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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811369/obesity-associated-gene-tmem18-has-a-role-in-the-central-control-of-appetite-and-body-weight-regulation
#1
Rachel Larder, M F Michelle Sim, Pawan Gulati, Robin Antrobus, Y C Loraine Tung, Debra Rimmington, Eduard Ayuso, Joseph Polex-Wolf, Brian Y H Lam, Cristina Dias, Darren W Logan, Sam Virtue, Fatima Bosch, Giles S H Yeo, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly, Anthony P Coll
An intergenic region of human chromosome 2 (2p25.3) harbors genetic variants which are among those most strongly and reproducibly associated with obesity. The gene closest to these variants is TMEM18, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects remain entirely unknown. Tmem18 expression in the murine hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was altered by changes in nutritional state. Germline loss of Tmem18 in mice resulted in increased body weight, which was exacerbated by high fat diet and driven by increased food intake...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809984/in-situ-synthesis-of-electroactive-conjugated-microporous-fullerene-films-capable-of-supercapacitive-energy-storage
#2
Mingxiao Sun, Puxing Kuang, Leiqiang Qin, Cheng Gu, Zengqi Xie, Yuguang Ma
We describe a general strategy for synthesizing conjugated microporous fullerene thin films via a high-throughput, efficient and controllable thiophene-based electropolymerization. By virtue of the ambipolar redox charge/discharge of the films, we showed the microporous fullerene films as outstanding pseudocapacitor materials with high capacity and wide potential windows.
August 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809898/analog-receiver-for-coherent-optical-analog-radio-over-fiber-transmission
#3
Bernhard Schrenk, Markus Hofer, Thomas Zemen
A receiver for low-cost coherent optical applications is presented. Conceptual simplicity is guaranteed through the use of a monolithic integrated externally modulated laser. Local oscillators and fast photodetectors are provided by the distributed feedback section and electro-absorption modulator of the monolithic laser. The injection-locking feature, which is obtained by virtue of the inline configuration of the receiver, guarantees exact frequency translation during coherent reception and obviates the need for digital signal processing typically employed for the purpose of signal recovery...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809683/low-rank-latent-pattern-approximation-with-applications-to-robust-image-classification
#4
Shuo Chen, Jian Yang, Lei Luo, Yang Wei, Kaihua Zhang, Ying Tai
This paper develops a novel method to address the structural noise in samples for image classification. Recently, regression related classification methods have shown promising results when facing the pixel-wise noise. However, they become weak in coping with the structural noise due to ignoring of relationships between pixels of noise image. Meanwhile, most of them need to implement the iterative process for computing representation coefficients, which leads to the high time consumption. To overcome these problems, we exploit a latent pattern model called Low-Rank Latent Pattern Approximation (LLPA) to reconstruct the test image having structural noise...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808103/a-bioarchitectonic-approach-to-the-modular-engineering-of-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Cheryl A Kerfeld
Dissociating the complexity of metabolic processes into modules is a shift in focus from the single gene/gene product to functional and evolutionary units spanning the scale of biological organization. When viewing the levels of biological organization through this conceptual lens, modules are found across the continuum: domains within proteins, co-regulated groups of functionally associated genes, operons, metabolic pathways and (sub)cellular compartments. Combining modules as components or subsystems of a larger system typically leads to increased complexity and the emergence of new functions...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800974/advances-in-the-synthesis-molecular-architectures-and-potential-applications-of-gemini-surfactants
#6
REVIEW
Renu Sharma, Ajar Kamal, Maryam Abdinejad, Rakesh Kumar Mahajan, Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz
Gemini surfactants have been the subject of intensive scrutiny by virtue of their unique combination of physical and chemical properties and being used in ordinary household objects to multifarious industrial processes. In this review, we summarize the recent developments of gemini surfactants, highlighting the classification of gemini surfactants based on the variation in headgroup polarity, flexibility/rigidity of spacer, hydrophobic alkyl chain and counterion along with potential applications of gemini surfactants, depicting the truly remarkable journey of gemini surfactants that has just come of age...
July 29, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800495/the-explanatory-effect-of-a-label-explanations-with-named-categories-are-more-satisfying
#7
Carly Giffin, Daniel Wilkenfeld, Tania Lombrozo
Can opium's tendency to induce sleep be explained by appeal to a "dormitive virtue"? If the label merely references the tendency being explained, the explanation seems vacuous. Yet the presence of a label could signal genuinely explanatory content concerning the (causal) basis for the property being explained. In Experiments 1 and 2, we find that explanations for a person's behavior that appeal to a named tendency or condition are indeed judged to be more satisfying than equivalent explanations that differ only in omitting the name...
