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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#1
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138269/irreversible-activation-and-stabilization-of-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-by-the-protoporphyrin-ix-mimetic-cinaciguat
#2
Alexander Kollau, Marissa Opelt, Gerald Wölkart, Antonius C F Gorren, Michael Russwurm, Doris Koesling, Bernd Mayer, Astrid Schrammel
Belonging to the class of so-called sGC activators, cinaciguat and BAY 60-2770 are interesting therapeutic tools for the treatment of various cardiovascular pathologies. The drugs are supposed to preferentially stimulate oxidized or heme-depleted but not native sGC. Since this concept has been challenged by studies demonstrating complete relaxation of non-diseased vessels, this study was designed to re-investigate the mode of action in greater detail. To this purpose, the effect of cinaciguat was studied on vessel tone of porcine coronary arteries and rat thoracic aortas...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136497/oncogene-stimulated-congestion-at-the-keap1-stress-signaling-hub-allows-bypass-of-nrf2-and-induction-of-nrf2-target-genes-that-promote-tumor-survival
#3
John D Hayes, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ge et al. show that overexpression of the oncoprotein iASPP in cancer cells provokes NRF2-mediated induction of cytoprotective genes, because it logjams the ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor function of KEAP1 by virtue of the fact that it possesses a novel DLT-containing KEAP1-interaction motif.
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135457/toward-an-explanatory-framework-for-yoga-therapy-informed-by-philosophical-and-ethical-perspectives
#4
Marlysa B Sullivan, Steffany Moonaz, Kristine Weber, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Laura Schmalzl
Context • Yoga Therapy is an emerging complementary and integrative health practice for which there is increasing interest from both clinical and research perspectives. Currently missing, however, is an explanatory framework for the profession that provides practitioners, clients, and the public with an understanding of how various yogic traditions and principles can be understood in modern health care contexts. Objective • This study proposes an explanatory framework for yoga therapy, informed by phenomenology, eudaimonia, virtue ethics, and first-person ethical inquiry...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134795/robust-and-recyclable-substrate-template-with-ultrathin-nanoporous-counter-electrode-for-organic-hole-conductor-free-monolithic-perovskite-solar-cells
#5
Ming-Hsien Li, Yu-Syuan Yang, Kuo-Chin Wang, Yu-Hsien Chiang, Po-Shen Shen, Wei-Chih Lai, Tzung-Fang Guo, Peter Chen
A robust and recyclable monolithic substrate applying all-inorganic metal-oxide selective contact with nanoporous (np) Au:NiOx counter electrode is successfully demonstrated for efficient perovskite solar cells, of which the perovskite active layer is deposited in the final step for device fabrication. Through annealing of the Ni/Au bilayer, the nanoporous NiO/Au electrode is formed in virtue of interconnected Au network embedded in oxidized Ni. By optimizing the annealing parameters and tuning the mesoscopic layer thickness (mp-TiO2 and mp-Al2O3), a decent PCE of 10...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134470/the-effect-of-long-term-confinement-and-the-efficacy-of-exercise-countermeasures-on-muscle-strength-during-a-simulated-mission-to-mars-data-from-the-mars500-study
#6
Christopher J Gaffney, Elena Fomina, Dennis Babich, Vladimir Kitov, Konstantin Uskov, David A Green
BACKGROUND: Isolation and long duration spaceflight are associated with musculoskeletal deconditioning. Mars500 was a unique, high-fidelity analogue of the psychological challenges of a 520-day manned mission to Mars. We aimed to explore the effect of musculoskeletal deconditioning on three outcome measures: (1) if lower limb muscle strength was reduced during the 520-day isolation; (2) if type I or II muscle fibres were differentially affected; and (3) whether any 70-day exercise interventions prevented any isolation-induced loss of strength...
