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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525779/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-renal-replacement-therapy-modalities-for-acute-kidney-injury-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#1
Danielle M Nash, Sebastian Przech, Ron Wald, Daria O'Reilly
PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes among critically ill adults with acute kidney injury (AKI) treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) or sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in 2015 or earlier using MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane databases and grey literature. Eligible studies included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort studies comparing outcomes of mortality, dialysis dependence or length of stay among critically ill adults receiving CRRT, IHD or SLED to treat AKI...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470247/hydrodynamics-of-defecation
#2
Patricia J Yang, Morgan LaMarca, Candice Kaminski, Daniel I Chu, David L Hu
Animals discharge feces within a range of sizes and shapes. Such variation has long been used to track animals as well as to diagnose illnesses in both humans and animals. However, the physics by which feces are discharged remain poorly understood. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the defecation of mammals from cats to elephants using the dimensions of large intestines and feces, videography at Zoo Atlanta, cone-on-plate rheological measurements of feces and mucus, and a mathematical model of defecation...
May 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455378/ehmt2-g9a-controls-placental-vascular-maturation-by-activating-the-notch-pathway
#3
Lijun Chi, Abdalla Ahmed, Anna R Roy, Sandra Vuong, Lindsay S Cahill, Laura Caporiccio, John G Sled, Isabella Caniggia, Michael D Wilson, Paul Delgado-Olguin
Defective fetoplacental vascular maturation causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A transcriptional switch initiates placental maturation where blood vessels elongate. However, cellular mechanisms and regulatory pathways involved are unknown. We show that the histone methyltransferase Ehmt2, also known as G9a, activates the Notch pathway to promote placental vascular maturation. Placental vasculature from embryos with G9a-deficient endothelial progenitor cells failed to expand due to decreased endothelial cell proliferation and increased trophoblast proliferation...
April 28, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445477/mitochondrial-respiration-in-highly-aerobic-canines-in-the-non-raced-state-and-after-a-1600-km-sled-dog-race
#4
Benjamin Miller, Karyn Hamilton, Robert Boushel, Katherine Williamson, Verena Laner, Erich Gnaiger, Michael Davis
At the annual Iditarod Race, Alaskan Huskies repeatedly run for up to 8 hours at 16 km/h to complete 1600 km. We previously demonstrated high rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis in Alaskan Huskies, which we suspected allowed rapid remodeling of mitochondrial proteins in response to energetic stress. The purpose of this study was to examine mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers of Alaskan Huskies in the offseason (Non-raced) and following the 1600 km Iditarod Sled Dog Race (Raced)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429598/preliminary-clinical-validation-of-a-differential-correction-method-for-improving-measurement-accuracy-in-noninvasive-measurement-of-blood-glucose-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#5
Guang Han, Xuyao Yu, Dandan Xia, Rong Liu, Jin Liu, Kexin Xu
One of the main challenges in the noninvasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is the background variations from light source drift, sweating, and temperature change at the human-machine interface. In this paper, a differential correction method based on the spectra from the floating-reference position and measuring position is proposed to eliminate these spectral variations from background interferences. Its effectiveness was validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments in which the diffuse reflectance of intralipid solutions and human skin was collected at the source distances of 0...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401931/early-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-a-transgenic-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Illsung L Joo, Aaron Y Lai, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Margaret M Koletar, Adrienne Dorr, Mary E Brown, Lynsie A M Thomason, John G Sled, JoAnne McLaurin, Bojana Stefanovic
Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391400/altered-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebrovascular-function-after-voluntary-exercise-in-adult-mice
#7
Lindsay S Cahill, Jonathan Bishop, Lisa M Gazdzinski, Adrienne Dorr, Bojana Stefanovic, John G Sled
The beneficial effects of physical exercise on brain health are well documented, yet how exercise modulates cerebrovascular function is not well understood. This study used continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging with a hypercapnic challenge to examine changes in cerebral blood flow and vascular function after voluntary exercise in healthy, adult mice. Thirty exercise mice and twenty-one control mice were imaged prior to the start of the exercise regime (at 12 weeks of age) and after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388752/-acute-kidney-injury-potentials-to%C3%A2-improve-aki-related-health-care-structure
#8
REVIEW
Christian Nusshag, Konrad Obermann, Markus Weigand, Vedat Schwenger
Since 2005 the AKI numbers nearly increased threefold. The prevailing health care structure for AKI-management in Germany possesses major potential for improvement. Despite a clear advantage regarding mortality and renal recovery, the cost-intensive CRRT is the predominant procedure in AKI-therapy. Conversion of 85 % of the CRRT-procedures to a dialysis procedure (IHD/SLED) enables annual savings in AKI-therapy by 7.3 million Euros. A reinvestment can finance a strengthened collaboration with licensed nephrologists to improve therapy quality and availability of RRT-units in local hospitals...