August 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#8
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798236/the-unintended-mitochondrial-uncoupling-effects-of-the-fda-approved-anti-helminth-drug-nitazoxanide-mitigates-experimental-parkinsonism-in-mice
#9
Niharika Amireddy, Srinivas N Puttapaka, Ravali L Vinnakota, Halley G Ravuri, Swaroop Thonda, Shasi V Kalivendi
Mitochondria plays a primary role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and small molecules that counteract the initial stages of disease may offer therapeutic benefit. In this regard, we have examined whether the off-target effects of the FDA approved anti-helminth drug, nitazoxanide (NTZ) on mitochondrial respiration could possess any therapeutic potential for PD. Results indicate that MPP(+) induced loss in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and ATP production by mitochondria were ameliorated by NTZ in real-time by virtue of its mild-uncoupling effect...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796100/single-stage-reconstruction-of-eyebrow-defect-using-a-v-y-advancement-pedicle-flap-based-on-the-orbicularis-oculi-muscle
#10
Hai-Peng Liu, Ying Shao, Duo Zhang
Eyebrows play an important role in face expression and facial mimics by virtue of muscle contraction. Defects or deformity of the eyebrows result in abnormal facial expressions, and may lead to aesthetic issues for patients. The objective of this study is to report the case of a patient, with a congenital skin pigmented nevus at the right side of the eyebrow treated with direct surgical resection and followed by immediate reconstruction of the eyebrow with a V-Y advancement pedicle flap based on the orbicularis oculi muscle...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795572/a-facile-synthesis-of-fluorescent-conjugated-polyelectrolytes-using-polydentate-sulfonate-as-highly-selective-and-sensitive-copper-ii-sensors
#11
Wei Wu, Anting Chen, Linyue Tong, Ziqi Qing, Kevin P Langone, William Bernier, Wayne E Jones
Fluorescent conjugated polyelectrolytes represent an exciting area of research into new chemosensors. By virtue of their rapid electron and energy transfer paths, these highly correlated, one-dimensional systems have been depicted as "molecular wires" and show "million-fold" sensitivity compared to monomolecular sensor analogs. In this paper, a novel polyelectrolyte sensor, the ttp-PPESO3, has been designed by incorporating terpyridine and sulfonate functional groups into the polyelectrolyte. This specifically tailored sensor has displayed remarkable quenching response towards copper (II) with a detection limit of 14...
August 10, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794334/development-and-applications-of-quantum-dot-based-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-composites-for-optosensing-of-carbofuran-in-water
#12
Qiang Zhou, Chengcheng Liu, Hong Zhang, Chunjie Zhao, Yanhong Wang
In this paper, quantum dot (QD)-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was fabricated and successfully utilized as a fluorescent probe for highly selective and sensitive detection of carbofuran in water samples. The MIPs were synthesized followed by a multi-step swelling and polymerization method, and then labeled with CdSe/ZnS QDs via gradual solvent evaporation. Then the prepared QDs-MIP microspheres were introduced to flow cytometry by virtue of their good dispersibility in water, and fast adsorption and desorption...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792731/catalytic-enantioselective-carbonyl-allylation-and-propargylation-via-alcohol-mediated-hydrogen-transfer-merging-the-chemistry-of-grignard-and-sabatier
#13
Seung Wook Kim, Wandi Zhang, Michael J Krische
Merging the characteristics of transfer hydrogenation and carbonyl addition, we have developed a new class of catalytic enantioselective C-C bond formations. In these processes, hydrogen transfer between alcohols and π-unsaturated reactants generates carbonyl-organometal pairs that combine to deliver products of addition. On the basis of this mechanistic paradigm, lower alcohols are converted directly to higher alcohols in the absence of premetalated reagents or discrete alcohol-to-carbonyl redox reactions...
August 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789961/insight-into-the-functional-and-structural-transition-of-garlic-phytocystatin-induced-by-urea-and-guanidine-hydrochloride-a-comparative-biophysical-study
#14
Mohd Faizan Siddiqui, Bilqees Bano
Cysteine proteinase inhibitors play an essential role in maintaining the proper functioning of all living cell by virtue of its thiol protease regulatory properties. Chemical denaturation of a new variant of cystatin super family has been studied by various biophysical techniques in order to characterize the unfolded and denatured state. Denaturation of garlic phytocystatin has been investigated using urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Different biophysical techniques such as intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism and FTIR exhibited an altered structure of garlic phytocystatin with increasing concentration of denaturant...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789658/healthcare-professionals-and-patients-perspectives-on-consent-to-clinical-genetic-testing-moving-towards-a-more-relational-approach
#15
Gabrielle Natalie Samuel, Sandi Dheensa, Bobbie Farsides, Angela Fenwick, Anneke Lucassen
BACKGROUND: This paper proposes a refocusing of consent for clinical genetic testing, moving away from an emphasis on autonomy and information provision, towards an emphasis on the virtues of healthcare professionals seeking consent, and the relationships they construct with their patients. METHODS: We draw on focus groups with UK healthcare professionals working in the field of clinical genetics, as well as in-depth interviews with patients who have sought genetic testing in the UK's National Health Service (data collected 2013-2015)...
