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Muscle physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166705/comprehensive-analysis-of-nine-monoamines-and-metabolites-in-small-amounts-of-peripheral-murine-c57bl-6j-tissues
#1
Joachim Nagler, Sonja C Schriever, Meri De Angelis, Paul T Pfluger, Karl-Werner Schramm
Monoamines, acting as hormones and neurotransmitters, play a critical role in multiple physiological processes ranging from cognitive function and mood to sympathetic nervous system activity, fight-or-flight response, or glucose homeostasis. In addition to brain and blood, monoamines are abundant in several tissues, and dysfunction in their synthesis or signaling is associated with various pathological conditions. It was our goal to develop a method to detect these compounds in peripheral murine tissues. In this study, we employed a high performance liquid chromatography method using electrochemical detection that allows not only detecting the catecholamines but a detailed analysis of nine monoamines and metabolites in murine tissues...
November 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166613/niche-cadherins-control-the-quiescence-to-activation-transition-in-muscle-stem-cells
#2
Aviva J Goel, Marysia-Kolbe Rieder, Hans-Henning Arnold, Glenn L Radice, Robert S Krauss
Many adult stem cells display prolonged quiescence, promoted by cues from their niche. Upon tissue damage, a coordinated transition to the activated state is required because non-physiological breaks in quiescence often lead to stem cell depletion and impaired regeneration. Here, we identify cadherin-mediated adhesion and signaling between muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) and their myofiber niche as a mechanism that orchestrates the quiescence-to-activation transition. Conditional removal of N-cadherin and M-cadherin in mice leads to a break in SC quiescence, with long-term expansion of a regeneration-proficient SC pool...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166265/selection-of-reference-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-rt-pcr-on-gene-expression-in-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus
#3
X J Chen, X Q Zhang, S Huang, Z J Cao, Q W Qin, W T Hu, Y Sun, Y C Zhou
Golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) is an important economically fish species. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in golden pompano, we evaluated the expression stability of eight housekeeping genes in the presence and absence of poly I:C stimulation in eight tissues. The PCR data was analyzed by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that the expression of all the examined genes exhibited tissue-dependent variations. When under normal physiological condition, geNorm and NormFinder identified B2M and 18S as suitable genes...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166164/a-physiological-signature-of-the-cost-of-reproduction-associated-with-parental-care
#4
Melinda A Fowler, Tony D Williams
Costs of reproduction are an integral and long-standing component of life-history theory, but we still know relatively little about the specific physiological mechanisms underlying these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated workload during parental care in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using attachment of radios and/or wing clipping and assessed measures of workload, current breeding productivity, future fecundity, and survival (local return rate) in relation to treatment. Females with wing clipping and radio attachment paid a clear cost of reproduction compared with all other treatment groups: they had lower future fecundity and lower return rates despite having lower current breeding productivity...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165030/in-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-phosphorylation-of-tomm22-by-protein-kinase-csnk2-ck2-controls-mitophagy
#5
Bojana Kravic, Angelika B Harbauer, Vanina Romanello, Luca Simeone, F-Nora Vögtle, Tobias Kaiser, Marion Straubinger, Danyil Huraskin, Martin Böttcher, Cristina Cerqua, Eva Denise Martin, Daniel Poveda-Huertes, Andreas Buttgereit, Adam J Rabalski, Dieter Heuss, Rüdiger Rudolf, Oliver Friedrich, David Litchfield, Michael Marber, Leonardo Salviati, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Winfried Neuhuber, Marco Sandri, Chris Meisinger, Said Hashemolhosseini
In yeast, Tom22 the central component of the TOMM (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane) receptor complex is responsible for the recognition and translocation of synthesized mitochondrial precursor proteins, and its protein kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation is mandatory for TOMM complex biogenesis and proper mitochondrial protein import. In mammals, the biological function of protein kinase CSNK2/CK2 remains vastly elusive and it is unknown whether CSNK2-dependent phosphorylation of TOMM protein subunits has a similar role as that in yeast...
