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Muscle physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775408/lack-of-tone-in-mouse-small-mesenteric-arteries-leads-to-outward-remodeling-which-can-be-prevented-by-prolonged-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction
#1
Anika Klein, Philomeena Daphne Joseph, Vibeke Grøsfjeld Christensen, Lars Jørn Jensen, Jens Christian Brings Jacobsen
Inward remodeling of resistance vessels is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Thus far, the remodeling process remains incompletely elucidated, but the activation level of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) appears to play a central role. Accordingly, previous data suggest that an antagonistic and, supposedly beneficial, response - outward remodeling - may follow prolonged vasodilatation. This study aims to determine if 1) outward remodeling follows 3 days of vessel culture without tone, 2) a similar response can be elicited in a much shorter 4-hour time frame and finally 3) a 4-hour response can be prevented or reversed by the presence of vasoconstrictors in the medium...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#2
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774232/multiple-origins-of-green-blood-in-new-guinea-lizards
#3
Zachary B Rodriguez, Susan L Perkins, Christopher C Austin
Several species of lizards from the megadiverse island of New Guinea have evolved green blood. An unusually high concentration of the green bile pigment biliverdin in the circulatory system of these lizards makes the blood, muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissues bright green in color, eclipsing the crimson color from their red blood cells. This is a remarkable physiological feature because bile pigments are toxic physiological waste products of red blood cell catabolism and, when chronically elevated, cause jaundice in humans and all other vertebrates...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#4
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772956/lumbar-muscle-structure-predicts-operational-postures-in-active-duty-marines
#5
David B Berry, Bahar Shahidi, Ana E Rodríguez-Soto, Jan M Hughes-Austin, Karen R Kelly, Samuel R Ward
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background The relationship between lumbar spine posture and muscle structure is not well understood. Objectives Investigate the predictive capacity of muscle structure on lumbar spine posture in active duty Marines. Methods Fouty-three Marines were scanned using an upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while standing unloaded and standing, sitting, and prone on elbows with body armor. Cobb, horizontal, and sacral angles were measured. Marines were then scanned unloaded in supine using a supine MRI scanner...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772347/location-dependent-correlation-between-tissue-structure-and-the-mechanical-behaviour-of-the-urinary-bladder
#6
Enrique Morales-Orcajo, Tobias Siebert, Markus Böl
The mechanical properties of the urinary bladder wall are important to understand its filling-voiding cycle in health and disease. However, much remains unknown about its mechanical properties, especially regarding regional heterogeneities and wall microstructure. The present study aimed to assess the regional differences in the mechanical properties and microstructure of the urinary bladder wall. Ninety (n=90) samples of porcine urinary bladder wall (ten samples from nine different locations) were mechanically and histologically analysed...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771166/prediction-of-volume-of-distribution-in-preclinical-species-and-humans-application-of-simplified-physiologically-based-algorithms
#7
Prashant B Nigade, Jayasagar Gundu, K Sreedhara Pai, Kumar V S Nemmani, Rashmi Talwar
1. The present study was aimed at developing simplified physiologically based semi-mechanistic algorithms to predict Vss and interspecies scaling factors to predict tissue-Kps which require minimum input parameters, diminish the computing complexity and have better predictability. 2. Vss of 86 structurally diverse compounds in preclinical species and 27 compounds in humans were predicted using only lung- and muscle-Kp as inputs. Interspecies scaling factor (s) were developed based on fold-differences in individual tissue lipid contents, relative organ blood flow: relative organ weight ratio between two species...
