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pediatric urinary tract infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087926/urinary-tract-infections-in-infants-and-children
#1
Theresa A Schlager
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections in children and symptoms may be nonspecific. The risk of renal scarring is highest in children under 1 year of age with febrile UTI and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although treatment of UTI is usually straightforward, given increased rates of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, the choice of treatment for pediatric UTI should be guided by community resistance patterns whenever feasible. The benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis after first UTI and/or in the presence of VUR remains controversial, but a recent meta-analysis supports continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis in children with VUR, indicating a need for more research in this area...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051222/contribution-of-ultrasound-scans-in-the-first-episode-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-children
#2
Manel Jellouli, Asma Ben Mansour, Kamel Abidi, Meriem Ferjani, Ouns Naija, Yousra Hammi, Chokri Zarrouk, Tahar Gargah
Background - Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric urologic disorder. After the first urinary tract infection (UTI), imaging studies are recommended, starting with a renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). We propose to determine whether abnormalities found on US can help indicate the necessity of VCUG in children after the first urinary tract infection. Methods - A retrospective study included all children admitted with their first episode of urinary tract infection from January 2007 to December 2012...
June 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011968/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-the-pediatric-population-who-is-at-risk-and-why-results-from-a-single-centre-prospective-study
#3
Carmelina Calitri, Carlo Scolfaro, Sara Colombo, Gianfranco De Intinis, Francesca Carraro, Silvia Garazzino, Pier-Angelo Tovo
A prospective 18-month case-control study was performed in a tertiary Paediatric Centre in Turin (Italy) to analyse the disease burden and identify risk factors for acquisition of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-pE). Children with ESBL-pE isolation were enrolled as cases, with controls matched according to age, type of pathogen isolated and sample of isolation. Out of 83 children (37 males, mean age 4.7 ± 5.46 years), 45 were identified as infected (54.2%) and 38 as colonised (45...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994915/intravenous-colistin-use-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974897/process-mapping-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department-to-minimize-missed-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Morgan Black, Valene Singh, Vladimir Belostotsky, Madan Roy, Deborah Yamamura, Kathryn Gambarotto, Keith Lau, April J Kam
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children and are seen in emergency departments (EDs) frequently. Left untreated, UTIs can lead to more severe conditions. Our goal was to undertake a quality improvement (QI) initiative to help minimize the number of children with missed UTIs in a newly established tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED). A retrospective chart review was undertaken to identify missed UTIs in children < 3 years old who presented to a children's hospital's ED with positive urine cultures...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974258/parental-preference-assessment-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-management-in-children
#6
Geraldine N Tran, Anand V Bodapati, Jonathan C Routh, Christopher S Saigal, Hillary L Copp
PURPOSE: Parents of children with vesicoureteral reflux are presented with a variety of management options, which in many cases offer a similar risk-benefit ratio. To facilitate shared decision making, parental preferences regarding vesicoureteral reflux treatment options need to be acknowledged. We aimed to characterize the clinical experience of parents and elicit core themes affecting decision making in regard to managing vesicoureteral reflux in their child. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A semistructured, qualitative interview script was developed and vetted by 25 pediatric urologists to discuss treatment options for vesicoureteral reflux...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959293/zeroing-in-on-safety-a-pediatric-approach-to-preventing-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#7
Lori Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942170/end-stage-renal-disease-in-tunisian-infants-etiology-and-outcome
#8
M Jellouli, A Boussetta, K Abidi, Y Hammi, C Zarrouk, T Gargah
End stage renal disease (ESRD) in infants has particular features in terms of etiologies and therapeutic modalities. The aim of our study is to describe the etiologies and the ESRD outcomes among Tunisian infants. This retrospective study was conducted over 15 years (from January 1998 to December 31, 2013) in the Pediatric Department at Charles Nicolle Hospital. In total, 157 pediatric patients had ESRD. The mean incidence was 4.25 million children. The study involved 24 infants; the sex ratio was equal to 2...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940792/establishing-a-standard-protocol-for-the-voiding-cystourethrography
#9
Dominic Frimberger, Maria-Gisela Mercado-Deane
The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a frequently performed test to diagnose a variety of urologic conditions, such as vesicoureteral reflux. The test results determine whether continued observation or an interventional procedure is indicated. VCUGs are ordered by many specialists and primary care providers, including pediatricians, family practitioners, nephrologists, hospitalists, emergency department physicians, and urologists. Current protocols for performing and interpreting a VCUG are based on the International Reflux Study in 1985...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939178/establishing-a-standard-protocol-for-the-voiding-cystourethrography
#10
Dominic Frimberger, Stuart B Bauer, Mark P Cain, Saul P Greenfield, Andrew J Kirsch, Faridali Ramji, Maria-Gisela Mercado-Deane, Christoper S Cooper
The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a frequently performed test to diagnose a variety of urologic conditions, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). The test results determine whether continued observation or an interventional procedure is indicated. VCUGs are ordered by many specialists and primary care providers, including pediatricians, family practitioners, nephrologists, hospitalists, emergency room physicians, and urologists. Current protocols for performing and interpreting a VCUG are based on the International Reflux Study in 1985...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899416/peritoneal-dialysis-access-revision-in-children-causes-interventions-and-outcomes
#11
Dagmara Borzych-Duzalka, T Fazil Aki, Marta Azocar, Colin White, Elizabeth Harvey, Sevgi Mir, Marta Adragna, Erkin Serdaroglu, Rajiv Sinha, Charlotte Samaille, Juan Jose Vanegas, Jameela Kari, Lorena Barbosa, Arvind Bagga, Monica Galanti, Onder Yavascan, Giovanna Leozappa, Maria Szczepanska, Karel Vondrak, Kei-Chiu Tse, Franz Schaefer, Bradley A Warady
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little published information is available about access failure in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Our objectives were to evaluate frequency, risk factors, interventions, and outcome of peritoneal dialysis access revision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Data were derived from 824 incident and 1629 prevalent patients from 105 pediatric nephrology centers enrolled in the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry between 2007 and 2015...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894763/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-bacteria-urinary-tract-infections-and-complex-pediatric-urology
#12
Ruth Wragg, Anna Harris, Mitul Patel, Andrew Robb, Harish Chandran, Liam McCarthy
AIM OF THE STUDY: Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. This resistance is plasmid-borne and can spread between species. Management of ESBL is challenging in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complex urological abnormalities. We aim to quantify the risk in children and specifically in urological patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of a microbiology database (April 2014 to November 2015)...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888411/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children-with-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Marcus Weitz, Maria Schmidt
: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are the most common uropathies. The co-occurrence of both anomalies has led to the practice of screening for VUR in children with UPJO to prevent deterioration of kidney function due to renal scarring following urinary tract infections (UTIs). We determined the prevalence of VUR in children with UPJO for a critical assessment of VUR screening by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). A systematic search strategy in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL was carried out for all articles that included VCUG, and renal scintigraphy or any other appropriate imaging technique for the diagnosis of UPJO...
