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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637323/evolution-of-transcription-activator-like-effectors-in-xanthomonas-oryzae
#1
Annett Erkes, Maik Reschke, Jens Boch, Jan Grau
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are secreted by plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria into plant cells where they act as transcriptional activators and, hence, are major drivers in reprogramming the plant for the benefit of the pathogen. TALEs possess a highly repetitive DNA-binding domain of typically 34 amino acid tandem repeats, where amino acid 12 and 13, termed repeat variable di-residue (RVD), determine target specificity. Different Xanthomonas strains possess different repertoires of TALEs...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633446/genetic-indicators-of-drug-resistance-in-the-highly-repetitive-genome-of-trichomonas-vaginalis
#2
Martina Bradic, Sally D Warring, Grace E Tooley, Paul Scheid, William E Secor, Kirkwood M Land, Po-Jung Huang, Ting-Wen Chen, Chi-Ching Lee, Petrus Tang, Steven A Sullivan, Jane M Carlton
Trichomonas vaginalis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted parasite, causes ∼283 million trichomoniasis infections annually and is associated with pregnancy complications and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The antimicrobial drug metronidazole is used for treatment, but in a fraction of clinical cases, the parasites can become resistant to this drug. We undertook sequencing of multiple clinical isolates and lab derived lines to identify genetic markers and mechanisms of metronidazole resistance...
June 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629366/molecular-characterization-of-clinical-imp-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital
#3
Kaisheng Lai, Yanning Ma, Ling Guo, Jingna An, Liyan Ye, Jiyong Yang
BACKGROUND: IMP-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (IMPKpn) exhibits sporadic prevalence in China. The mechanisms related to the spread of IMPKpn remain unclear. METHODS: Carbapenem non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from our hospital. The genetic relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as sequence types (ST) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), VITEK 2 AST test Kit, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), respectively...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627432/high-diversity-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-central-asian-strain-isolates-in-nepal
#4
Yogendra Shah, Bhagwan Maharjan, Jeewan Thapa, Ajay Poudel, Hassan Mahmoud Diab, Basu Dev Pandey, Eddie Solo, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Chie Nakajima
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) poses a major public health problem in Nepal. Although it has been reported as one of the dominant genotypes of MTB in Nepal, little information on the Central Asian Strain (CAS) family is available, especially isolates related to multidrug resistance (MDR) cases. Here, we aimed to elucidate the genetic and epidemiological characteristics of MDR CAS isolates in Nepal. METHODS: A total of 145 MDR CAS isolates collected in Nepal from 2008 to 2013 were characterized by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis and drug resistance-associating gene sequencing...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625721/kiloniella-majae-sp-nov-isolated-from-spider-crab-maja-brachydactyla-and-pullet-carpet-shell-clam-venerupis-pullastra
#5
Diego Gerpe, Noemí Buján, Ana L Diéguez, Aide Lasa, Jesús L Romalde
Ten Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strains were isolated from spider crab (M27.10, M27.11a, F36.1, F36.4, M56.1, F76.17b, M146.1, M166.3 and M166.6) and pullet carpet shell clam (SBRF 1.10) collected in the coast of Galicia. Analyses of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the strains belong to the genus Kiloniella and have high similarity with the species Kiloniella spongiae (99.44-99.86%) and Kiloniella litopenaei (99.0-99.5%). Strains M56.1(T) (=CECT 9195, =LMG 29925), M146.1 (=CECT 9193, =LMG 29926) and SBRF 1...
