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Meng Liu, Shiyang Shen, Di Wen, Mengru Li, Teng Li, Xiaojie Chen, Zhen Gu, Ran Mo
Protein therapeutics hold increasing interest with promise of revolutionizing the cancer treatment by virtue of potent specific activity and reduced adverse effect. Nonetheless, the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer proteins is highly compromised by multiple successive physiological barriers to protein delivery. Concurrent elimination of bulk tumor cells and highly-tumorigenic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) has been evidenced as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapy. Here we show that a hierarchically-assembled nanocomposite can self-adaptively transform its particulate property in response to endogenous tumor-associated signals to overcome the sequential barriers and achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by killing CSCs and bulk tumor cells synchronously...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant phytoconstituents have been a valuable source of clinically important anticancer agents. Antioxidant and anticancerous activity of plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn were explored In vitro antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity of oxidatively stressed tissue, and cell culture studies on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and MCF-7 were carried out. Active plant fractions were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compounds selected on the basis of their abundance were screened in silico with the help of Auto Dock 4...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sameer Shaikh, Mohammad Aljanakh, Ibrahim Khalil Al Ibrahim, Mohammad Sohail Memon
Numerous substances may have an adverse influence on the oral region by virtue of their potentially harmful effects. Dental practitioners are often the first to see these effects in the head and neck region. Knowledge of the damaging consequences of agents such as alcohol, tobacco, areca nut, medications, alcohol-containing mouthwashes, dental devices and materials can assist the practitioners in clinical decision-making and accurate diagnosis of associated lesions. More importantly, timely diagnosis and prompt reporting of such harmful effects improve the quality of care...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Peng Jin, Seung-Hyun Shin, Yang-Sook Chun, Hyun-Woo Shin, Yong Jae Shin, Yeri Lee, Donggeon Kim, Do-Hyun Nam, Jong-Wan Park
During tumor development, stromal cells are co-opted to the tumor milieu and provide favorable conditions for the tumor. Hypoxia stimulates cancer cells to acquire a more malignant phenotype via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Given that cancer cells and astrocytes in glioblastomas coexist in a hypoxic microenvironment, we examined whether astrocytes affect the adaptation of glioblastoma cells to hypoxia. Immunoblotting, reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to evaluate HIF-1 signaling in glioblastoma cells...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
Claudia Bozzaro
In western societies, a growing number of women are currently turning to social egg freezing, a technique that makes it possible to freeze oocytes and thus preserve female reproductive possibilities. The current ethical debate has focused on normative aspects concerning the question of whether social egg freezing empowers women's reproductive autonomy. Due to this narrow focus on autonomy, deeper questions concerning the socio-economic conditions and cultural factors that lead women to delay reproduction, to feel pressured by their biological clock, and thus to consider social egg freezing have not yet received sufficient attention and analysis...
February 23, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Cesar Nombela
On November 21, 2017, Professor Julio R. Villanueva died in Salamanca. Born on April 27, 1928 in Villamayor, council of Piloña (Asturias), he lived almost to the age of 90. His was an accomplished life, full of endeavors and exciting works in the world of research and teaching, which earned him very broad recognition both in Spain and the international arena. Villanueva was undoubtedly the driving force of Fundamental Microbiology in Spain. His early steps came at a time when experimental biology was arriving at an important new age, using microbial systems for experimentation that lead to general conclusions about all living beings...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Nitesh Mishra, Madhav Mohata, Heena Aggarwal, Omkar Chaudhary, Bimal Kumar Das, Sanjeev Sinha, Anjali Hazarika, Kalpana Luthra
During infection and budding, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) acquires regulators of Complement Activation (RCAs) along with the host cell membrane on the viral envelope. Activation of host complement system results in opsonization of virus by complement fragments, however the virus evades complement mediated lysis (CoML) by virtue of the RCAs on the viral envelope. The RCAs on HIV-1 envelope process complement protein C3 into various fragments that promote viral entry and infection of cells through different complement receptors...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Guiyang Zhang, Qiaobo Liao, Yanfeng Liu, Li Wang, Huilin Gou, Can Ke, Xin Huang, Kai Xi, Xudong Jia
The fabrication of reactive aggregation nanomaterials through assemblies in a facile and cost-effective manner is much desired but remains to be well explored. Here we show that exquisite and ultra-long (>2 μm) hybrid polymer nanorods (NRs) can be formed by a simple self-assembly of a phenylboronic acid modified genistein crosslinker (Ge-di(HMPBA-pin)) and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 (TPGS). The obtained NRs exhibit quantitative and sensitive colorimetric detection of H2 O2 with a remarkable detection limit for different stromal materials...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Zeeshan Fatima, Dipti Srivastava, Chanchal Deep Kaur
Cocrystallization is a technique for modifying the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) embodying the concept of supramolecular synthon. Most of the examples cited in the literature are of cocrystals formed between an API and a coformer chosen from the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance list, however, few examples exist where a cocrystal consists of two or more APIs. These cocrystals are commonly known as multi API, multi drug or drug- drug cocrystals...
