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pediatric urinary tract infections

S Setia, J Jackson, C D Herndon, S Corbett
Delayed sequelae following conservative management of renal trauma in the pediatric population are uncommon. Reports of delayed operations to manage these sequelae are even less common. Here we present the case of a 16-year-old male patient who had delayed development of upper urinary tract obstruction with recurrent infections following high-grade renal trauma managed conservatively. Ultimately he required a robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy two years after initial non-operative management. This is unique as no prior studies to our knowledge have described delayed hydronephrosis and delayed partial nephrectomy over a year following renal trauma...
October 17, 2016: Urology
Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya, Gülçin Bozkurt, Gülzade Uysal, Tülay Yakut
BACKGROUND: There are few studies in the literature from developing countries regarding the rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), which is frequently encountered in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the 2-year rates of CAUTI in a PICU where a CAUTI Prevention Bundle was implemented. DESIGN: This was an interventional prospective study. METHODS: The study was conducted with 390 patients in the PICU of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Turkey, from July 2013 to July 2015...
November 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Roberto Velasco, Helvia Benito, Rebeca Mozun, Juan E Trujillo, Pedro A Merino, Mercedes de la Torre, Borja Gomez, Santiago Mintegi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kiran Imran, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Uzma Ozair, Sadia Khan, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers in an emerging economy. A prospective, data collection enrolled 250 children age <1-15 years at our center. Risk factors were evaluated by gender and in age groups <1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. Patients were evaluated for demographics, blood and 24 h urine for calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid, electrolytes and additional protein, citrate, ammonia and oxalate in urine. All reported values were two sided and statistical significance was considered at p value ≤0...
October 15, 2016: Urolithiasis
Orli Megged
AIM: Bacteremia is an uncommon complication of urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bacteremic UTI in pediatric patients. METHODS: The medical records of all pediatric patients with UTI between 2013 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Pediatric patients with accompanying bacteremia were compared with pediatric patients with no bacteremia. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-seven cases of UTI were identified...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Renata Yakubov, Machiel van den Akker, Kaba Machamad, Amit Hochberg, Erez Nadir, Adi Klein
BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children relies on surveillance data about epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of children with febrile UTI, seen at the pediatric department of a large regional hospital (Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel) between January 2007 and December 2014. RESULTS: In this study period, 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Linda C Lee, Armando J Lorenzo, Martin A Koyle
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common bacterial cause of febrile illness in children. Of children presenting with a febrile UTI, 25-40% are found to have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Historically, the concern regarding VUR was that it could lead to recurrent pyelonephritis, renal scarring, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. As a result, many children underwent invasive surgical procedures to correct VUR. We now know that many cases of VUR are low-grade and have a high rate of spontaneous resolution...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Pearl W Chang, Jennifer M Abidari, Mark W Shen, Tara L Greenhow, Michael Bendel-Stenzel, Heidi K Roman, Eric A Biondi, Alan R Schroeder
OBJECTIVES: To describe renal ultrasound (RUS) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) findings and determine predictors of abnormal imaging in young infants with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: We used retrospective data from a multicenter sample of infants younger than 3 months with bacteremic UTI, defined as the same pathogenic organism in blood and urine. Infants were excluded if they had any major comorbidities, known urologic abnormalities at time of presentation, required intensive unit care, or had no imaging performed...
October 5, 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Brian J Morris, Jeffrey D Klausner, John N Krieger, Bradley J Willcox, Pierre D Crouse, Neil Pollock
INTRODUCTION: The Canadian Pediatrics Society (CPS) recently released a position statement on early infant (newborn) male circumcision (EIMC). It concluded that since benefits do not exceed risks, circumcision should only be performed on boys in high-risk populations or circumstances. This contradicts recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) whose policies each support more widespread implementation of EIMC. Here we review the CPS statement, particularly its risk-benefit analysis, to determine the basis for this disparity...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Urology
Ersan Arda, Basri Cakiroglu, David T Thomas
CONTEXT: Nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children. It has significant psychological effects on both the child and the family. Enuresis nocturna is defined as the inability to hold urine during the night in children who have completed toilet training. It is termed as being "primary" if no continence has ever been achieved or "secondary if it follows at least 6 months of dry nights. The aim of this review was to assemble the pathophysiological background and general information about nocturnal enuresis...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. METHODS: This was a prospective institutional review board-approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number)...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
Laura N Medford-Davis, Rohan Shah, Danielle Kennedy, Emilie Becker
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine characteristics associated with potentially preventable pediatric admissions as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. METHODS: The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File, an administrative database of hospital admissions, identified 747 040 pediatric admissions ages 0 to 17 years to acute care facilities between 2005 and 2008. Potentially preventable admissions included 5 diagnoses: asthma, perforated appendicitis, diabetes, gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infection...
October 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Erkin Serdaroglu, Mahfuz Aydogan, Kadriye Ozdemir, Mustafa Bak
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis (UL) is a common problem in pediatric nephrology practice. About 9-23% of all pediatric UL cases consist of patients under 1 years old. The aim of the present study was to determine etiologic causes, clinical features and short term prognosis of urolithiasis in the first two years of life. METHODS: Two-hundred children between 0-2 years of age (mean age 10.3±6.1 months) with urolithiasis were included to the study. All children were completely evaluated for urolithiasis etiology...
September 13, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Brian J Morris, John N Krieger, Jeffrey D Klausner
We evaluate recent claims opposing infant male circumcision, a procedure now supported by the evidence-based policy of the American Academy of Pediatrics. We find those criticisms depend on speculative claims about the foreskin and obfuscation of the strong scientific evidence supporting pediatric policy development. An argument that circumcision should be delayed to allow a boy to make up his own mind as an adult fails to appreciate the psychological, scheduling and financial burdens later circumcision entails, so reducing the likelihood that it will occur...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Monika Miklaszewska, Przemysław Korohoda, Katarzyna Zachwieja, Michał Wolnicki, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Dorota Drożdż, Jacek A Pietrzyk
Myelomeningocele (MMC) results from a failure of normal neural tube fusion in early fetal development. Retrospective, observational study of medical data of 54 children treated in Pediatric Nephrology and Urology Clinics for five years was performed. The following data were analyzed: serum creatinine, eGFR, urine analysis, renal scintigraphy (RS), renal ultrasound, and urodynamics. Mean age of studied population: 12.3 years, median of eGFR at the beginning and at the end of survey was 110.25 and 116.5 mL/min/1...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Johanna M Vanegas, O Lorena Parra, J Natalia Jiménez
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacilli are a cause of serious infections in the pediatric population. Carbapenem are the treatment of choice for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, but the emergence of carbapenem resistance has substantially reduced access to effective antimicrobial regimens. Children are a population vulnerable to bacterial infections and the emergence of resistance can worsen prognosis. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in pediatric patients from five tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gina Weddle, Jennifer Goldman, Angela Myers, Jason Newland
BACKGROUND: Up to 21% of pediatric visits result in an antibiotic prescription, and a large portion of these are unnecessary. OBJECTIVE: To determine if educational sessions would reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. METHODS: Intervention study evaluating antibiotic prescribing following educational sessions for urinary tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, pharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, acute otitis media, and acute bacterial sinusitis...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Sherif Azab, Mostafa Zakaria, Mona Raafat, Hadeel Seief
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of renal ultrasound (RUS) and urinary IL-6 in the differentiation between acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study was carried out at the Pediatric and urology outpatient and inpatient departments of Cairo University Children's Hospital as well as October 6 University Hospital and it included 155 children between one month and fourteen years old with positive culture UTI...
July 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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