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Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
M Palau-Baduell, B Salvado-Salvado, M A Idiazabal-Alecha, A Fernandez-Teruel, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The perisylvian areas, located around the Sylvian fissure, are constituted by frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. These are connected forming specialized neural networks and play a primary role in the development of linguistic skills and social cognition. These areas are a possible neuronal substrate of cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). AIM: To locate and quantify epileptiform activity sources through magnetoencephalography in frontal perisylvian areas in children with idiopathic ASD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
R Frank, L Schulze, R Hellweg, S Koehne, S Roepke
Although deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions are considered a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterization of abnormalities in the differentiation of emotional expressions (e.g., sad vs. angry) has been rather inconsistent, especially in adults without intellectual impairments who may compensate for their deficits. In addition, previous research neglected the ability to detect emotional expressions (e.g., angry vs. neutral). The present study used a backward masking paradigm to investigate, a) the detection of emotional expressions, and b) the differentiation of emotional expressions in adults diagnosed with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (n = 23) compared to neurotypical controls (n = 25)...
February 19, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Huey-Ling Chiang, Wei-Chih Kao, Mei-Chun Chou, Wen-June Chou, Yen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Yu Wu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
School dysfunction is observed in youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the factors moderating their school dysfunction have not been well explored. This study investigated school functions in youths with ASD in Taiwan, stratified by personal characteristics including demographics, ASD subtypes, intelligence profiles, and the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We recruited 160 youths (aged 6-18 years, 87.5% boys) with a clinical diagnosis of ASD and 160 age and gender-matched typically developing (TD) youths...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Isaac R Melamed, Melinda Heffron, Alessandro Testori, Kellie Lipe
Research has shown that a subset of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population presents with immune dysregulation. To explore this topic further, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in children with ASD. In this study, participants were recruited based on a diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Participants also showed evidence of immune dysfunction based on abnormal levels of specific biomarkers, including CD40 ligand (CD154), lymphocyte stimulation, and T or B cell dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
N Shea, E Payne, N Russo
Individuals with ASD often display externalizing behaviors, which have been associated with lower quality of life in adulthood. Social difficulties have been hypothesized to underlie externalizing problems among individuals with ASD (Klin and Volkmar in Asperger Syndrome, 340-366, 2000), but this has never been tested empirically. We examined whether socialization abilities predicted externalizing problems assessed by parent report in a group of 29 individuals with ASD (age range 7-16 years) and 29 TD individuals matched for IQ, age, and gender...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Belén López-Pérez, Tamara Ambrona, Michaela Gummerum
OBJECTIVES: Emotion goals lie at the heart of emotion regulation, as people have to first decide what emotions they want to feel before engaging in emotion regulation. Given that children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are characterized by exhibiting difficulties in emotion regulation, studying whether they display similar or different emotion goals compared to typically developing (TD) children may provide insightful information. METHODS: Thirty AS and 30 TD children (10-12 years) reported about their general (i...
February 5, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Francielly Mourao Gasparotto, Francislaine Aparecida Liveror, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei Menegati, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in the management of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases were searched up to October 30, 2016. The key terms used were "ASD", "Asperger", "autism", "healing plants", "herbal medicine", and "medicinal plants". In each database, the searches consisted of each of the three key terms describing the disorder and subtypes plus each of the terms describing the therapy...
December 27, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Jürgen Kornmeier, Rike Wörner, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: During observation of the Necker cube perception becomes unstable and alternates repeatedly between a from-above-perspective ("fap") and a from-below-perspective ("fbp") interpretation. Both interpretations are physically equally plausible, however, observers usually show an a priori top-down bias in favor of the fap interpretation. Patients with Autism spectrum disorder are known to show an altered pattern of perception with a focus on sensory details. In the present study we tested whether this altered perceptual processing affects their reversal dynamics and reduces the perceptual bias during Necker cube observation...