November 22, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163225/human-locomotion-in-hypogravity-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Valentina La Scaleia, Barbara La Scaleia, Patrick A Willems, Myrka Zago
We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163203/cyclic-stretch-alters-vascular-reactivity-of-mouse-aortic-segments
#7
Arthur Leloup, Sofie De Moudt, Cor Van Hove, Paul Fransen
Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10%) than muscular arteries (2%). As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC). The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6-600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163071/systematic-morphometry-of-catecholamine-nuclei-in-the-brainstem
#8
Domenico Bucci, Carla L Busceti, Maria T Calierno, Paola Di Pietro, Michele Madonna, Francesca Biagioni, Larisa Ryskalin, Fiona Limanaqi, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Francesco Fornai
Catecholamine nuclei within the brainstem reticular formation (RF) play a pivotal role in a variety of brain functions. However, a systematic characterization of these nuclei in the very same experimental conditions is missing so far. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immune-positive cells of the brainstem correspond to dopamine (DA)-, norepinephrine (NE)-, and epinephrine (E)-containing cells. Here, we report a systematic count of TH-positive neurons in the RF of the mouse brainstem by using stereological morphometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162941/aerobic-performance-in-tinamous-is-limited-by-their-small-heart-a-novel-hypothesis-in-the-evolution-of-avian-flight
#9
Jordi Altimiras, Isa Lindgren, Lina María Giraldo-Deck, Alberto Matthei, Álvaro Garitano-Zavala
Some biomechanical studies from fossil specimens suggest that sustained flapping flight of birds could have appeared in their Mesozoic ancestors. We challenge this idea because a suitable musculoskeletal anatomy is not the only requirement for sustained flapping flight. We propose the "heart to fly" hypothesis that states that sustained flapping flight in modern birds required an enlargement of the heart for the aerobic performance of the flight muscles and test it experimentally by studying tinamous, the living birds with the smallest hearts...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162562/metabolic-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Piriyah Sinclair, Neil Docherty, Carel W le Roux
BACKGROUND: Obesity can be defined as a chronic subcortical brain disease, as there is an important neurophysiological component to its etiology based on changes in the functioning of those areas of the brain controlling food intake and reward. Extensive metabolic changes accompany bariatric surgery-based treatment of obesity. Consequently, the term "metabolic" surgery is being increasingly adopted in relation to the beneficial effects these procedures have on chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158948/the-how-and-why-of-the-movement-system-as-the-identity-of-physical-therapy
#11
Shirley Sahrmann
The Movement System was adopted as the identity of physical therapy as one of the 8 guiding principles accompanying the Vision Statement of 2013. At its inception physical therapy was considered more of a technical field rather than that of a professional field. Physicians were to diagnose the patient's problem and the therapist was to follow the prescription provided by the physician with the primary purpose being to relieve symptoms such as pain or muscle weakness. Even by the 1960's, the prescription became more of a referral and there was recognition that therapists were making decisions about the patient's treatment and discharge disposition...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158671/correlation-and-compatibility-between-surface-respiratory-electromyography-and-transesophageal-diaphragmatic-electromyography-measurements-during-treadmill-exercise-in-stable-patients-with-copd
#12
Weiliang Wu, Lili Guan, Xiaoying Li, Lin Lin, Bingpeng Guo, Yuqiong Yang, Zhenyu Liang, Fengyan Wang, Luqian Zhou, Rongchang Chen
Purpose: To evaluate the compatibility and correlation between noninvasive surface respiratory electromyography and invasive transesophageal diaphragmatic electromyography measurements as facilitating indicators of neural respiratory drive (NRD) evaluation during treadmill exercise. Patients and methods: Transesophageal diaphragmatic electromyogram activity (EMGdi,es) and surface inspiratory electromyogram (EMG) activity, including surface diaphragmatic EMG activity (EMGdi,sur), surface parasternal intercostal muscle EMG activity (EMGpara), and surface sternocleidomastoid EMG activity (EMGsc), were detected simultaneously during increasing exercise capacity in 20 stable patients with COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158357/evidence-for-a-role-of-vascular-endothelium-in-the-control-of-arterial-wall-viscosity-in-humans
#13
Frederic Roca, Michele Iacob, Isabelle Remy-Jouet, Jeremy Bellien, Robinson Joannides
Arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is a major cause of energy dissipation along the arterial tree. Its determinants remain controversial but an active endothelial regulation has been suggested. Our objective was to assess in humans the physiological role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the effect of modulating smooth muscle tone in the regulation of AWV. We simultaneously measured radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and arterial pressure in healthy volunteers during the local infusion of inhibitors of NO-synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesis by cytochrome P450 (fluconazole), the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids cellular targets calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), alone and in combination...
