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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770278/-2tm-proteins-an-antigenically-diverse-superfamily-with-variable-functions-and-export-pathways
#1
Jasweer Kaur, Rachna Hora
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum . The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768590/-construction-and-deconstruction-of-masculine-identities-among-metalworkers-with-rsi-wrmd
#2
Jorge Henrique Santos Saldanha, Mônica Angelim Gomes de Lima, Robson da Fonseca Neves, Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart
This study aimed to reveal how metalworkers experience prolonged incapacity for work due to repetitive strain injury/work-related musculoskeletal disorder (RSI/WRMD) and the impact of chronic illness on the construction/deconstruction of masculinity. A qualitative study was performed, based on narrative interviews with male metalworkers in an automotive factory in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The results showed how the conflict in the experience of illness, the maintenance of male identity, and expectations of meeting the rules dictated by hegemonic masculinity are experienced and signified in daily life...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768136/the-genome-biology-of-effector-gene-evolution-in-filamentous-plant-pathogens
#3
Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Simone Fouché, Isabelle Fudal, Fanny E Hartmann, Jessica L Soyer, Aurélien Tellier, Daniel Croll
Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764950/cagy-dependent-regulation-of-type-iv-secretion-in-helicobacter-pylori-is-associated-with-alterations-in-integrin-binding
#4
Emma C Skoog, Vasilios A Morikis, Miriam E Martin, Greg A Foster, Lucy P Cai, Lori M Hansen, Beibei Li, Jennifer A Gaddy, Scott I Simon, Jay V Solnick
Strains of Helicobacter pylori that cause ulcer or gastric cancer typically express a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island ( cag PAI). CagY is an ortholog of VirB10 that, unlike other VirB10 orthologs, has a large middle repeat region (MRR) with extensive repetitive sequence motifs, which undergo CD4+ T cell-dependent recombination during infection of mice. Recombination in the CagY MRR reduces T4SS function, diminishes the host inflammatory response, and enables the bacteria to colonize at a higher density...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762521/structure-of-the-exopolysaccharide-secreted-by-a-marine-strain-vibrio-alginolyticus
#5
Sophie Drouillard, Isabelle Jeacomine, Laurine Buon, Claire Boisset, Anthony Courtois, Bertrand Thollas, Pierre-Yves Morvan, Romuald Vallée, William Helbert
Vibrio alginolyticus (CNCM I-4151) secretes an exopolysaccharide whose carbohydrate backbone is decorated with amino acids, likely conferring its properties that are appreciated in cosmetics. Here, the secreted polysaccharide of another strain of V. alginolyticus (CNCM I-5034) was characterized by chromatography and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments. The structure was resolved and shows that the carbohydrate backbone is made of four residues: D-galactose (Gal), D-galacturonic acid (GalA) D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), forming a tetrasaccharide repetition unit [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→3)-α-d-Gal-(1→3)-α-d-GalA-(1→3)-β-GlcNAc(1→]...
May 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757448/quantitative-prevalence-and-characterization-of-campylobacter-from-chicken-and-duck-carcasses-from-poultry-slaughterhouses-in-south-korea
#6
Jung-Whan Chon, Soo-Kyung Lee, Yohan Yoon, Ki-Sun Yoon, Hyo-Sun Kwak, In-Sun Joo, Kun-Ho Seo
The objective of this study was to assess the quantitative prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and molecular subtyping pattern of Campylobacter isolates from chicken and duck products from poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea. A total of 240 chicken (n = 120) and duck (n = 120) carcass samples collected from 12 poultry slaughterhouses between June 2014 and February 2015 in 12 South Korean cities was tested, and 131 samples were positive for Campylobacter. Duck samples showed a higher prevalence (P < 0.05; 93 out of 120) compared to chicken samples (38 out of 120), whereas Campylobacter cell populations from positives were lower (P < 0...