2017: PloS One
Annemieke Van Drenth
Historiographies on the phenomenon of "autism" display Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger as the great pioneers. The recent controversy on who was first in "discovering" autism urges research into the question of how scientific discoveries relate to processes of academic reflection and social intervention. The Netherlands provide an interesting case in pioneering work in autism, since Dutch experts described autism in children already in the late 1930s, preceding the first publications on autism in children by Kanner and Asperger...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Farnaz Faridi, Reza Khosrowabadi
Asperger syndrome (AS) is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests. The linguistic and cognitive development in AS is preserved which help us to differentiate it from other subtypes of ASD. However, significant effects of AS on cognitive abilities and brain functions still need to be researched. Although a clear cut pathology for Asperger has not been identified yet, recent studies have largely focused on brain imaging techniques to investigate AS...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
A Creaby-Attwood, C S Allely
It is important to consider whether there are innate vulnerabilities that increase the risk of an individual with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), predominantly those defendants with a diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome, being charged and convicted of a sexual offence. The significance of such can be readily seen in recent English case law, with judgments on appeal finding convictions unsafe where there have been a number of failings in the Judge's summing up. In this article, we will consider the gravity of Judges omitting to highlight a defendant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and the necessity of detailed explanations to jury members regarding the condition and its effect upon thoughts and behaviour...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Dan Bai, Behrang Mahjani, Lambertus Klei, Yudi Pawitan, Christina M Hultman, Dorothy E Grice, Kathryn Roeder, Joseph D Buxbaum, Bernie Devlin, Abraham Reichenberg, Sven Sandin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has both genetic and environmental origins, including potentially maternal effects. Maternal effects describe association of one or more maternal phenotypes with liability to ASD in progeny that are independent of maternally transmitted risk alleles. While maternal effects could play an important role, consistent with association to maternal traits such as immune status, no study has estimated maternal, additive genetic, and environmental effects in ASD...
September 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Ewa Pisula, Anna Porębowicz-Dörsmann
The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life...
2017: PloS One
Justine Niemczyk, C Wagner, A von Gontard
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are defined by persistent deficits in reciprocal social interaction, communication, and language, as well as stereotyped and repetitive behavior. Functional incontinence, as well as ASD are common disorders in childhood. The aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of the co-occurrence of nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), and fecal incontinence (FI) in ASD, and vice versa, of ASD in children with incontinence. A systematic literature search of the terms "incontinence", "enuresis", and "encopresis" in combination with "autism" or "Asperger" in four databases (Scopus, PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of science) was conducted...
October 10, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Katrina Wilcox Hagberg, Susan S Jick
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reported that the validity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses recorded in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) was high; however, diagnostic criteria and screening practices have changed since the last study was published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: 1) To calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD compared to original medical records and 2) to describe characteristics of cases and use of clinical codes that support the ASD diagnosis as recorded in the electronic data by general practitioners over time...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
Georgina Hicks, Nigel D'Souza, Rhys Thomas, Ranjeet Brar
Acute gastric necrosis is a very rare but potentially fatal condition which has been reported in patients with abnormal eating behaviours.We describe the case of a 24-year-old female with a background of Asperger's syndrome, who presented with abdominal pain and gross distension. She underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy and was found to have a massively distended, necrotic stomach. A total gastrectomy was performed with interval reconstruction planned. This case reports the surgical management of a rarely seen condition and highlights the importance of recognising gastric necrosis and its causes, which include patients with abnormal eating behaviours, the majority of whom are young females...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Chloe Gamlin
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association removed Asperger's Disorder from the DSM, offering instead the new DSM-5 diagnosis: Autism Spectrum Disorder. This change has been hailed the most controversial exclusion from the DSM, yet unlike the 1973 removal of homosexuality from DSM-III, Asperger's disorder has not been demedicalised. Rather, the disorder has simply been reclassified as part of the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum and therefore retains its fundamental characteristic as a mental disorder owing to its inclusion within the sphere of the DSM...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Evelien M Barendse, Lisanne J Schreuder, Geert Thoonen, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Walter H Backes, Albert P Aldenkamp, Jacobus F A Jansen
AIM: People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically have deficits in the working memory (WM) system. Working memory is found to be an essential chain in successfully navigating in the social world. We hypothesize that brain networks for WM have an altered network integrity in ASD compared to controls. METHODS: 13 adolescents (1 female) with autistic disorder (n = 1), Asperger's disorder (n = 7), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (n = 5), and 13 typically developing control adolescents (1 female) participated in this study...
September 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Sphamandla Ntshangase, Adeola Shobo, Hendrik G Kruger, Arndt Asperger, Dagmar Niemeyer, Per I Arvidsson, Thavendran Govender, Sooraj Baijnath
TBA-354 was a promising antitubercular compound with activity against both replicating and static Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), making it the focal point of many clinical trials conducted by the TB Alliance. However, findings from these trials have shown that TBA-354 results in mild signs of reversible neurotoxicity; this left the TB Alliance with no other choice but to stop the research. In this study, mass spectrometric methods were used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and spatial distribution of TBA-354 in the brain using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and mass spectrometric imaging (MSI), respectively...
September 1, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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