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pediatric urinary tract infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339564/accuracy-of-the-urinalysis-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-febrile-infants-60-days-and-younger
#1
Leah Tzimenatos, Prashant Mahajan, Peter S Dayan, Melissa Vitale, James G Linakis, Stephen Blumberg, Dominic Borgialli, Richard M Ruddy, John Van Buren, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Reports of the test accuracy of the urinalysis for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young febrile infants have been variable. We evaluated the test characteristics of the urinalysis for diagnosing UTIs, with and without associated bacteremia, in young febrile infants. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of febrile infants ≤60 days old at 26 emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333822/labial-adhesions-experience-in-a-children-s-hospital
#2
Anahí Rubinstein, Gisel Rahman, Paula Risso, Dolores Ocampo
Labial adhesions are defined as the complete or partial fusion of the pudendal cleft due to the agglutination of the labia minora in the midline. They most commonly occur between 3 months and 6 years of life. Between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st, 2015, 425 girls diagnosed with labial adhesions and seen at the Unit of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology of Hospital de Niños de La Plata, Argentina, were analyzed. Their average age was 2.7 years (standard deviation: 2.6 years). The most common presentation of labial adhesions was that involving more than 75% of the total length of the labia (p < 0...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319633/risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#3
Takeshi Hatachi, Kazuya Tachibana, Yu Inata, Yuji Tominaga, Aiko Hirano, Miyako Kyogoku, Kazue Moon, Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Kanako Isaka, Muneyuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center observational study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive pediatric patients less than or equal to 18 years old admitted to the PICU after cardiac surgery, between January 2013 and December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319624/long-term-outcome-of-one-step-kidney-transplantation-and-bladder-augmentation-procedure-in-pediatric-patients
#4
R Cleper, D Ben Meir, I Krause, P Livne, E Mor, M Davidovits, A Dagan
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for bladder augmentation (BA) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients are not well-defined. In our center, simultaneous BA with KT (BA-KT) is performed. We assessed transplantation outcomes of this unique extensive procedure. METHODS: A case-control single center retrospective study. Transplantation outcomes were compared with those of KT recipients who did not need BA. RESULTS: Compared to 22 patients who underwent KT only, for 9 who underwent BA-KT, surgical complications and the need for revision in the early posttransplantation period were similar; early graft function was better: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 96...
January 10, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319481/a-critical-review-of-recent-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#5
Michael Chua, Jessica Ming, Shang-Jen Chang, Joana Dos Santos, Niraj Mistry, Jan Michael Silangcruz, Mark Bayley, Martin Koyle
INTRODUCTION: Concerns regarding the quality, credibility, and applicability of recently published pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) clinical practice guidelines have been raised due to the inconsistencies of recommendations between them. We aimed to determine the quality of the recent clinical practice guidelines on pediatric UTI by using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, and summarize the standard of care in diagnosis and management of pediatric UTI from the top three clinical practice guidelines...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305940/complications-and-outcomes-of-pregnancy-and-cesarean-delivery-in-women-with-neuropathic-bladder-and-lower-urinary-tract-reconstruction
#6
Joshua D Roth, Jessica T Casey, Benjamin M Whittam, Konrad M Szymanski, Martin Kaefer, Richard C Rink, Frank P Schubert, Mark P Cain, Rosalia Misseri
Objective To determine the outcomes of pregnancy and cesarean delivery (CD) delivery in women with neuropathic bladder (NB) and pediatric lower urinary tract reconstruction (LUTR) as these women often have normal fertility and may become pregnant. Methods We reviewed consecutive patients from July 2001 to June 2016 with NB due to spinal dysphraphism who underwent LUTR, became pregnant, and had a CD at our institution. We collected data on demographics, hydronephrosis, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), continence and catheterization during pregnancy...