January 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887911/does-perception-of-catheterization-limit-its-use-in-pediatric-uti
#14
Rachel E Selekman, Melissa T Sanford, Lauren N Ko, I Elaine Allen, Hillary L Copp
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 3-8% of febrile children annually, but correctly diagnosing UTI in young children can present a challenge. Diagnosis requires a non-contaminated urine sample, which requires catheterization or suprapubic aspiration in infants and young children that have not completed toilet training. To improve adherence to these guidelines, it is critical to understand the barriers to urine testing and catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate parental perception of pediatric UTI evaluation to better understand factors that impede urine testing prior to treatment of suspected UTI...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878110/discontinuation-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-ap-in-children-with-spina-bifida-a-case-series-analysis
#15
Kevin G Couloures, Michael Anderson, Michael Machiorlatti, Olivera Marsenic, Lawrence Opas
BACKGROUND: Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI's but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836442/intravesical-ureteric-reimplantation-for-primary-obstructed-megaureter-in-infants-under-1-year-of-age
#16
Emily Jude, Aniruddh Deshpande, Andrew Barker, Japinder Khosa, Naeem Samnakay
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the outcome of intravesical ureteric reimplantation for primary obstructed megaureter (POM) performed in infants under 1 year of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out of all infants undergoing intravesical ureteric reimplantation surgery for POM at two pediatric centers in the 12 years between 2003 and 2014. Outcomes were compared with those of children aged over 1 year undergoing intravesical reimplantation for POM during this period...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826154/high-dose-extended-interval-gentamicin-and-tobramycin-for-pediatric-inpatients-a-survey-of-canadian-hospital-pharmacists
#17
Caitlin Roy, Carolyn Gray, Lisa Ruda, Ali Bell, Jennifer Bolt
BACKGROUND: The use of high-dose, extended-interval aminoglycosides, a common practice in adult populations, is less well established for pediatric patients. In younger populations, these drugs are often administered according to a multiple daily dosing method. OBJECTIVE: To characterize prescribing practices for aminoglycosides in pediatric inpatients across Canada, with a focus on high-dose, extended-interval regimens. METHODS: This study was based on an electronic survey of pharmacists representing Canadian health care delivery organizations that provided pediatric inpatient services, which was distributed in March 2015...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824737/povidone-iodine-0-05-chlorhexidine-gluconate-or-water-for-periurethral-cleaning-before-indwelling-urinary-catheterization-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya, Gülzade Uysal, Gülçin Bozkurt, Tülay Yakut, Agop Çitak
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of periurethral cleaning with 10% povidone-iodine, 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate, or sterile water in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) prior to indwelling urinary catheter insertion in a pediatric intensive care unit. A secondary aim was to identify pathogens resulting in CAUTIs in this group. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: One hundred twenty-two patients cared for in a pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital between September 2012 and December 2013 participated in the study...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813386/retroperitoneoscopic-pyelolithotomy-a-good-alternative-treatment-for-renal-pelvic-calculi-in-children
#19
Bruno Nicolino Cezarino, Rubens Park, Paulo Renato Marcelo Moscardi, Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Francisco T Denes, Miguel Srougi
INTRODUCTION: Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with na increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL), as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases...
November 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801524/detection-of-pct-and-urinary-%C3%AE-2-mg-enhances-the-accuracy-for-localization-diagnosing-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#20
Jian Fang, Jiangwei Luan, Gaohong Zhu, Chang Qi, Dandan Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to investigate whether the combination of urinary beta 2 microglobulin (urinary β2 -MG) and procalcitonin (PCT) diagnosis could enhance the localization diagnostic precision of pediatric urinary tract infection comparing with single diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of Wuhan women and children's health care centre. This study incorporated 85 participants, including 35 children who were diagnosed as upper urinary tract infection (UUTI) with the symptom of fever and 50 children who conducted lower urinary tract infection (LUTI)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
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