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Muscle physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346490/composition-architecture-and-functional-implications-of-the-connective-tissue-network-of-the-extraocular-muscles
#1
Linda K McLoon, André Vicente, Krysta R Fitzpatrick, Mona Lindström, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf
Purpose: We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods: Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346164/the-nuclear-receptor-nor-1-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-of-exercise-induced-adaptations
#2
Michael A Pearen, George E O Muscat
Exercise induces various physical and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle that adaptively reprograms this tissue to current physiological and environmental demands. Underlying these changes are broad modifications to gene expression. We postulate that the nuclear hormone receptor, Nor-1, is activated following exercise and this transcription factor modifies gene expression to drive the molecular and cellular adaptations associated with contractile reorganization.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345194/transient-stretch-induces-cytoskeletal-fluidization-through-the-severing-action-of-cofilin
#3
Bo Lan, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Chan Y Park, Rodrigo Watanabe, Ronald Panganiban, James P Butler, Quan Lu, William C Cole, Jeffrey J Fredberg
With every deep inspiration (DI) or sigh the airway wall stretches, as do the airway smooth muscle cells that it contains. In response, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell undergoes rapid stretch-induced cytoskeletal fluidization. As a molecular mechanism underlying that ASM fluidization response, here we demonstrate a key role for the actin-severing protein, cofilin. Using primary human ASM cells, we simulated a DI by imposing a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration. We measured the resulting changes in contractile forces using traction microscopy...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344967/predictive-neuromechanical-simulations-indicate-why-walking-performance-declines-with-aging
#4
Seungmoon Song, Hartmut Geyer
Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing aging population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as aging produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344502/orbital-epstein-barr-virus-positive-polymorphic-b-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-an-apparently-immunocompetent-woman
#5
Michael D Abendroth, Michael G Bayerl, Michael J Wilkinson, David F Claxton, Charles S Specht
We report a rare case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive polymorphic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) involving the lacrimal gland of a 28-year-old, apparently immunocompetent woman. She presented with a chief complaint of orbital swelling and tenderness and was found to have a lesion involving the right lacrimal gland and distal superior and lateral rectus muscles. Histology of the lesion revealed histiocytes with pleomorphic nuclei, reactive lymphocytes, and scattered cells that resembled the Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344304/atherosclerosis-is-exacerbated-by-chitinase-3-like-1-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#6
Yu Yeon Jung, Ki Cheon Kim, Mi Hee Park, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park, Min Hee Park, Jun Chang, Dae Youn Hwang, Sang Bae Han, Sanghyeon Kim, Dong Ju Son, Jin Tae Hong
Although the important role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in vascular diseases associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences are unclear. We aimed to evaluate vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in Swedish mutant of human APP transgenic (APPsw-Tg) and ApoE-/-/APPsw-Tg mice. We also aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying any changes observed in these mice compared with non-Tg controls. Methods: The transgenic and non-Tg mouse strains were subjected to partial ligation of the left carotid artery to induce atherosclerotic changes, which were measured using histological approaches, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and gene expression microarrays...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341829/climatic-modulation-of-neurotransmitter-release-in-amphibian-neuromuscular-junctions-role-of-dynorphin-a
#7
Dengyun Ge, Nickolas Anastasios Lavidis
Amphibian neuromuscular junctions become relatively more silent during the dry-winter season in Australia. Endogenous opioid peptides play an important role in the regulation of the physiological functions of active and dormant vertebrates. Previous findings suggest that dynorphin-A is more potent than other opiates in decreasing evoked neurotransmission in amphibian neuromuscular junctions. Dynorphin-A has been shown not to alter the amplitude or the frequency of spontaneous quantal neurotransmitter release...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340931/vascutrainer-a-mobile-and-disposable-bioreactor-system-for-the-conditioning-of-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts
#8
Frederic Wolf, Diana M Rojas González, Ulrich Steinseifer, Markus Obdenbusch, Werner Herfs, Christian Brecher, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Thomas Schmitz-Rode
In vitro tissue engineering of vascular grafts requires dynamic conditioning in a bioreactor system for in vitro tissue maturation and remodeling to receive a mechanically adequate and hemocompatible implant. The goal of the current work was to develop a bioreactor system for the conditioning of vascular grafts which is (i) able to create a wide range of flow, pressure and frequency conditions, including physiological ones; (ii) compact and easy to assemble; (iii) transportable; (iv) disposable. The system is driven by a small centrifugal pump controlled via a custom-made control unit, which can also be operated on batteries to allow for autonomous transportation...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#9
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339192/tissue-specific-differences-in-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-and-expression
#10
Elena Herbers, Nina J Kekäläinen, Anu Hangas, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
The different cell types of multicellular organisms have specialized physiological requirements, affecting also their mitochondrial energy production and metabolism. The genome of mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and thus plays a central role in many human mitochondrial pathologies. Disorders affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance are typically resulting in a tissue-specific pattern of mtDNA deletions and rearrangements. Despite this role in disease as well as a biomarker of mitochondrial biogenesis, the tissue-specific parameters of mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been virtually unexplored...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339143/gene-silencing-reveals-multiple-functions-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#11