April 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364018/ultrasound-detection-of-altered-placental-vascular-morphology-based-on-hemodynamic-pulse-wave-reflection
#9
Anum Rahman, Yu-Qing Zhou, Yohan Yee, Jun Dazai, Lindsay S Cahill, John Kingdom, Christopher K Macgowan, John G Sled
Abnormally pulsatile umbilical artery (UA) Doppler ultrasound velocity waveforms are a hallmark of severe or early onset placental-mediated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whereas milder late onset IUGR pregnancies typically have normal UA pulsatility. The diagnostic utility of these waveforms to detect placental pathology is thus limited and hampered by factors outside of the placental circulation, including fetal cardiac output. In view of these limitations, we hypothesized that these Doppler waveforms could be more clearly understood as a reflection phenomenon and that a reflected pulse pressure wave is present in the UA that originates from the placenta and propagates backward along the UA...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358277/evaluation-of-head-and-brain-injury-risk-functions-using-sub-injurious-human-volunteer-data
#10
Erin J Sanchez, Lee F Gabler, James S McGhee, Ardyn V Olszko, Valeta Carol Chancey, Jeff Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of fourteen existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301086/b1-mapping-for-bias-correction-in-quantitative-t1-imaging-of-the-brain-at-3t-using-standard-pulse-sequences
#11
Mathieu Boudreau, Christine L Tardif, Nikola Stikov, John G Sled, Wayne Lee, G Bruce Pike
PURPOSE: B1 mapping is important for many quantitative imaging protocols, particularly those that include whole-brain T1 mapping using the variable flip angle (VFA) technique. However, B1 mapping sequences are not typically available on many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that B1 mapping implemented using standard scanner product pulse sequences can produce B1 (and VFA T1 ) maps comparable in quality and acquisition time to advanced techniques...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284454/ifpa-meeting-2016-workshop-report-ii-placental-imaging-placenta-and-development-of-other-organs-sexual-dimorphism-in-placental-function-and-trophoblast-cell-lines
#12
Jennifer Adibi, Graham J Burton, Vicki Clifton, Sally Collins, Antonio E Frias, Lobke Gierman, Peta Grigsby, Helen Jones, Cheryl Lee, Alina Maloyan, Udo R Markert, Diana M Morales-Prieto, Padma Murthi, Leslie Myatt, Jurgen Pollheimer, Victoria Roberts, Wendy Robinson, Carolyn Salafia, Matthias Schabel, Dinesh Shah, John Sled, Cathy Vaillancourt, Maja Weber, Perrie F O'Tierney-Ginn
Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2016 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops addressed challenges, strengths and limitations of techniques and model systems for studying the placenta, as well as future directions for the following areas of placental research: 1) placental imaging; 2) sexual dimorphism; 3) placenta and development of other organs; 4) trophoblast cell lines...
March 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268240/-causes-of-accidents-and-risk-factors-among-adults-during-recreational-sledging-tobogganing-a-retrospective-study
#13
Gerhard Ruedl, Elena Pocecco, Christoph Raas, Peter U Brucker, Klaus Greier, Martin Burtscher
Background Recreational sledging (tobogganing) is a very popular winter sport in Alpine regions. Ascending and sledging down on the same track, however, might be associated with a certain risk of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gather data on the causes of accidents and potential risk factors during recreational sledging. Methods Adults indulging in recreational sledging were interviewed between March 2013 and March 2015 at six public sledging tracks in the environs of the city of Innsbruck (Tyrol, Austria) on demographics, skill level, sledging frequency, risk-taking behavior, use of protective gear, type of sledge used, previous sledging-related injuries, injured body parts and causes of accidents...
