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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141022/trabecular-bone-in-the-calcaneus-of-runners
#1
Andrew Best, Brigitte Holt, Karen Troy, Joseph Hamill
Trabecular bone of the human calcaneus is subjected to extreme repetitive forces during endurance running and should adapt in response to this strain. To assess possible bone functional adaptation in the posterior region of the calcaneus, we recruited forefoot-striking runners (n = 6), rearfoot-striking runners (n = 6), and non-runners (n = 6), all males aged 20-41 for this institutionally approved study. Foot strike pattern was confirmed for each runner using a motion capture system. We obtained high resolution peripheral computed tomography scans of the posterior calcaneus for both runners and non-runners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131813/mechanical-fatigue-resistance-of-an-implantable-branched-lead-system-for-a-distributed-set-of-longitudinal-intrafascicular-electrodes
#2
A E Pena, S S Kuntaegowdanahalli, J J Abbas, J Patrick, K W Horch, R Jung
OBJECTIVE: A neural interface system has been developed that consists of an implantable stimulator/recorder can with a 15-electrode lead that trifurcates into three bundles of five individual wire longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes. This work evaluated the mechanical fatigue resistance of the branched lead and distributed electrode system under conditions designed to mimic anticipated strain profiles that would be observed after implantation in the human upper arm. APPROACH: Custom test setups and procedures were developed to apply linear or angular strain at four critical stress riser points on the lead and electrode system...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122717/synthesis-and-characterization-of-methyl-pyrazolone-functionalized-magnetic-chitosan-composite-for-visible-light-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue
#3
N A Abdelwahab, E M H Morsy
TiO2/Fe3O4, TiO2/Fe3O4/chitosan and Methylpyrazolone functionalized TiO2/Fe3O4/chitosan (MPyTMChi) were successfully prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared materials was confirmed by FT-IR spectra, XRD, SEM and TEM. BET surface area increased from 2.4 to 3.1m(2)/g, Eg decreased from 2.58 to 2.25eV and more quenching of PL emission spectra was observed upon functionalization of TMChi by MPy. Moreover, high Ti and oxygen percentages were detected by EDX. Magnetization value (Ms) reached 21 emu.g(-1) for MPyTMChi...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118255/the-effect-of-stainless-steel-and-silicone-instruments-on-hand-comfort-and-strength-a-pilot-study
#4
Melanie J Hayes
Purpose: Many dental hygienists experience musculoskeletal pain during the course of their careers, often as a result of the sustained grips on instruments and repetitive movements employed during clinical practice. Current research suggests that lighter instruments with a larger diameter reduce force and load on the hand during scaling procedures; therefore, the texture and weight of silicone handles is designed to decrease the strain placed on the hand and fingers. The purpose of this research is to investigate and compare the effect of silicone instrument handles and traditional stainless steel instrument handles on hand comfort and strength...
April 2017: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#5
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114024/mechanisms-of-surface-antigenic-variation-in-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#6
Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Sophie Richard, Amanda Luraschi, Konrad Mühlethaler, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. We investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen that in immunocompromised individuals causes pneumonia, a major life-threatening infection. Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a core of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112052/training-load-indices-perceived-tolerance-and-enjoyment-among-different-models-of-resistance-training-in-older-adults
#7
Jenny A Conlon, G Gregory Haff, James J Tufano, Robert U Newton
Conlon, JA, Haff, GG, Tufano, JJ, and Newton, RU. Training load indices, perceived tolerance, and enjoyment among different models of resistance training in older adults. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between volume load (VL), training monotony, and strain, and perceived tolerance and enjoyment, across periodized and nonperiodized (NP) resistance training (RT) in older adults. Forty-one healthy, untrained apparently healthy older adults (woman = 21, man = 20; 70...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106587/tracking-and-responding-to-an-outbreak-of-tuberculosis-using-miru-vntr-genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-as-epidemiological-tools
#8
Anne T Black, Esther L Hamblion, Helen Buttivant, Sarah R Anderson, Madeline Stone, Nicola Casali, Francis Drobniewski, Francisca Nwoguh, Ben G Marshall, Linda Booth
Background: We describe an outbreak that contributed to a near doubling of the incidence of tuberculosis in Southampton, UK. We examine the importance of 24 locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping in its identification and management and the role of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in tracing the spread of the strain. Methods: Outbreak cases were defined as those diagnosed between January and December 2011 with indistinguishable 24 locus-MIRU-VNTR genotypes or, cases linked epidemiologically...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103679/testing-cathelicidin-susceptibility-of-bacterial-mastitis-isolates-technical-challenges-and-data-output-for-clinical-isolates