Anna Z Komisarczuk, Heidi Kongshaug, Frank Nilsen
Na+/K+-ATPase has a key function in a variety of physiological processes including membrane excitability, osmoregulation, regulation of cell volume, and transport of nutrients. While knowledge about Na+/K+-ATPase function in osmoregulation in crustaceans is extensive, the role of this enzyme in other physiological and developmental processes is scarce. Here, we report characterization, transcriptional distribution and likely functions of the newly identified L. salmonis Na+/K+-ATPase (LsalNa+/K+-ATPase) α subunit in various developmental stages...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338185/injectable-and-thermo-sensitive-hydrogel-and-pdlla-electrospun-nanofiber-membrane-composites-for-guided-spinal-fusion
#12
Ying Qu, BeiYu Wang, Bingyang Chu, Chenlu Liu, Xin Rong, Hua Chen, JinRong Peng, Zhiyong Qian
Spinal fusion is the classic treatment to achieve spinal stability for the treatment of the spinal disease. Generally, spinal fusion still has to combine a certain of bone matrix for promoting bone formation to achieve the desired fusion effect based on the surgery, including the traditional bone matrix, such as the autologous bone, allografts and xenografts. Nevertheless, some problems still existed such as the immunogenic problems, the secondary wound, and pathogenic transfer and so on. Here the injectable thermosensitive hydrogel could substitute to avoid the problems as a potential biological scaffold for tissue engineering...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335583/the-effect-of-differentiation-and-tgf%C3%AE-on-mitochondrial-respiration-and-mitochondrial-enzyme-abundance-in-cultured-primary-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#13
Christoph Hoffmann, Selina Höckele, Lisa Kappler, Martin Hrabĕ de Angelis, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Cora Weigert
Measuring mitochondrial respiration in cultured cells is a valuable tool to investigate the influence of physiological and disease-related factors on cellular metabolism; however, the details of the experimental workflow greatly influence the informative value of the results. Working with primary cells and cell types capable of differentiation can be particularly challenging. We present a streamlined workflow optimised for investigation of primary human skeletal muscle cells. We applied the workflow to differentiated and undifferentiated cells and we investigated the effect of TGFβ1 treatment...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332268/methylmercury-intoxication-promotes-metallothionein-response-and-cell-damage-in-salivary-glands-of-rats
#14
Leidiane Alencar de Oliveira Lima, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Bruna Puty, Rafael Monteiro Fernandes, Priscila Cunha Nascimento, Marcia Cristina Freitas Silva, Sérgio Melo Alves-Junior, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Environmental and occupational mercury exposure is considered a major public health issue. Despite being well known that MeHg exposure causes adverse effects in several physiologic functions, MeHg effects on salivary glands still not completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the cellular MeHg-induced damage in the three major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) of adult rats after chronic, systemic and low doses of MeHg exposure. Rats were exposed by 0.04 mg/kg/day over 60 days. After that, animals were euthanized and all three glands were collected...
January 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332237/acute-acetaminophen-ingestion-improves-performance-and-muscle-activation-during-maximal-intermittent-knee-extensor-exercise
#15
Paul T Morgan, Joanna L Bowtell, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones, Stephen J Bailey
AIM: Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development. METHODS: Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors with each contraction separated by a 2 s passive recovery period...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331521/increased-transcript-levels-and-kinetic-function-of-pyruvate-kinase-during-severe-dehydration-in-aestivating-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#16
Neal J Dawson, Yulia Biggar, Amal I Malik, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. Aestivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced ATP demands. The present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver and skeletal muscle of X. laevis. Compared to control frogs, severely dehydrated frogs showed an increase in the transcript abundance of both liver and muscle isoforms of PK...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331337/elastin-in-lung-development-and-disease-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Robert P Mecham
Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts. This highly crosslinked protein associates with fibrillin-containing microfibrils to form the elastic fiber, which is the physiological structure that functions in the extracellular matrix...
January 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330959/non-destructive-determination-of-muscle-architectural-variables-through-the-use-of-dicect
#18
Edwin Dickinson, Heiko Stark, Kornelius Kupczik
The fascicular architecture of skeletal muscle dictates functional parameters such as force production and contractile velocity. Muscle microarchitecture is typically determined by means of manual dissection, a technique that is inherently destructive to specimens. Furthermore, fascicle lengths and pennation angles are commonly assessed at only a limited number of sampling sites per muscle. We present the results of a digital technique to non-destructively assess muscle architectural variables for three jaw-adductor muscles within a specimen of the cercopithecine primate Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330955/intrinsic-constraints-on-the-diversification-of-neotropical-cichlid-adductor-mandibulae-size
#19
Jessica Arbour, Hernán López-Fernández
The diversification of functional traits may be constrained by intrinsic factors, such as structural, mechanical, developmental, or physiological limitations. We explored the biomechanical and constructional constraints on the size of the major jaw closing muscles, the adductor mandibulae complex (AM), in a diverse clade of freshwater fish - the Neotropical cichlids. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we contrasted patterns of size variation and diversification rates of three AM divisions with variables describing head size and biomechanical coefficients describing force and velocity transmission...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#20
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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