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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394441/biofidelity-evaluation-of-the-thor-and-hybrid-iii-50th-percentile-male-frontal-impact-anthropomorphic-test-devices
#1
Daniel Parent, Matthew Craig, Kevin Moorhouse
The objective of this study is to present a quantitative comparison of the biofidelity of the THOR and Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATDs. Quantitative biofidelity was assessed using NHTSA's Biofidelity Ranking System in a total of 21 test conditions, including impacts to the head, face, neck, upper thorax, lower oblique thorax, upper abdomen, lower abdomen, femur, knee, lower leg, and whole-body sled tests to evaluate upper body kinematics and thoracic response under frontal and frontal oblique restraint loading...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394436/optimizing-seat-belt-and-airbag-designs-for-rear-seat-occupant-protection-in-frontal-crashes
#2
Jingwen Hu, Matthew P Reed, Jonathan D Rupp, Kurt Fischer, Paul Lange, Angelo Adler
Recent field data have shown that the occupant protection in vehicle rear seats failed to keep pace with advances in the front seats likely due to the lack of advanced safety technologies. The objective of this study was to optimize advanced restraint systems for protecting rear seat occupants with a range of body sizes under different frontal crash pulses. Three series of sled tests (baseline tests, advanced restraint trial tests, and final tests), MADYMO model validations against a subset of the sled tests, and design optimizations using the validated models were conducted to investigate rear seat occupant protection with 4 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) and 2 crash pulses...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382394/pharmacokinetics-of-meropenem-in-septic-patients-on-sustained-low-efficiency-dialysis-a-population-pharmacokinetic-study
#3
Stephan Braune, Christina König, Jason A Roberts, Axel Nierhaus, Oliver Steinmetz, Michael Baehr, Stefan Kluge, Claudia Langebrake
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of meropenem in critically ill patients receiving sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED). METHODS: Prospective population PK study on 19 septic patients treated with meropenem and receiving SLED for acute kidney injury. Serial blood samples for determination of meropenem concentrations were taken before, during and after SLED in up to three sessions per patient. Nonparametric population PK analysis with Monte Carlo simulations were used...
January 30, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380120/altered-white-matter-development-in-children-born-very-preterm
#4
Julia M Young, Marlee M Vandewouw, Benjamin R Morgan, Mary Lou Smith, John G Sled, Margot J Taylor
Children born very preterm (VPT) at less than 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) are prone to disrupted white matter maturation and impaired cognitive development. The aims of the present study were to identify differences in white matter microstructure and connectivity of children born VPT compared to term-born children, as well as relations between white matter measures with cognitive outcomes and early brain injury. Diffusion images and T1-weighted anatomical MR images were acquired along with developmental assessments in 31 VPT children (mean GA: 28...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364043/lower-leg-morphology-and-stretch-shortening-cycle-performance-of-dancers
#5
Paige E Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K Merritt, Jeffrey M McBride
Greater levels of bone ultimate fracture load, bone stress-strain index, muscle cross-sectional area, and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion strength of the lower leg may be adaptations from chronic exposure to stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions. Dancers, a population that habitually performs SSC movements primarily about the ankle-joint, may serve as a novel population to gain broader understanding of SSC function. Ten female collegiate dancers and ten untrained controls underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of both lower legs and performed maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexions, countermovement hops and drop hops at 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm on a custom-made inclined sled...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351418/red-blood-cell-antibody-induced-anemia-causes-differential-degrees-of-tissue-hypoxia-in-kidney-and-brain
#6
Nikhil Mistry, C David Mazer, John G Sled, Alan H Lazarus, Lindsay S Cahill, Max Solish, Yu-Qing Zhou, Nadya Romanova, Alexander Gm Hare, Allan Doctor, Joseph A Fisher, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson, Gregory M T Hare
Moderate anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including acute kidney injury (AKI), in surgical patients. A red blood cell (RBC)-specific antibody model was utilized to determine if moderate subacute anemia could result in tissue hypoxia as a potential mechanism of injury. Cardiovascular and hypoxic cellular responses were measured in transgenic mice capable of expressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-luciferase activity in vivo. Antibody-mediated anemia was associated with mild intravascular hemolysis (6 hours) and splenic RBC sequestration (day 4), resulting in a nadir hemoglobin concentration of 89{plus minus}13 g/L at day 4...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336211/the-effect-of-altering-loading-distance-on-skeleton-start-performance-is-higher-pre-load-velocity-always-beneficial