June 10, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624316/reversal-learning-in-c58-mice-modeling-higher-order-repetitive-behavior
#6
Cristina M Whitehouse, Lisa S Curry-Pochy, Robin Shafer, Joseph Rudy, Mark H Lewis
Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610789/comparative-study-of-genotypes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-a-northern-indian-setting-with-strains-reported-from-other-parts-of-india-and-neighboring-countries
#7
Pragya Sharma, Kiran Katoch, Shilpi Chandra, Devendra Singh Chauhan, Vishnu Dutt Sharma, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi, Vishwa Mohan Katoch
This study was carried out to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Ghatampur, Kanpur, North India, by spoligotyping and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing. A total of 335 isolates were genotyped by spoligotyping and Central Asian (CAS) sub-lineage was the most prevalent, comprising 59.1% of all isolates. Other lineages were: East-African Indian (EAI) (19.10%), T (5.07%), Beijing (3.28%), Manu (2.98%), X (2.68%), S (0.89%), H3 (0...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610787/spolsimilaritysearch-a-web-tool-to-compare-and-search-similarities-between-spoligotypes-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#8
David Couvin, Thierry Zozio, Nalin Rastogi
Spoligotyping is one of the most commonly used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for identification and study of genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Despite its known limitations if used alone, the methodology is particularly useful when used in combination with other methods such as mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable number of tandem DNA repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). At a worldwide scale, spoligotyping has allowed identification of information on 103,856 MTBC isolates (corresponding to 98049 clustered strains plus 5807 unique isolates from 169 countries of patient origin) contained within the SITVIT2 proprietary database of the Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609458/dendritic-overgrowth-and-elevated-erk-signaling-during-neonatal-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism
#9
Ning Cheng, Fawaz Alshammari, Elizabeth Hughes, Maryam Khanbabaei, Jong M Rho
Autism spectrum disorder (hereafter referred to as "ASD") is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and interactions, and restricted, repetitive activities or interests. Alterations in network connectivity and memory function are frequently observed in autism patients, often involving the hippocampus. However, specific changes during early brain development leading to disrupted functioning remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the development of dendritic arbor of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608428/fusion-of-plectasin-derivative-nz2114-with-hydrophilic-random-coil-polypeptide-recombinant-production-in-pichia-pastoris-and-antimicrobial-activity-against-clinical-strain-mrsa
#10
L A Lima, R de Vries, L S Biswaro, I M Vasconcelos, O L Franco, S C Dias
One of the roadblocks towards the practical use of antimicrobial peptides for medical use is their relatively high cost when synthesized chemically. Effective recombinant production has only been successful in some cases, such as the previously reported production in Pichia pastoris of the antimicrobial plectasin derivative peptide NZ2114. The same production host has also been used extensively to produce so-called protein-polymers: sequences that consist of repetitions of simple amino acid motifs found in structural proteins such as collagen and elastin, and that can be designed to self-assemble in micelles, fibers and hydrogels...
June 12, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598078/-the-transmission-of-kpc-2-gene-in-klebsiella-species
#11
Li-Juan Wu, Ting-Ting Wang, Qing-Yan He, Dan Zhao, Si-Shi Tang, Mei Kang, Chao He, Yi Xie
OBJECTIVES: To explore the mechanisms of imipenem resistance inKlebsiella spp. and the transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-2(KPC-2) gene in Klebsiella species. METHODS: The imipenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in 2009/2010 and 2012/2013. Their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution method. CARB ChromID plate and improved Hodge test were undertaken to detect carbapenemases resistant phenotype...
September 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594634/dissemination-of-blaoxa-23-blaoxa-24-blaoxa-58-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-four-tertiary-hospitals-in-thailand
#12
Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Suchada Wongprachan, Pollawat Thongsuk, Thawatchai Kitti, Kwanjai Ketwong, Chakkaphan Runcharoen, Narisara Chantratita, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major threat to public health due to the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii isolates collected from four tertiary hospitals in Thailand during the period November 2013-February 2015. We screened 339 A. baumannii, nonrepetitive clinical isolates to determine drug susceptibility. Among all isolates, we found that 7.9% was nondrug-resistant A. baumannii (NR-AB)...