November 13, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133454/protoenzymes-the-case-of-hyperbranched-polyesters
#7
Irena Mamajanov, George D Cody
Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133209/genome-wide-sequencing-expands-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-ep300-variants
#8
Gregory Costain, Peter Kannu, Sarah Bowdin
Many disease genes are defined by their role in causing specific clinically recognizable syndromes. Heterozygous loss of function of the gene EP300 is responsible for a minority of cases of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). With the application of whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, there is the potential to discover new genotype-phenotype correlations. The purpose of this case series is to describe three unrelated females without classic manifestations of RSTS who were unexpectedly found on genome-wide sequencing to have likely pathogenic variants in EP300...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133075/spinal-cord-self-repair-during-tail-regeneration-in-polypedates-maculatus-and-putative-role-of-fgf1-as-a-neurotrophic-factor
#9
Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128515/injectable-network-biomaterials-via-molecular-or-colloidal-self-assembly
#10
Jugal Kishore Sahoo, Michael A VandenBerg, Matthew J Webber
Self-assembly is a powerful tool to create functional materials. A specific application for which self-assembled materials are ideally suited is in creating injectable biomaterials. Contrasting with traditional biomaterials that are implanted through surgical means, injecting biomaterials through the skin offers numerous advantages, expanding the scope and impact for biomaterials in medicine. In particular, self-assembled biomaterials prepared from molecular or colloidal interactions have been frequently explored...
November 8, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128272/cytoprotection-of-lipoic-acid-against-toxicity-induced-by-saxitoxin-in-hippocampal-cell-line-ht-22-through-in-silico-modeling-and-in-vitro-assays
#11
Patrícia Ramos, Marcos Schmitz, Sibele Gama, Aline Portantiolo, Michael Gonzalez Durruthy, Ana Paula de Souza Votto, Luisa Rodrigues Cornetet, Karina Dos Santos Machado, Adriano Wehrli, Mariana Zancan Tonel, Solange Binotto Fagan, João Sarkis Yunes, José Maria Monserrat
Saxitoxins (STXs) are potent neurotoxins that block voltage-gated channels in neurons and induce cytotoxicity. These toxins not only can generate reactive oxygen species but also can alter antioxidant levels, promoting oxidative stress. Under this pro-oxidant situation, the use of the antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) can represent a chemoprotective alternative to minimize the deleterious effects induced by neurotoxins as STXs. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a well-known ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that plays a crucial role in the extrusion of toxic substances, decreasing their accumulation and potential intracellular effects in virtue of its broad substrate specificity, its expression in many excretory tissues and its large efflux capacity...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127662/jnj7777120-ameliorates-inflammatory-and-oxidative-manifestations-in-a-murine-model-of-contact-hypersensitivity-via-modulation-of-tlr-and-nrf2-signaling
#12
Ahmed F Mohamed, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Fatma A El-Batrawy, Mohamed T Abdel-Aziz
JNJ7777120, a histamine H4 receptor antagonist, was shown to be effective in different experimental settings of allergic inflammation, including contact hypersensitivity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are thought to function as a link between innate and adaptive immune responses to various haptens. Here, we studied the suppression of TLR signaling as a possible mechanism by which JNJ7777120 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects against the chemical hapten, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The potential anti-oxidant effect of JNJ7777120 in this model was also examined...
November 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127301/femtosecond-time-resolved-observation-of-butterfly-vibration-in-electronically-excited-o-fluorophenol
#13
Fengzi Ling, Shuai Li, Xinli Song, Yanmei Wang, Jinyou Long, Bing Zhang
The butterfly vibration during the hydrogen tunneling process in electronically excited o-fluorophenol has been visualized in real time by femtosecond time-resolved ion yield spectroscopy coupled with time-resolved photoelectron imaging technique. A coherent superposition of out-of-plane C-F butterfly motions is prepared in the first excited electronic state (S1). As the C-F bond vibrates with respect to the aromatic ring, the nuclear geometry varies periodically, leading to the corresponding variation in the photoionization channel...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125547/salt-assisted-ultrasonicated-de-aggregation-and-advanced-redox-electrochemistry-of-detonation-nanodiamond
#14
Sanju Gupta, Brendan Evans, Alex Henson, Sara B Carrizosa
Nanodiamond particles form agglomerates in the dry powder state and this poses limitation to the accessibility of their diamond-like core thus dramatically impacting their technological advancement. In this work, we report de-agglomeration of nanodiamond (ND) by using a facile technique namely, salt-assisted ultrasonic de-agglomeration (SAUD). Utilizing ultrasound energy and ionic salts (sodium chloride and sodium acetate), SAUD is expected to break apart thermally treated nanodiamond aggregates (~50-100 nm) and produce an aqueous slurry of de-aggregated stable colloidal nanodiamond dispersions by virtue of ionic interactions and electrostatic stabilization...