November 20, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157305/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-a-floxed-neo-cassette-within-the-dystroglycan-dag1-gene
#14
Francesca Sciandra, Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Giulia Signorino, Maria Giulia Bigotti, Barbara Tavazzi, Francesca Lombardi, Manuela Bozzi, Gigliola Sica, Bruno Giardina, Sandra Blaess, Andrea Brancaccio
OBJECTIVE: Dystroglycan (DG) is an adhesion complex formed by two subunits, α-DG and β-DG. In skeletal muscle, DG is part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that is crucial for sarcolemma stability and it is involved in a plethora of muscular dystrophy phenotypes. Due to the important role played by DG in skeletal muscle stability as well as in a wide variety of other tissues including brain and the peripheral nervous system, it is essential to investigate its genetic assembly and transcriptional regulation...
November 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157238/evaluation-of-normal-swallowing-functions-by-using-dynamic-high-density-surface-electromyography-maps
#15
Mingxing Zhu, Bin Yu, Wanzhang Yang, Yanbing Jiang, Lin Lu, Zhen Huang, Shixiong Chen, Guanglin Li
BACKGROUND: Swallowing is a continuous process with substantive interdependencies among different muscles, and it plays a significant role in our daily life. The aim of this study was to propose a novel technique based on high-density surface electromyography (HD sEMG) for the evaluation of normal swallowing functions. METHODS: A total of 96 electrodes were placed on the front neck to acquire myoelectric signals from 12 healthy subjects while they were performing different swallowing tasks...
November 21, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156325/differential-partitioning-of-rumen-protected-n-3-and-n-6-fatty-acids-into-muscles-with-different-metabolism
#16
C Wolf, S E Ulbrich, M Kreuzer, J Berard, K Giller
Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA fulfil important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid (LA) in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n-3 PUFA in fish oil...
November 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156188/addressing-obesity-in-aging-patients
#17
REVIEW
John A Batsis, Alexandra B Zagaria
Obesity in older adults affects not only morbidity and mortality but, importantly, quality of life and the risk of institutionalization. Weight loss interventions can effectively lead to improved physical function. Diet-alone interventions can detrimentally affect muscle and bone physiology and, without interventions to affect these elements, can lead to adverse outcomes. Understanding social and nutritional issues facing older adults is of utmost importance to primary care providers. This article will also discuss the insufficient evidence related to pharmacotherapy as well as providing an overview of using physiologic rather than chronologic age for identifying suitable candidates for bariatric surgery...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155716/evaluation-of-injury-induced-senescence-and-in-vivo-reprogramming-in-the-skeletal-muscle
#18
Coralie Cazin, Aurelie Chiche, Han Li
Cellular senescence is a stress response that is characterized by a stable cellular growth arrest, which is important for many physiological and pathological processes, such as cancer and ageing. Recently, senescence has also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, it has become increasingly critical to identify senescent cells in vivo. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay is the most widely used assay to detect senescent cells both in culture and in vivo. This assay is based on the increased lysosomal contents in the senescent cells, which allows the histochemical detection of lysosomal β-galactosidase activity at suboptimum pH (6 or 5...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154290/positive-facial-expressions-during-retrieval-of-self-defining-memories
#19
Marie Charlotte Gandolphe, Jean Louis Nandrino, Gérald Delelis, Claire Ducro, Audrey Lavallee, Xavier Saloppe, Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamad El Haj
In this study, we investigated, for the first time, facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories (i.e., those vivid and emotionally intense memories of enduring concerns or unresolved conflicts). Participants self-rated the emotional valence of their Self-defining memories and autobiographical retrieval was analyzed with a facial analysis software. This software (Facereader) synthesizes the facial expression information (i.e., cheek, lips, muscles, eyebrow muscles) to describe and categorize facial expressions (i...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151073/effect-of-the-different-doses-of-acrylamide-on-acetylocholinoesterase-activity-thiol-groups-malondialdehyde-concentrations-in-hypothalamus-and-selected-muscles-of-mice
#20
M Kopanska, J Czech, P Zagata, L Dobrek, P Thor, G Formicki
Acrylamide is a chemical compound that typically forms in starchy food products during high-temperature cooking, including frying, baking and roasting. Acrylamide is a known lethal neurotoxin. Its discovery in some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns about the carcinogenicity of those foods. Little is known about acrylamide's influence on the peripheral nerves. In our research we measured acrylamide's influence on the acetylcholinesterase activity in hypothalamus, heart muscle, skeletal muscles of the thigh and smooth muscle of the small intestine (males, Swiss strain) in relation to the thiol groups and malondialdehyde concentration...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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