May 10, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733766/hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-stranded-and-wild-caught-marine-mammals-of-the-us-pacific-coast-prevalence-phenotype-and-genotype
#7
Dane M Whitaker, Stephen R Reichley, Matt J Griffin, Katherine Prager, Christine A Richey, Kirsten V Kenelty, Brittany N Stevens, James O Lloyd-Smith, Christine K Johnson, Padraig Duignan, Shawn Johnson, Carlos Rios, Robert DeLong, Barbie Halaska, Lauren Rust, Barbara A Byrne, Carsten Struve, Samantha Barnum, Esteban Soto
Emergent hypermucoviscous (HMV) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been reported in multiple marine mammal species; however, there is limited information regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this infection in these species. We determined the prevalence of HMV K. pneumoniae in wild-caught and stranded marine mammal populations on the US Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from 270 free-ranging California sea lions (CSLs, Zalophus californianus) captured at three discrete sampling sites and from 336 stranded marine mammals of various species...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731740/evidence-for-environmental-dissemination-of-antibiotic-resistance-mediated-by-wild-birds
#8
Jiao Wu, Ye Huang, Dawei Rao, Yongkui Zhang, Kun Yang
The aquatic bird, egret, could carry antibiotic resistance (AR) from a contaminated waterway (Jin River, Chengdu, China) into the surrounding environment (Wangjianglou Park). A systematic study was carried out on the unique environmental dissemination mode of AR mediated by birds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of various antibiotics against the environmental Escherichia coli isolates were used to evaluate the bacterial AR at the environmental locations where these isolates were recovered, i.e., the Jin River water, the egret feces, the park soil, and the campus soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728072/the-xylella-fastidosa-rtx-operons-evidence-for-the-evolution-of-protein-mosaics-through-novel-genetic-exchanges
#9
Gregory A Gambetta, Mark A Matthews, Michael Syvanen
BACKGROUND: Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a gram negative bacterium inhabiting the plant vascular system. In most species this bacterium lives as a benign symbiote, but in several agriculturally important plants (e.g. coffee, citrus, grapevine) Xf is pathogenic. Xf has four loci encoding homologues to hemolysin RTX proteins, virulence factors involved in a wide range of plant pathogen interactions. RESULTS: We show that all four genes are expressed during pathogenesis in grapevine...
May 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715992/wavelength-scanning-coherent-otdr-for-dynamic-high-strain-resolution-sensing
#10
Sascha Liehr, Sven Münzenberger, Katerina Krebber
Distributed vibration sensing in optical fibers opened entirely new opportunities and penetrated various sectors from security to seismic monitoring. Here, we demonstrate a most simple and robust approach for dynamic strain measurement using wavelength-scanning coherent optical time domain reflectometry (C-OTDR). Our method is based on laser current modulation and Rayleigh backscatter shift correlation. As opposed to common single-wavelength phase demodulation techniques, also the algebraic sign of the strain change is retrieved...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709574/detection-of-bla-oxa-48-and-clonal-relationship-in-carbapenem-resistant-k-pneumoniae-isolates-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-western-turkey
#11
Gulfem Ece, Emine Tunc, Baris Otlu, Deniz Aslan, Cem Ece
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen that can lead to high morbidity and mortality. ESBL and carbapenamase producing strains may cause epidemic situations. The aim of our study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and clonal relationship between carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae strains isolated from our hospital during a three month period. METHODS: Fourteen carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae strains isolated during April 1st-June 30th 2013 were included...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708524/subject-specific-musculoskeletal-model-for-studying-bone-strain-during-dynamic-motion
#12
Henry Wang, Scott Dueball
Bone stress injuries are common in sports and military trainings. Repetitive large ground impact forces during training could be the cause. It is essential to determine the effect of high ground impact forces on lower-body bone deformation to better understand the mechanisms of bone stress injuries. Conventional strain gauge measurement has been used to study in vivo tibia deformation. This method is associated with limitations including invasiveness of the procedure, involvement of few human subjects, and limited strain data from small bone surface areas...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708484/expanding-an-expanded-genome-long-read-sequencing-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#13
Luisa Berná, Matias Rodriguez, María Laura Chiribao, Adriana Parodi-Talice, Sebastián Pita, Gastón Rijo, Fernando Alvarez-Valin, Carlos Robello
Although the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, was first made available in 2005, with additional strains reported later, the intrinsic genome complexity of this parasite (the abundance of repetitive sequences and genes organized in tandem) has traditionally hindered high-quality genome assembly and annotation. This also limits diverse types of analyses that require high degrees of precision. Long reads generated by third-generation sequencing technologies are particularly suitable to address the challenges associated with T...
