with electron to atom ratio (e/a) and molybdenum equivalence (Moeq) approaches. The microstructure of the TTHZ alloys were investigated using optical microscopy, XRD, SEM and TEM and the mechanical properties were tested using a Vickers micro-indenter, compression and tensile testing machines...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
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