June 8, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573973/knee-flexion-with-quadriceps-cocontraction-a-new-therapeutic-exercise-for-the-early-stage-of-acl-rehabilitation
#13
Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori, Daniele Busti, Fabio M Botti, Vito E Pettorossi
Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571695/influenza-viruses-production-evaluation-of-a-novel-avian-cell-line-duckcelt%C3%A2-t17
#14
Emma Petiot, Anaïs Proust, Aurélien Traversier, Laurent Durous, Frédéric Dappozze, Marianne Gras, Chantal Guillard, Jean-Marc Balloul, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava
The influenza vaccine manufacturing industry is looking for production cell lines that are easily scalable, highly permissive to multiple viruses, and more effective in term of viral productivity. One critical characteristic of such cell lines is their ability to grow in suspension, in serum free conditions and at high cell densities. Influenza virus causing severe epidemics both in human and animals is an important threat to world healthcare. The repetitive apparition of influenza pandemic outbreaks in the last 20years explains that manufacturing sector is still looking for more effective production processes to replace/supplement embryonated egg-based process...
May 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560472/prevalence-clonality-and-pathogenicity-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-in-newborn-feces
#15
S Fill Malfertheiner, S Wendt, F Layer, M Weigl, B Seelbach-Göbel, W König, B König
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most prevalent pathogens causing late-onset sepsis in neonates. The question is whether neonates acquire endemic hospital-adapted clones or incidentally occurring CoNS strains after birth during their hospital stay. Therefore, a prospective study was performed on the prevalence of CoNS in the stool of babies (born vaginally or by cesarean section) during their first days of life. Their clonal relatedness and potential to induce invasive disease were characterized...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553414/esbl-production-among-e-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-causing-urinary-tract-infection-a-hospital-based-study
#16
Pooja Shakya, Dhiraj Shrestha, Elina Maharjan, Vijay K Sharma, Rabin Paudyal
INTRODUCTION: Increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing microbes in recent years has led to limitations of treatment options. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. at a tertiary hospital in Nepal. METHODS: A total of 2209 non-repetitive mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected during the study period (March to September 2014). Identification of the isolates was done by Gram's staining followed by biochemical tests...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552568/miniaturized-and-automated-adaptive-laboratory-evolution-evolving-corynebacterium-glutamicum-towards-an-improved-d-xylose-utilization
#17
Andreas Radek, Niklas Tenhaef, Moritz Fabian Müller, Christian Brüsseler, Wolfgang Wiechert, Jan Marienhagen, Tino Polen, Stephan Noack
Adaptive Laboratory Evolution (ALE) is increasingly being used as a technique for untargeted strain optimization. This work aimed at developing an automated and miniaturized ALE approach based on repetitive batch cultivations in microtiter plates. The new method is applied to the recently published strain Corynebacterium glutamicum pEKEx3-xylXABCDCc, which is capable of utilizing d-xylose via the Weimberg (WMB) pathway. As a result, the significantly improved strain WMB2evo was obtained, showing a specific growth rate of 0...
May 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538846/-clinical-and-microbiological-study-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-internal-medicine-services-of-a-venezuelan-university-hospital
#18
Pedro Quijada-Martínez, Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, María Araque
Objectives: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine services of the Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (HULA), Mérida, Venezuela and to establish the clonal distribution of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce this infection. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three adult patients with bladder catheterization were studied between January and July 2015...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527285/-genetic-diversity-of-extraintestinal-escherichia-coli-strains-producers-of-beta-lactamases-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-associated-with-healthcare
#19
Yasmin Varela, Beatriz Millán, María Araque
INTRODUCTION: There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. OBJECTIVE: To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514267/systolic-and-diastolic-lv-mechanics-during-and-following-resistance-exercise
#20
Eric J Stöhr, Mike Stembridge, Rob Shave, T Jake Samuel, Keeron Stone, Joseph I Esformes
PURPOSE: To improve the current understanding of the impact of resistance exercise on the heart, by examining the acute responses of left ventricular (LV) strain, twist and untwisting rate ('LV mechanics'). METHODS: LV echocardiographic images were recorded in systole and diastole before, during and immediately after (7-12 s) double leg press exercise at two intensities (30% and 60% of maximum strength, 1-repetition-maximum, 1RM). Speckle tracking analysis generated LV strain, twist and untwisting rate data...
May 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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