May 17, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770421/quantitative-proteomics-and-systems-analysis-of-cultured-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-during-differentiation-over-time-supports-a-function-follows-form-model-of-differentiation
#8
Cynthia Kankeu, Kylie Clarke, Delphi Van Haver, Kris Gevaert, Francis Impens, Anna Dittrich, H Llewelyn Roderick, Egle Passante, Heinrich J Huber
The rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9C2 has emerged as a valuable tool for studying cardiac development, mechanisms of disease and toxicology. We present here a rigorous proteomic analysis that monitored the changes in protein expression during differentiation of H9C2 cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells over time. Quantitative mass spectrometry followed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that early changes in H9C2 differentiation are related to protein pathways of cardiac muscle morphogenesis and sphingolipid synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Molecular omics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767441/hydrogen-sulfide-pathway-and-skeletal-muscle-an-introductory-review
#9
REVIEW
Valentina Vellecco, Chiara Armogida, Mariarosaria Bucci
The presence of H2 S pathway in skeletal muscle (SKM) has been recently established. SKM expresses the three constitutive H2 S generating enzymes in animals and humans and it actively produces H2 S. The main recognized molecular targets of H2 S, i.e. potassium channels and phosphodiesterases, have been evaluated in SKM physiology in order to hypothesize a role for H2 S signaling. SKM dysfunctions, including muscular dystrophy and malignant hyperthermia, have been also evaluated as conditions in which H2 S-pathway and the trans-sulfuration pathway have been suggested to be involved...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765692/the-cascading-pathogenic-consequences-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-that-manifest-in-host-disease
#10
Alynn M Martin, Tamieka A Fraser, John A Lesku, Kellie Simpson, Georgia L Roberts, Jillian Garvey, Adam Polkinghorne, Christopher P Burridge, Scott Carver
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei , causes a substantive burden of disease to humans, domestic animals and wildlife, globally. There are many effects of S. scabiei infection, culminating in the disease which hosts suffer. However, major knowledge gaps remain on the pathogenic impacts of this infection. Here, we focus on the bare-nosed wombat host ( Vombatus ursinus ) to investigate the effects of mange on: (i) host heat loss and thermoregulation, (ii) field metabolic rates, (iii) foraging and resting behaviour across full circadian cycles, and (iv) fatty acid composition in host adipose, bone marrow, brain and muscle tissues...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765408/the-interaction-between-bmal1-and-per2-in-mouse-bmsc-osteogenic-differentiation
#11
Haiya Zhuo, Yuhong Wang, Qing Zhao
The circadian clock is a system that controls endogenous time of organisms, and it regulates the physiology and behavior of bodies. The transcription factors Brain and Muscle ARNT-like Protein 1 (BMAL1) and Period2 (Per2) are components of the circadian clock, and they play vital roles in circadian clock function. Both Bmal1-/- mice and Per2-/- mice display obvious bone volume changes. In this study, we inhibited the expression of Bmal1 in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) using a lentiviral vector harboring RNAi sequences, which increased the osteogenic differentiation capability of BMSCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761312/recovery-of-upper-body-muscle-power-after-short-intensive-exercise-comparing-boys-and-men
#12
Yitzhak Weinstein, Omri Inbar, Ron Mor-Unikovski, Anthony Luder, Gal Dubnov-Raz
PURPOSE: Boys' lower-body muscle power generation (PO) recovers faster than men's following intensive exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine whether boys differ from adult men in recovering from upper-body muscle power generation following intensive exercise. METHODS: Fifteen prepubertal boys (M ± SD age 10.6 ± 1.0 years) and 13 men (31.1 ± 5.0 years) performed two upper-body Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnT), separated by either 2-min or 10-min recovery intervals...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760671/emotion-in-stories-facial-emg-evidence-for-both-mental-simulation-and-moral-evaluation
#13
Björn 't Hart, Marijn E Struiksma, Anton van Boxtel, Jos J A van Berkum
Facial electromyography research shows that corrugator supercilii ("frowning muscle") activity tracks the emotional valence of linguistic stimuli. Grounded or embodied accounts of language processing take such activity to reflect the simulation or "reenactment" of emotion, as part of the retrieval of word meaning (e.g., of "furious") and/or of building a situation model (e.g., for "Mark is furious"). However, the same muscle also expresses our primary emotional evaluation of things we encounter...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760665/left-ventricular-trabeculations-decrease-the-wall-shear-stress-and-increase-the-intra-ventricular-pressure-drop-in-cfd-simulations
#14
Federica Sacco, Bruno Paun, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra
The aim of the present study is to characterize the hemodynamics of left ventricular (LV) geometries to examine the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (PMs) on blood flow using high performance computing (HPC). Five pairs of detailed and smoothed LV endocardium models were reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of ex-vivo human hearts. The detailed model of one LV pair is characterized only by the PMs and few big trabeculae, to represent state of art level of endocardial detail...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759974/the-ceramide-transporter-cert-is-involved-in-muscle-insulin-signaling-defects-under-lipotoxic-conditions