#9
Melissa N Langer, Stefanie Blodkamp, Martin Bayerbach, Andrea T Feßler, Nicole de Buhr, Thomas Gutsmann, Lothar Kreienbrock, Stefan Schwarz, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
Bovine mastitis caused by bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli, is a major economic problem in dairy industry. In order to limit the presence of multi-resistant bacteria in bovine mastitis, alternatives for the treatment with antibiotics are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently been discussed as a potential new strategy against bacterial infections. They are key players in the innate immune system, as they can directly act against microorganisms or modulate the immune system...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102107/the-characterization-of-brucella-strains-isolated-from-cattle-in-algeria-reveals-the-existence-of-a-b-abortus-lineage-distinct-from-european-and-sub-saharan-africa-strains
#10
Mammar Khames, Virginie Mick, M Jesús de Miguel, Guillaume Girault, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Djamel Khelef, Mustapha Oumouna, Ignacio Moriyón, Pilar M Muñoz, Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella that causes important economic losses and human suffering worldwide. Brucellosis control requires an understanding of the Brucella species circulating in livestock and humans and, although prevalent in African countries of the Mediterranean basin, data for this area are mostly restricted to isolates obtained from humans and small ruminants. Here, we report the characterization of twenty-four Brucella strains isolated from Algerian cattle. Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR and conventional biotyping showed that Algerian cattle are infected mostly by B...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092052/long-lasting-successful-dissemination-of-resistance-to-oxazolidinones-in-mdr-staphylococcus-epidermidis-clinical-isolates-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-france
#11
Laurent Dortet, Philippe Glaser, Najiby Kassis-Chikhani, Delphine Girlich, Philippe Ichai, Marc Boudon, Didier Samuel, Elodie Creton, Dilek Imanci, Rémy Bonnin, Nicolas Fortineau, Thierry Naas
Objectives: Patient- and procedure-related changes in modern medicine have turned CoNS into one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Treatments of CoNS infections are challenging owing to the large proportion of MDR strains and oxazolidinones often remain the last active antimicrobial molecules. Here, we have investigated a long-lasting outbreak (2010-13) due to methicillin- and linezolid-resistant (LR) CoNS (n = 168), involving 72 carriers and 49 infected patients. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by the disc diffusion method and MICs were determined by broth microdilution or Etest...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081589/identification-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-dairy-goats-and-dairy-sheep-in-ontario-canada
#12
Cathy A Bauman, Andria Jones-Bitton, Christina Ahlstrom, Lucy Mutharia, Jeroen De Buck, Jocelyn Jansen, David Kelton, Paula Menzies
The main objective of this study was to identify the circulating strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in fecal isolates obtained from dairy goat (N = 29 farms) and dairy sheep (N = 21 farms) populations in Ontario, Canada. Further subtyping was performed to determine if there was adequate diversity between strains that could be used to establish Map transmission patterns. Type C was the dominant strain of Map isolates (95.2%) identified in dairy goats (n = 21). Sub-typing of the Type C strains, based on variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units, identified 3 VNTR types: INMV 1 (n = 10), INMV 2 (n = 10), and a type not previously identified (n = 1)...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063880/discriminatory-power-of-three-typing-techniques-in-determining-relatedness-of-nosocomial-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-india
#13
Swathi Purighalla, Sarita Esakimuthu, Mallika Reddy, George K Varghese, Vijay S Richard, Vasan K Sambandamurthy
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory power of two DNA-based technique and a protein-based technique for the typing of nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A second objective was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and characterise the presence of genes encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in India between December 2014 and December 2015 were studied...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053711/evaluation-of-spoligotyping-snps-and-customised-miru-vntr-combination-for-genotyping-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-in-madagascar
#14
Rondroarivelo Rasoahanitralisoa, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, David Stucki, Christophe Sola, Sebastien Gagneux, Voahangy Rasolofo Razanamparany