#7
Steffi L Colyer, Keith A Stokes, James L J Bilzon, Danny Holdcroft, Aki I T Salo
Athletes initiating skeleton runs differ in the number of steps taken before loading the sled. We aimed to understand how experimentally modifying loading distance influenced sled velocity and overall start performance. Ten athletes (five elite, five talent; 67% of all national athletes) underwent two to four sessions, consisting of two dry-land push-starts in each of three conditions (preferred, long and short loading distances). A magnet encoder on the sled wheel provided velocity profiles and the overall performance measure (sled acceleration index)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329225/optical-fiber-demodulation-system-with-high-performance-for-assessing-fretting-damage-of-steam-generator-tubes
#8
Peijian Huang, Ning Wang, Junying Li, Yong Zhu, Jie Zhang, Zhide Xi
In order to access the fretting damage of the steam generator tube (SGT), a fast fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) non-scanning correlation demodulation system based on a super luminescent light emitting diode (SLED) was performed. By demodulating the light signal coming out from the F-P force sensor, the radial collision force between the SGT and the tube support plate (TSP) was interrogated. For higher demodulation accuracy, the effects of the center wavelength, bandwidth, and spectrum noise of SLED were discussed in detail...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302753/a-comparison-between-the-force-velocity-relationships-of-unloaded-and-sled-resisted-sprinting-single-vs-multiple-trial-methods
#9
Matt R Cross, Pierre Samozino, Scott R Brown, Jean-Benoît Morin
PURPOSE: We sought to compare force-velocity relationships developed from unloaded sprinting acceleration to that compiled from multiple sled-resisted sprints. METHODS: Twenty-seven mixed-code athletes performed six to seven maximal sprints, unloaded and towing a sled (20-120% of body-mass), while measured using a sports radar. Two methods were used to draw force-velocity relationships for each athlete: A multiple trial method compiling kinetic data using pre-determined friction coefficients and aerodynamic drag at maximum velocity from each sprint; and a validated single trial method plotting external force due to acceleration and aerodynamic drag and velocity throughout an acceleration phase of an unloaded sprint (only)...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287129/new-advances-in-fetal-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-quantifying-the-distribution-of-blood-flow-and-oxygen-transport-potential-applications-in-fetal-cardiovascular-disease-diagnosis-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Liqun Sun, Christopher K Macgowan, Sharon Portnoy, John G Sled, Shi-Joon Yoo, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Edgar Jaeggi, John Kingdom, Mike Seed
Until recently, our modern understanding of fetal circulatory physiology has been largely based on invasive measurements made in fetal sheep. However, new MRI technology developed by our group has provided equivalent information about the distribution of blood flow and oxygen transport noninvasively. The initial findings largely confirm prior estimates about the human fetal circulation extrapolated from fetal sheep data and human ultrasound data. Here we describe the hemodynamics of the normal late gestation human fetal circulation by MRI and speculate about what the advent of this technology might mean in terms of the management of fetuses affected by placental insufficiency and congenital heart disease...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248744/underbody-blast-effect-on-the-pelvis-and-lumbar-spine-a-computational-study
#11
Jianyin Lei, Feng Zhu, Binhui Jiang, Zhihua Wang
Explosion from an anti-tank landmine under a military vehicle, known as underbody blast (UBB), may cause severe injury or even death for the occupants inside the vehicle. Severity and patterns of lower extremity, pelvis and lumbar spine injuries subjected to UBB have been found highly related to loading conditions, i.e. the vertical acceleration pulse. A computational human model has been developed and successfully simulated the tibia fracture under UBB in the previous study. In the present study, it was further improved by building a detailed lumbar spine and pelvis model with high biofidelity...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234284/the-efficacy-of-wrestling-style-compression-suits-to-improve-maximum-isometric-force-and-movement-velocity-in-well-trained-male-rugby-athletes
#12
Daniel T McMaster, Christopher M Beaven, Brad Mayo, Nicholas Gill, Kim Hébert-Losier
Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13-31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208570/modelling-and-interpretation-of-magnetization-transfer-imaging-in-the-brain
#13
John G Sled
Magnetization transfer contrast has yielded insight into brain tissue microstructure changes across the lifespan and in a range of disorders. This progress has been aided by the development of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging techniques able to extract intrinsic properties of the tissue that are independent of the specifics of the data acquisition. While the tissue properties extracted by these techniques do not map directly onto specific cellular structures or pathological processes, a growing body of work from animal models and histopathological correlations aids the in vivo interpretation of magnetization transfer properties of tissue...