April 30, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703884/the-ustilago-maydis-repetitive-effector-rsp3-blocks-the-antifungal-activity-of-mannose-binding-maize-proteins
#14
Lay-Sun Ma, Lei Wang, Christine Trippel, Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza, Steffen Ullmann, Marino Moretti, Alexander Carsten, Jörg Kahnt, Stefanie Reissmann, Bernd Zechmann, Gert Bange, Regine Kahmann
To cause disease in maize, the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis secretes a large arsenal of effector proteins. Here, we functionally characterize the repetitive effector Rsp3 (repetitive secreted protein 3), which shows length polymorphisms in field isolates and is highly expressed during biotrophic stages. Rsp3 is required for virulence and anthocyanin accumulation. During biotrophic growth, Rsp3 decorates the hyphal surface and interacts with at least two secreted maize DUF26-domain family proteins (designated AFP1 and AFP2)...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691012/different-strategies-for-cyclodextrin-production-ultrafiltration-systems-cgtase-immobilization-and-use-of-a-complexing-agent
#15
Vanderson Carvalho Fenelon, Juliana Harumi Miyoshi, Camila Sampaio Mangolim, Aline Satomi Noce, Luciana Numata Koga, Graciette Matioli
The study comparatively evaluated diverse strategic models of cyclodextrin (CD) production by the CGTase of Bacillus firmus strain 37: continuous production and repetitive batches in ultrafiltration systems; immobilization of CGTase on curdlan and vegetable sponge natural supports; the use of the glycyrrhizin complexing agent to modulate CGTase selectivity in favor of γ-CD production. All strategies had in common the possibility of separation of CGTase from its inhibitory products and its reuse. In the continuous production model, at 48 h of assay, the highest productivity and selectivity for β-CD were obtained, 1...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690684/-the-composition-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-isolates-from-lower-respiratory-tract-and-blood-in-hospitalized-patients-in-respiratory-ward-a-multicenter-national-study-in-china
#16
X Tang, C Zhuo, Y C Xu, N S Zhong
Objective: To investigate the species and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients in respiratory ward in China. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study based on a national epidemiological network called China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS). The non-repetitive strains isolated from lower respiratory tract and blood samples in 91 hospitals from seven geographic regions of CARSS were reviewed. The distribution of specimen type, hospital level (secondary and tertiary hospital), patient age group [geriatric (>65 years old), adult (15 to 65 years old), pediatric (28 days to 14 years old ) and newborn group (≤28 days)] and ward type (respiratory intensive care unit and general respiratory ward) were analyzed for MRSA, PRSP, CREC, CRKP, CRPA, CRAB, ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688104/two-novel-forms-of-erg-oscillation-in-drosophila-age-and-activity-dependence
#17
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685855/molecular-epidemiologic-study-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-university-hospitals-results-of-a-nationwide-study-in-japan
#18
Issei Tokimatsu, Katsumi Shigemura, Kayo Osawa, Shinya Kinugawa, Koichi Kitagawa, Noriko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
We conducted a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan investigated the correlation between the presence of binary toxin genes and CDI severity. This is the first report on molecular epidemiological analyses for CDI in multiple university hospitals in Japan, to our knowledge. We examined 124,484 hospitalized patients in 25 national and public university hospitals in Japan between December 2013 and March 2014, investigating antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin-related genes for C...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683776/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-human-bloodstream-infections-showed-multidrug-resistance-profile
#19
Silvia H S P Pedroso, Savio H C Sandes, Robledo A T Filho, Alvaro C Nunes, Jose C Serufo, Luiz M Farias, Maria A R Carvalho, Maria R Q Bomfim, Simone G Santos
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important pathogens causing nosocomial infections worldwide with increasing resistance to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to characterize resistance aspects of CNS isolated from patients with bloodstream infections acquired in hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Staphylococcus strains were characterized using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) fingerprinting with (GTG)5 primer. Phenotypic resistance was analyzed using AST-P5085 card (bioMérieuxVitek® )...
April 23, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673984/bioinformatics-analysis-and-epitope-screening-of-a-potential-vaccine-antigen-tolb-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-outer-membrane-protein
#20
Xiaojie Song, Hua Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Weifeng Xie, Guanghui Zhao
The clinical isolation rate of multidrug-resistant or pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is increasing, resulting that optional antibiotics are very limited in clinical practice. To deal with such a dilemma in treatment, the development of effective vaccines serves as a good strategy. Outer membrane proteins (Omp) often contain potential excellent vaccine antigens, and NCBI has published >300 Omp sequences of A. baumannii (including the duplicates). To accurately screen out the potential excellent antigen molecules from a large number of sequences, and avoid repetitive experimental processes is of great significance...
April 16, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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