January 3, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298246/improving-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-with-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-and-urgent-care-settings
#7
Nicole M Poole, Matthew P Kronman, Lori Rutman, Scott J Weissman, Russell T Migita, Derya Caglar, Danielle M Zerr
OBJECTIVES: Children with urinary tract infection (UTI) are often diagnosed in emergency and urgent care settings and increasingly are unnecessarily treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of a quality improvement intervention on empiric antibiotic prescribing for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI in children. METHODS: A local clinical pathway for uncomplicated UTI, introduced in June 2010, recommended empiric treatment with cephalexin, a narrow-spectrum (first-generation) cephalosporin antibiotic...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290230/antimicrobial-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#8
R Cohen, J Raymond, E Launay, Y Gillet, P Minodier, F Dubos, E Grimprel
Urinary tract infections are the most frequent documented bacterial infections in children. The antibiotic choices proposed in this manuscript are based on the guidelines published by the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the French-Language Infectious Disease Society (SPILF). Dipstick positive for leukocytes and/or nitrites must precede in most circumstances (excluding the newborns, neutropenic patients and those with sepsis), urine culture and antibiotic prescription. The proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli strains has increased steadily in recent years, and the situations in which oral antibiotic switch is frequently not available are increasing...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262467/-evidence-based-guideline-on-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection%C3%AF-2016%C3%AF
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249216/pathogen-distribution-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-pediatric-healthcare-associated-infections-reported-to-the-national-healthcare-safety-network-2011-2014
#10
Jason G Lake, Lindsey M Weiner, Aaron M Milstone, Lisa Saiman, Shelley S Magill, Isaac See
OBJECTIVE To describe pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) from pediatric locations during 2011-2014. METHODS Device-associated infection data were analyzed for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and surgical site infection (SSI). Pooled mean percentage resistance was calculated for a variety of pathogen-antimicrobial resistance pattern combinations and was stratified by location for device-associated infections (neonatal intensive care units [NICUs], pediatric intensive care units [PICUs], pediatric oncology and pediatric wards) and by surgery type for SSIs...
December 18, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246433/clinical-utility-of-noninvasive-method-to-measure-specific-gravity-in-the-pediatric-population
#11
Jeanine E Hall, Pauline P Huynh, Ameer P Mody, Vincent J Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinicians rely on any combination of signs and symptoms, clinical scores, or invasive procedures to assess the hydration status in children. Noninvasive tests to evaluate for dehydration in the pediatric population are appealing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to assess the utility of measuring specific gravity of tears compared to specific gravity of urine and the clinical assessment of dehydration. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort convenience sample study, in a pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211055/urinary-c-megalin-for-screening-of-renal-scarring-in-children-after-febrile-urinary-tract-infection
#12
Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Takahisa Kimata, Jiro Kino, Tetsuya Kitao, Chikushi Suruda, Shoji Tsuji, Hiroyuki Kurosawa, Yoshiaki Hirayama, Akihiko Saito, Kazunari Kaneko
BackgroundFebrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) in children may cause renal scarring. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of urinary biomarkers for diagnosing renal scarring after fUTI.MethodsThirty-seven children (median age: 1.36 years, range: 0.52-12.17 years, 25 boys) with a history of fUTI, who underwent renal scintigraphy for 4 months or longer after the last episode of fUTI, were analyzed. A spot urine sample was obtained on the day of renal scintigraphy to measure levels of total protein, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), β2-microglobulin (BMG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and C-megalin (full-length megalin)...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208876/disease-pattern-among-children-attending-pediatric-outpatient-department-in-community-based-medical-college-hospital-bangladesh
#13
M Begum, M K Khan, M T Hossain, M Y Ali, F S Alam, S S Dipu, A H Hasan, M Nasrin
Disease pattern is based on socio-demographic characteristics, comprehensive health care services, and environmental variables like water supply, basic sanitation and housing, illness behavior like quick decision to arrive at health care facility, and treatment behavior like the modality of treatment they receive. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of January 2014 to December 2015. The study was carried out among 310 purposively selected children attended at Pediatric Outpatient department of Community Based Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206750/ceftazidime-avibactam-antimicrobial-activity-and-spectrum-when-tested-against-gram-negative-organisms-from-pediatric-patients-results-from-the-inform-surveillance-program-united-states-2011-2015
#14