August 8, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783432/fast-preparation-of-polydopamine-nanoparticles-catalyzed-by-fe2-h2o2-for-visible-sensitive-smartphone-enabled-cytosensing
#16
Lei Jiao, Zijian Xu, Wenwen Du, He Li, Miao Yin
It is highly desired to develop facile methods for fast preparation of polydopamine nanoparticles (PDANS) for intensive promising applications. Considering the system of Fe2+/H2O2 can generate reactive oxygen species efficiently, which can accelerate the self-oxidative polymerization of dopamine, a new time-saving method has been proposed to prepare PDANS catalyzed by Fe2+/H2O2. Thereafter, a novel kind of colorimetric nanoprobe for sensitive detection of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cell) based on the obtained PDANS loaded pH indicator molecules (thymolphthalein) has been developed successfully...
August 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777551/bifunctional-chelating-supramolecular-polymer-and-its-application-in-down-regulation-of-cellular-iron-uptake
#17
Fan Xu, Jing Jing, Xiuman Zhou, Yanwu Zhang
Bifunctional chelating supramolecular polymer (SP-Ch) is constructed from brush-like macromolecule (P-Ch) through hydrogen bonds. Two kinds of norbornene derivatives are used to synthesize P-Ch, in which phosphonic acid as side-group of polynorbornene can act as chelating group and ascorbic acid as side-chain capper of polynorbornene can reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. It can attach to cell membranes and form two kinds of "barriers" to hinder cells from uptaking iron by virtue of phosphonic acid and ascorbic acid. Higher monomer conversion and polymerization degree of P-Ch are achieved when the ratio among M1, M2 and G2 is set as 50:10:1 and SP-Ch particles reach to submicron level (mean size 147...
August 4, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776125/-for-every-illness-there-is-a-cure-attitudes-and-beliefs-of-moroccan-muslim-women-regarding-health-illness-and-medicine
#18
Chaïma Ahaddour, Bert Broeckaert
In order to provide adequate health care, it is important to be well aware of the views and attitudes of the health seeker regarding health, illness and medicine. In the Belgian context, the views of Muslim women, particularly of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan women, have been understudied. The aim of this article is twofold. First, we seek to bring forward the attitudes and beliefs of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women living in Antwerp (Belgium) towards health, illness and medicine. Second, we seek to explore which role religion plays in their views and attitudes regarding health, illness and medicine...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775215/observation-of-coherent-elastic-neutrino-nucleus-scattering
#19
D Akimov, J B Albert, P An, C Awe, P S Barbeau, B Becker, V Belov, A Brown, A Bolozdynya, B Cabrera-Palmer, M Cervantes, J I Collar, R J Cooper, R L Cooper, C Cuesta, D J Dean, J A Detwiler, A Eberhardt, Y Efremenko, S R Elliott, E M Erkela, L Fabris, M Febbraro, N E Fields, W Fox, Z Fu, A Galindo-Uribarri, M P Green, M Hai, M R Heath, S Hedges, D Hornback, T W Hossbach, E B Iverson, L J Kaufman, S Ki, S R Klein, A Khromov, A Konovalov, M Kremer, A Kumpan, C Leadbetter, L Li, W Lu, K Mann, D M Markoff, K Miller, H Moreno, P E Mueller, J Newby, J L Orrell, C T Overman, D S Parno, S Penttila, G Perumpilly, H Ray, J Raybern, D Reyna, G C Rich, D Rimal, D Rudik, K Scholberg, B J Scholz, G Sinev, W M Snow, V Sosnovtsev, A Shakirov, S Suchyta, B Suh, R Tayloe, R T Thornton, I Tolstukhin, J Vanderwerp, R L Varner, C J Virtue, Z Wan, J Yoo, C-H Yu, A Zawada, J Zettlemoyer, A M Zderic
The coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos off nuclei has eluded detection for four decades, even though its predicted cross-section is the largest by far of all low-energy neutrino couplings. This mode of interaction provides new opportunities to study neutrino properties, and leads to a miniaturization of detector size, with potential technological applications. We observe this process at a 6.7-sigma confidence level, using a low-background, 14.6-kg CsI[Na] scintillator exposed to the neutrino emissions from the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory...
August 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774783/clinical-value-of-real-time-ultrasonography-mri-fusion-imaging-for-second-look-examination-in-preoperative-breast-cancer-patients-additional-lesion-detection-and-treatment-planning
#20
Ah Young Park, Bo Kyoung Seo, Heon Han, Kyu Ran Cho, Ok Hee Woo, Sang Hoon Cha, Jaehyung Cha
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical effect of real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-navigated ultrasonography (US) for preoperative second-look examination in patients with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between October 2013 and February 2015, 232 patients with breast cancer underwent MRI for staging; second-look US was performed in 70 patients to evaluate additional lesions suspected to be disease detected using MRI. We retrospectively included 67 lesions in 55 patients...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
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