March 5, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Yahuan Huan, Jianping Shi, Xiaolong Zou, Yue Gong, Zhepeng Zhang, Minghua Li, Liyun Zhao, Runzhang Xu, Shaolong Jiang, Xiebo Zhou, Min Hong, Chunyu Xie, He Li, Xingyou Lang, Qing Zhang, Lin Gu, Xiaoqin Yan, Yanfeng Zhang
2D metallic TaS2 is acting as an ideal platform for exploring fundamental physical issues (superconductivity, charge-density wave, etc.) and for engineering novel applications in energy-related fields. The batch synthesis of high-quality TaS2 nanosheets with a specific phase is crucial for such issues. Herein, the successful synthesis of novel vertically oriented 1T-TaS2 nanosheets on nanoporous gold substrates is reported, via a facile chemical vapor deposition route. By virtue of the abundant edge sites and excellent electrical transport property, such vertical 1T-TaS2 is employed as high-efficiency electrocatalysts in the hydrogen evolution reaction, featured with rather low Tafel slopes ≈67-82 mV dec-1 and an ultrahigh exchange current density ≈67...
March 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Anthony Flamier, Supriya Singh, Theodore P Rasmussen
Human birth defects are relatively common and can be caused by exposure to environmental teratogens or to pharmaceuticals with teratogenic activities. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), by virtue of their pluripotent nature, provide an excellent cellular platform for teratogen detection and risk assessment. This unit describes detailed protocols for the preparation and validation of highly pluripotent hESCs, the production of large quantities of aggregated multicellular spheroids composed of hESCs, and these spheroids' differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs)...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Cengiz Pehlevan, Farhan Ali, Bence P Ölveczky
Temporally precise movement patterns underlie many motor skills and innate actions, yet the flexibility with which the timing of such stereotyped behaviors can be modified is poorly understood. To probe this, we induce adaptive changes to the temporal structure of birdsong. We find that the duration of specific song segments can be modified without affecting the timing in other parts of the song. We derive formal prescriptions for how neural networks can implement such flexible motor timing. We find that randomly connected recurrent networks, a common approximation for how neocortex is wired, do not generally conform to these, though certain implementations can approximate them...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Haijuan Zhang, Baoxin Zhang, Cuixia Di, Mohammad Chand Ali, Jia Chen, Zhan Li, Jing Si, Hong Zhang, Hongdeng Qiu
As an important biomarker for the early stage of apoptosis, cytochrome c (Cyt c) has been recognized as a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Fluorescence imaging tools enabling detection of Cyt c in apoptotic signaling have been rarely explored, though they are critical for cell biology and clinical theranostics. Here, we designed a novel label-free N-doped carbon dot (N-doped CD)-based nanosensor that enables fluorescence activation imaging of Cyt c release in cell apoptosis. The inner filter effect of Cyt c towards N-doped CDs enabled quantitative Cyt c measurement...
March 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Qianqian Guan, Qi Sun, Lixian Wen, Zhenggen Zha, Yu Yang, Zhiyong Wang
An efficient synthesis of benzimidazoles was developed by virtue of a recycled palladium catalyzed hydrogen transfer. The reaction can be carried out smoothly under mild conditions to give rise to a variety of benzimidazoles with good to excellent yields. The palladium catalyst could be recovered easily and reused six times with great catalytic activity.