Helio S Sader, Michael D Huband, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm
BACKGROUND: Ceftazidime-avibactam was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015 to treat complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in adults, and is under clinical development for treating pediatric patients. METHODS: Among 53,381 gram-negative organisms (1 per patient) collected in 2011-2015, 8,461 (15.9%) were from pediatric (≤17 years-old [yo]) patients. The isolates were collected from 82 US medical centers and susceptibility tested against ceftazidime-avibactam (avibactam at fixed 4 µg/mL) and comparators by reference broth microdilution methods...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204197/infantile-tremor-syndrome-in-modern-times
#15
Piyush Gautam, Nivedita Sharma, Sanjeev Chaudhary, Ankush Kaushal
Background: Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) is a clinical syndrome of acute or gradual onset of mental and psychomotor changes, pigmentary disturbances of hair and skin, pallor, and tremors in malnourished children aged between 5 months and 3 years. It is a well-known entity, but the exact etiopathogenesis is still not known. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Pediatrics at Dr RPGMC Tanda, Kangra in Himachal Pradesh...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203386/procalcitonin-the-marker-of-pediatric-bacterial-infection
#16
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Mojtaba Varshochi, Behrooz Shokouhi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Timely recognition of systemic bacterial infections in pediatric care setting is the basis for effective treatment and control. This review provides an overview of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker for the detection of severe, invasive bacterial infection in children. Almost all articles on biochemical property and clinical studies in PubMed and Scopus databases regarding their use in pediatric infections and the use of PCT as a marker of bacterial infections were examined. Various methods and analyzers are currently available for the evaluation of PCT...
December 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195830/retrograde-intrarenal-surgery-using-ureteral-access-sheaths-is-a-safe-and-effective-treatment-for-renal-stones-in-children-weighing-20%C3%A2-kg
#17
Alfredo Berrettini, Luca Boeri, Emanuele Montanari, Mirella Mogiatti, Pietro Acquati, Elisa De Lorenzis, Andrea Gallioli, Erika Adalgisa De Marco, Dario Guido Minoli, Gianantonio Manzoni
INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of pediatric kidney stones has changed dramatically in recent years because of the miniaturization of surgical instruments and the availability of intracorporeal lithotripters. The retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) technique is nowadays considered an effective and safe procedure but studies in very young children are lacking and use of a ureteral access sheath (UAS) has also been debated. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and efficacy of RIRS using UAS in children weighing < 20 kg...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189614/acquired-infection-and-antimicrobial-utilization-during-initial-nicu-hospitalization-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#18
Sarah Keene, Karna Murthy, Eugenia Pallotto, Beverly Brozanski, Jason Gien, Isabella Zaniletti, Cheryl Hulbert, Ruth Seabrook, Natalie Rintoul, Louis Chicoine, Nicolas Porta, Theresa R Grover
BACKGROUND: In addition to substantial medical and surgical intervention, neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) often have concurrent concerns for acquired infection. However, few studies focus on infection and corresponding antimicrobial utilization in this population. METHODS: The Children's Hospital Neonatal Database was queried for CDH infants hospitalized from Jan 2010- Feb 2016. Patient charts were linked to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189595/fast-and-sensitive-automated-point-of-care-urine-dips
#19
Laurie Malia, Kaitlin Strumph, Sharon Smith, John Brancato, Stephanie T Johnson, Henry Chicaiza
OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care (POC) urine dipstick is a highly used test in the pediatric emergency department (PED) owing to its fast turn-around time and inexpensive cost. Past studies have shown hand-held urine dipsticks and automated urinalysis in children younger than 48 months to be sensitive predictors for urinary tract infection (UTI). It is hypothesized that POC dip testing is as accurate as laboratory urinalysis in the diagnosis of UTI. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients (aged birth through 18 years) presenting to a PED between January 2015 and December 2015...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189528/incidence-and-diagnostic-evaluation-of-postoperative-fever-in-pediatric-patients-with-neuromuscular-disorders
#20
Mohamed A A Yousef, Darius Dranginis, Scott Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Children with neuromuscular disorders have a significant chance of developing scoliosis and/or hip dislocation during childhood and adolescence and often undergo surgical reconstruction. Because of their high rate of medical comorbidities, these patients are at higher risk of postoperative complications and are therefore often comanaged, along with orthopaedics, by pediatric medicine and critical care teams. Fever during the postoperative stay is a frequent occurrence and often prompts extensive diagnostic workup which increases the cost and burden on the health system but have unclear effects on the care of the patient...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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