#15
Cécile L Bandet, Rana Mahfouz, Julien Véret, Athanassia Sotiropoulos, Maxime Poirier, Paola Giussani, Mélanie Campana, Erwann Philippe, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Raphaëlle Ballaire, Xavier Le Liepvre, Olivier Bourron, Dušan Berkeš, Jan Górski, Pascal Ferré, Hervé Le Stunff, Fabienne Foufelle, Eric Hajduch
One main mechanism of insulin resistance (IR), a key feature of type-2 diabetes, is the accumulation of saturated fatty acids (FA) in muscles of obese and type-2 diabetic patients. Understanding the mechanism underlying lipid-induced IR is therefore a crucial challenge. Saturated FA are metabolized into lipid-derivatives called ceramides and their accumulation plays a central role in the development of muscle IR. Ceramides are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to the Golgi through a transporter called CERT, where they are converted into different sphingolipid species...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758402/lactation-related-changes-in-tissue-expression-of-pedf-in-dairy-cows
#16
H Sadri, B Saremi, S Dänicke, J Rehage, M Mielenz, A Hosseini, H Sauerwein
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is evolving as metabolic regulatory protein. Albeit mostly considered in only pathological conditions related to excess energy intake resulting in obesity and insulin resistance, PEDF is likely to be involved in other physiological processes such as the homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism to lactation. We aimed to characterize the expression of PEDF and its association to the concomitant mobilization of body reserves during lactation in nonobese subjects. This mobilization is particularly distinct in dairy cows, and we therefore assessed the mRNA expression of PEDF and its putative receptors in different tissues in 2 trials with dairy cows fed with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs)...
April 17, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758183/increasing-cardiomyocyte-atrogin-1-reduces-aging-associated-fibrosis-and-regulates-remodeling-in-vivo
#17
Roberto Mota, Traci L Parry, Cecelia Yates, Zhaoyan Qiang, Samuel C Eaton, Jean Marie Mwiza, Deepthi Tulasi, Jonathan C Schisler, Cam Patterson, Tania Zaglia, Marco Sandri, Monte S Willis
The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1 (MAFbx) has been identified as a critical regulator of pathologic and physiologic cardiac hypertrophy; it regulates these processes by ubiquitinating transcription factors (NFAT and FOXO1/3). However, the role of Atrogin-1 in regulating transcription factors in aging has not previously been described. Atrogin-1 cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic (Tg+) adult mice (αMHC promoter driven) have normal cardiac function and size. Here we demonstrate that 18-month-old Atrogin-1 Tg+ hearts exhibit significantly increased anterior wall thickness without functional impairment vs wild-type mice...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757281/analyses-of-mitochondrial-calcium-influx-in-isolated-mitochondria-and-cultured-cells
#18
Joshua T Maxwell, Chin-Hsien Tsai, Tahmina A Mohiuddin, Jennifer Q Kwong
Ca2+ handling by mitochondria is a critical function regulating both physiological and pathophysiological processes in a broad spectrum of cells. The ability to accurately measure the influx and efflux of Ca2+ from mitochondria is important for determining the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in these processes. In this report, we present two methods for the measurement of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in both isolated mitochondria and cultured cells. We first detail a plate reader-based platform for measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake using the Ca2+ sensitive dye calcium green-5N...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756630/a-biomimetic-microfluidic-model-to-study-signalling-between-endothelial-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-under-hemodynamic-conditions
#19
Nicole C A van Engeland, Andreas M A O Pollet, Jaap M J den Toonder, Carlijn V C Bouten, Oscar M J A Stassen, Cecilia M Sahlgren
Cell signalling and mechanics influence vascular pathophysiology and there is an increasing demand for in vitro model systems that enable examination of signalling between vascular cells under hemodynamic conditions. Current 3D vessel wall constructs do not recapitulate the mechanical conditions of the native tissue nor do they allow examination of cell-cell interactions under relevant hemodynamic conditions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic chip model of arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells where cellular organization, composition and interactions, as well as the mechanical environment of the arterial wall are mimicked...
May 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756416/testosterone-and-sarcopenia
#20
REVIEW
Myung Jun Shin, Yun Kyung Jeon, In Joo Kim
Aging affects metabolism, leading to physiological and functional impairments, and is also related to changes in body composition, including reduced skeletal muscle mass and increased body fat. These changes are correlated with the pathophysiology of sarcopenia, which is defined as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Low testosterone levels are associated with unfavorable body composition changes, and sex hormones decrease with aging. Androgen deficiency, along with lack of exercise and poor nutrition, may be among the modifiable contributors to sarcopenia...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
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