BACKGROUND: Combining different molecular typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can be a powerful tool for molecular epidemiology-based investigation of TB. However, the current standard method that provides high discriminatory power for such a combination, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable numbers of tandem repeats typing (MIRU-VNTR), is laborious, time-consuming and often too costly for many resource-limited laboratories. We aimed to evaluate a reduced set of loci for MIRU-VNTR typing in combination with spoligotyping and SNP-typing for routine molecular epidemiology of TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046413/prediction-of-local-transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-of-a-predominantly-beijing-lineage-using-a-variable-number-tandem-repeat-vntr-typing-method-incorporating-a-consensus-set-of-hypervariable-loci
#15
Yoshiro Murase, Kiyohiko Izumi, Akihiro Ohkado, Akio Aono, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuriko Igarashi, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
Strain genotyping based on the variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) is widely applied for identifying the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis A consensus set of four hypervariable loci (1982, 3232, 3820, and 4120) has been proposed to improve the discrimination of Beijing lineage strains. Herein, we evaluated the utility of these four hypervariable loci for tracing local tuberculosis transmission in 981 cases over a 14-month period in Japan (2010--2011). We used six different VNTR systems, with or without the four hypervariable loci...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038249/anti-pd-1-antibody-treatment-promotes-clearance-of-persistent-cryptococcal-lung-infection-in-mice
#16
Jonathan A Roussey, Steven P Viglianti, Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, Michal A Olszewski, John J Osterholzer
Activation of immunomodulatory pathways in response to invasive fungi can impair clearance and promote persistent infections. The programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) signaling pathway inhibits immune effector responses against tumors, and immune checkpoint inhibitors that block this pathway are being increasingly used as cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this pathway contributes to persistent fungal infection and to determine whether anti-PD-1 Ab treatment improves fungal clearance...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032652/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-genomic-island-1-in-proteus-mirabilis-isolates-from-chungcheong-provinces-korea
#17
Ji Youn Sung, Semi Kim, GyeCheol Kwon, Sun Hoe Koo
Emergence and dissemination of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is strongly associated with occurrence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteria in humans and animals. Diverse SGI1s have been reported among Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis in several countries. We aimed to characterize SGI1 in P. mirabilis isolates from humans and chickens at ChungCheong provinces, Korea. A total of 44 P. mirabilis isolates were recovered from humans (n=20) and chickens (n=24). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026866/a-prospective-observational-study-of-the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-due-to-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#18
Oryan Henig, Eric Cober, Sandra S Richter, Federico Perez, Robert A Salata, Robert C Kalayjian, Richard R Watkins, Steve Marshall, Susan D Rudin, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Andrea M Hujer, Kristine M Hujer, Yohei Doi, Scott Evans, Vance G Fowler, Robert A Bonomo, David van Duin, Keith S Kaye
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to characterize the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and colonization due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). METHODS: Patients from the Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenem in Klebsiella and Other Enterobacteriaceae (CRACKLE-1) from December 24, 2011 to October 1, 2014 with wound cultures positive for CRE were included in the study. Predictors of surgical intervention were analyzed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020109/evaluation-of-repetitive-pcr-and-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-strain-typing-of-bacillus-coagulans
#19
Jun Sato, Motokazu Nakayama, Ayumi Tomita, Takumi Sonoda, Motomitsu Hasumi, Takahisa Miyamoto
In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR) were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017452/whole-genome-sequencing-for-the-molecular-characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-at-the-italian-asst-fatebenefratelli-sacco-hospital-2012-2014
#20
Sara Giordana Rimoldi, Bernardina Gentile, Cristina Pagani, Annamaria Di Gregorio, Anna Anselmo, Anna Maria Palozzi, Antonella Fortunato, Valentina Pittiglio, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Maria Rita Gismondo, Giuliano Rizzardini, Florigio Lista
BACKGROUND: The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is threatening antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: Sixty-eight carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated at Luigi Sacco University Hospital-ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco (Milan, Italy) between 2012 and 2014 were characterised microbiologically and molecularly. They were tested for drug susceptibility and carbapenemase phenotypes, investigated by means of repetitive extra-genic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), and fully sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing for the in silico analysis of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), their resistome, virulome and plasmid content, and their core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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