December 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203011/automated-recognition-of-rear-seat-occupants-head-position-using-kinect%C3%A2-3d-point-cloud
#14
Helen Loeb, Jinyong Kim, Kristy Arbogast, Jonny Kuo, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne Cross, Judith Charlton
INTRODUCTION: Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195898/outcomes-of-displaced-olecranon-fractures-treated-with-the-olecranon-sled
#15
Andrew J Lovy, Isaiah Levy, Aakash Keswani, Todd Rubin, Michael R Hausman
BACKGROUND: Tension-band wiring is largely considered the gold standard for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures despite high rates of hardware complications. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of displaced olecranon fractures treated with the Olecranon Sled. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all displaced olecranon fractures from 2011-2015 treated with the Olecranon Sled. Inclusion was limited to functionally independent patients with Mayo type II fractures and minimum 12-month follow-up...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116989/the-influence-of-body-mass-on-physical-fitness-test-performance-in-male-firefighter-applicants
#16
Devin B Phillips, Michael P Scarlett, Stewart R Petersen
OBJECTIVE: The influence of body mass on test performance was investigated in 414 male firefighter applicants who completed a maximal treadmill test and five task-simulation tests while dressed in fire protective ensemble. METHODS: Subjects were assigned to six mass categories from less than 70 kg to more than 110 kg, in 10 kg increments (n = 69 in each). RESULTS: Treadmill performance was lower (P < 0.05) in the two heaviest groups...
November 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116001/high-intensity-short-duration-pulling-in-heavy-horses-physiological-effects-of-competition-and-rapid-weight-change
#17
Persephone Greco-Otto, Shannon Massie, Erin Shields, Marie-France Roy, Edmond Pajor, Renaud Léguillette
BACKGROUND: The Heavy Horse Pull is a competition where teams of two horses pull an increasingly heavy sled for a short distance. Similar to human wrestlers, some horses may undergo rapid weight change in order to enter a lower weight category. The objectives were to study the physiological effects of this practice as well as of the pulling competition in draft horses. RESULTS: Fifty horses were divided into light-, middle- and heavyweight categories based on their arrival weights and competed 1-3 days after...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099624/pelvic-restraint-cushion-sled-test-evaluation-of-pelvic-forward-motion
#18
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Joseph Ash, Salvador Acosta, Sara Heltzel, Patrick Riley, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a pelvic restraint cushion (PRC), a submarining countermeasure that deploys under the thighs when a crash is detected in order to block the forward motion of the pelvis. METHODS: Sled tests approximating low and high speed frontal impacts were conducted with four PMHS female subjects restrained by a lap and shoulder belt in the right front passenger seat. The subjects were tested with and without a PRC...
November 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096589/health-challenges-in-long-distance-dog-sled-racing-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#19
Giovanna Calogiuri, Andi Weydahl
Long-distance dog sled races, e.g. Iditarod (Alaska) and Finnmarksløpet (Northern Norway), are extremely demanding sporting events that might expose mushers, handlers and a large number of organisers and volunteers to risks for their health. The purpose of this systematic literature review (PROSPERO registration n. CRD42017069136) was to identify and summarise all available scientific literature relative to health issues connected to participating in these races. Using a literature search strategy in line with PRISMA guidelines, 117 scientific studies, sought through databases (Google Scholar and PubMed, between 2(nd) and 9(th) May 2017) and scrutiny of reference lists, were screened...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081874/testing-high-dimensional-covariance-matrices-with-application-to-detecting-schizophrenia-risk-genes
#20
Lingxue Zhu, Jing Lei, Bernie Devlin, Kathryn Roeder
Scientists routinely compare gene expression levels in cases versus controls in part to determine genes associated with a disease. Similarly, detecting case-control differences in co-expression among genes can be critical to understanding complex human diseases; however statistical methods have been limited by the high dimensional nature of this problem. In this paper, we construct a sparse-Leading-Eigenvalue-Driven (sLED) test for comparing two high-dimensional covariance matrices. By focusing on the spectrum of the differential matrix, sLED provides a novel perspective that accommodates what we assume to be common, namely sparse and weak signals in gene expression data, and it is closely related with Sparse Principal Component Analysis...
September 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
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