March 6, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Chenyang Xing, Shiyou Chen, Meng Qiu, Xin Liang, Quan Liu, Qingshuang Zou, Zhongjun Li, Zhongjian Xie, Dou Wang, Biqin Dong, Liping Liu, Dianyuan Fan, Han Zhang
Black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as an intriguing photothermal agent in photothermal therapy (PTT) against cancer by virtue of its high photothermal efficiency, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. However, naked BP is intrinsically characterized by easy oxidation (or natural degradation) and sedimentation inside the tumor microenvironment, leading to a short-term therapeutic and inhomogeneous photothermal effect. Development of BP-based nanocomposites for PTT against cancer therefore remains challenging...
March 6, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hua V Lin, Jingru Wang, Jie Wang, Weiji Li, Xuesong Wang, James T Alston, Melissa K Thomas, Daniel A Briere, Samreen K Syed, Alexander M Efanov
OBJECTIVE: GPR142 agonists are being pursued as novel diabetes therapies by virtue of their insulin secretagogue effects. But it is undetermined whether GPR142's functions in pancreatic islets are limited to regulating insulin secretion. The current study expands research on its action. METHODS AND RESULTS: We demonstrated by in situ hybridization and immunostaining that GPR142 is expressed not only in β cells but also in a subset of α cells. Stimulation of GPR142 by a selective agonist increased glucagon secretion in both human and mouse islets...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Qianqian Hu, Jianrong Li, Qiaohong Li, Guo Wang, Jiquan Huang, Xiaoying Huang
The realization of one-dimensional nanostructures or Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2 photocatalysts has proven to be an effective approach for significantly improving their photocatalytic performance. Herein, a series of nonstoichiometric anatase TiO2 nanorod films were deposited at 50-500 °C by a facile one-step magnetron sputtering method. The correlation between the microstructures and the photocatalytic H2 production abilities of the films was studied. It is found that, by increasing the deposition temperature, the as-sputtered TiO2 grains transformed from quasi-spherical to rod-like structures while the concentration of the Ti3+ species decreased gradually...
March 5, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hugo Hesser, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik Andersson, Perjohan Lindfors, Brjánn Ljótsson
OBJECTIVE: Systematic exposure is potentially an effective treatment procedure for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about the processes by which it achieves its effect on outcome. The aim of this study was to identify mediators in a previously published randomized dismantling trial in which participants with IBS were randomized to Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment (ICBT) that incorporated systematic exposure or to the same treatment protocol without exposure (ICBT-WE)...
March 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Anqiang Zhang, Jiaying Deng, Xiaoqing Liu, Pengfei He, Liang He, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Peilong Sun
Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible and medicinal mushroom favored in many countries, by virtue of both its delicious taste and its potential health benefits such as its purported anticancer activity. A neutral α-glucan (ABM40-1) with a carbohydrate content of 96% was purified from the high-speed shearing homogenization extracts of A. Blazei Murill by ethanol precipitation and column chromatography. Methylation analysis along with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that ABM40-1 was an α-(1 → 4)-d-glucopyranan with O-6 position occasionally occupied with α-Glcp-(1 → or α-Glcp-(1 → 6)-β-Glcp-(1 → side chains...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
N Ashwanikumar, Justin S Plaut, Barmak Mostofian, Siddharth Patel, Peter Kwak, Conroy Sun, Kerry McPhail, Daniel M Zuckerman, Sadik C Esener, Gaurav Sahay
Despite recent advances in the supramolecular assembly of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) nanostructures, the tuning of size, shape, morphology and packaging of drugs in these materials still remain unexplored. Herein, through sequential ligation of peptide building blocks, we create cell-penetrating self-assembling peptide nanomaterials (CSPNs) with the capability to translocate inside cells. We devised a triblock array of Tat48-59 [HIV-1 derived transactivator of transcription48-59 ] based CPPs, conjugated to up to four Phenylalanine (Phe) residues through an amphiphilic linker, (RADA)2 ...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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