November 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125070/circulating-mitochondrial-dna-at-the-crossroads-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-during-aging-and-muscle-wasting-disorders
#15
Anna Picca, Angela Maria Serena Lezza, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Vito Pesce, Riccardo Calvani, Maurizio Bossola, Ester Manes-Gravina, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
Mitochondrial structural and functional integrity is maintained through the coordination of several processes (e.g., biogenesis, dynamics, mitophagy), collectively referred to as mitochondrial quality control. Dysfunctional mitochondrial quality control and inflammation are hallmarks of aging and are involved in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting disorders, including sarcopenia and cachexia. One of the consequences of failing mitochondrial quality control is the release of mitochondria-derived damage-associated molecular patterns...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124959/speech-therapy-in-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-in-pursuit-of-communication-as-a-fundamental-human-right
#16
Susan Rvachew, Marla Folden
PURPOSE: The achievement of speech intelligibility by persons with Down syndrome facilitates their participation in society. Denial of speech therapy services by virtue of low cognitive skills is a violation of their fundamental human rights as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in general and in Article 19 in particular. Here, we describe the differential response of an adolescent with Down syndrome to three speech therapy interventions and demonstrate the use of a single subject randomisation design to identify effective treatments for children with complex communication disorders...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121771/switching-peroxidase-mimic-activity-of-protein-stabilized-pt-nanozymes-by-sulfide-ions-substrate-dependence-mechanism-and-detection
#17
Yan Liu, Yuanlin Zheng, Ding Ding, Rong Guo
In the present work, we use β-casein as a model protein to prepare a smart β-casein stabilized Pt nanoparticle (CM/PtNP) with peroxidase mimicking activity, and systematically investigate sulfide-mediated switching effect and mechanism of CM/PtNP nanozyme's activity. Sulfide-mediated activity switching effect depends heavily on the physicochemical properties of nanozymes and the identity of substrate. On one hand, the binding of sulfide to Pt nanozyme surface leads to the transform from Pt2+ to Pt0, resulting in more active sites and the activity "switching on"; on the other hand, the binding of sulfide ions via Pt-S interaction blocks the active sites, resulting in the activity "switching off"...
November 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118685/a-rare-thermophilic-bug-in-complicated-diverticular-abscess
#18
Kyawzaw Lin, Sithu Lin, Aung Naing Lin, Thinzar Lin, Zin Mar Htun, Madhavi Reddy
Actinomycosis is a form of painful abscess in the gastrointestinal tract or in deep tissue caused by actinomyces species. They are one of the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract of humans but can opportunistically cause infection in immunosuppressive hosts through invasion of breached mucosa or necrotic tissue while mimicking malignancy, gastrointestinal tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Actinomyces israelii is, by far, the major and most common human pathogen throughout literatures...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114687/manipulating-the-quantum-interference-effect-and-magnetotransport-of-zno-nanowires-through-interfacial-doping
#19
Siwen Zhao, Yiming Wu, Kaixuan Zhang, Huaiyi Ding, Dongxue Du, Jiyin Zhao, Nan Pan, Xiaoping Wang
We carefully prepared interfacial Al-doped (IAD) and interfacial natively-doped (IND) ZnO nanowires (NWs) by introducing atomic-layer interfacial Δ-doping between the two steps of CVD growth. Variable-temperature electron transport as well as magnetotransport behaviours of these NWs were systematically investigated. By virtue of the unique architecture and the quality-guaranteed growth technique, a series of quantum interference effects were clearly observed in the IAD ZnO NWs, including weak localization, universal conductance fluctuation and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations...
November 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111520/synthesis-and-structures-of-photoactive-rhenium-carbonyl-complexes-derived-from-2-pyridin-2-yl-1-3-benzothiazole-2-quinolin-2-yl-1-3-benzothiazole-and-1-10-phenanthroline
#20
Miguel Pinto, Indranil Chakraborty, Jorge Martinez-Gonzalez, Pradip Mascharak
Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been identified as a gaseous signaling molecule that exerts various salutary effects in mammalian pathophysiology. Photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs) are ideal exogenous candidates for more controllable and site-specific CO delivery compared to gaseous CO. Along this line, our group has been engaged for the past few years in developing group-7-based photoCORMs towards the efficient eradication of various malignant cells. Moreover, several such complexes can be tracked within cancerous cells by virtue of their luminescence...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
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