January 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211837/the-physiological-demand-of-pulling-a%C3%A2-rescue-sled-across-the-mud-and-the-impact-experience-has-on-this-task
#14
Gemma S Milligan, James R House, Michael J Tipton
BACKGROUND: To establish a Physical Employment Standard for tasks with high physical demands, it is important to determine the physiological requirements. One such task for the UK Coastguard is mud rescue. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the physiological demand of pulling a rescue sled across estuary mud, and determine whether rescuer experience has an impact on the physiological demand of this task. METHODS: Forty participants walked 150 m in 3 minutes across estuary mud...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191646/non-invasive-evaluation-of-blood-oxygen-saturation-and-hematocrit-from-t1-and-t2-relaxation-times-in-vitro-validation-in-fetal-blood
#15
Sharon Portnoy, Mike Seed, John G Sled, Christopher K Macgowan
PURPOSE: We propose an analytical method for calculating blood hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO2 ) from measurements of its T1 and T2 relaxation times. THEORY: Through algebraic substitution, established two-compartment relationships describing R1=T1-1 and R2=T2-1 as a function of hematocrit and oxygen saturation were rearranged to solve for Hct and sO2 in terms of R1 and R2 . Resulting solutions for Hct and sO2 are the roots of cubic polynomials. METHODS: Feasibility of the method was established by comparison of Hct and sO2 estimates obtained from relaxometry measurements (at 1...
February 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185808/a-sled-push-stimulus-potentiates-subsequent-20-m-sprint-performance
#16
Laurent B Seitz, Minas A Mina, G Gregory Haff
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the potentiating effects of performing a single sprint-style sled push on subsequent unresisted 20m sprint performance. DESIGN: Randomized crossover design. METHODS: Following a familiarization session, twenty rugby league players performed maximal unresisted 20m sprints before and 15s, 4, 8 and 12min after a single sled push stimulus loaded with either 75 or 125% body mass. The two sled push conditions were performed in a randomized order over a one-week period...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149342/two-man-bobsled-push-start-analysis
#17
Alexandre Dias Lopes, Sandra Regina Alouche
The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors' knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes' movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men's two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004)...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149027/sustained-low-efficiency-dialysis-in-septic-shock-hemodynamic-tolerability-and-efficacy
#18
Shakti Bedanta Mishra, Ratender Kumar Singh, Arvind Kumar Baronia, Banani Poddar, Afzal Azim, Mohan Gurjar
AIM OF THE STUDY: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic shock has poor outcomes. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) is increasingly replacing continuous renal replacement therapy as the preferred modality in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). However, the essential aspects of hemodynamic tolerability and efficacy of SLED in septic shock AKI has been minimally studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe hemodynamic tolerability using modified vasopressor index (VI) and vasopressor dependency (VD) and efficacy using a combination of Kt/v, correction of acidosis, electrolyte, and fluid overload...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128881/effect-of-sustained-low-efficient-dialysis-versus-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-on-renal-recovery-after-acute-kidney-injury-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Bernadett Kovacs, Katrina J Sullivan, Swapnil Hiremath, Rakesh V Patel
Critically ill adults with acute kidney injury (AKI) experience considerable morbidity and mortality. Controversy remains regarding the optimal renal replacement intervention for these patients. Our systematic review aimed to determine the effect(s) of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) compared with continuous renal replacement (CRRT) therapy on relevant patient outcomes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Identified citations were screened independently in duplicate for relevance, and the methodological quality of included studies was evaluated...
May 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119205/sled-fixation-for-horizontal-medial-malleolus-fractures
#20
Adam M Wegner, Philip R Wolinsky, Robin Z Cheng, Michael A Robbins, Tanya C Garcia, Derek F Amanatullah
BACKGROUND: Horizontal fractures of the medial malleolus occur through exertion of various rotational forces on the ankle, including supination--external rotation, pronation--external rotation, and pronation-abduction. Many methods of fixation are employed for these fractures, but the optimal fixation construct remains unclear. METHODS: Horizontal medial malleolus osteotomies were performed in synthetic distal tibiae and randomized into two fixation groups: 1) two parallel unicortical cancellous screws or 2) medial malleolar sled fixation...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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