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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208570/modelling-and-interpretation-of-magnetization-transfer-imaging-in-the-brain
#1
John G Sled
Magnetization transfer contrast has yielded insight into brain tissue microstructure changes across the lifespan and in a range of disorders. This progress has been aided by the development of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging techniques able to extract intrinsic properties of the tissue that are independent of the specifics of the data acquisition. While the tissue properties extracted by these techniques do not map directly onto specific cellular structures or pathological processes, a growing body of work from animal models and histopathological correlations aids the in vivo interpretation of magnetization transfer properties of tissue...
December 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203011/automated-recognition-of-rear-seat-occupants-head-position-using-kinect%C3%A2-3d-point-cloud
#2
Helen Loeb, Jinyong Kim, Kristy Arbogast, Jonny Kuo, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne Cross, Judith Charlton
INTRODUCTION: Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195898/outcomes-of-displaced-olecranon-fractures-treated-with-the-olecranon-sled
#3
Andrew J Lovy, Isaiah Levy, Aakash Keswani, Todd Rubin, Michael R Hausman
BACKGROUND: Tension-band wiring is largely considered the gold standard for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures despite high rates of hardware complications. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of displaced olecranon fractures treated with the Olecranon Sled. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all displaced olecranon fractures from 2011-2015 treated with the Olecranon Sled. Inclusion was limited to functionally independent patients with Mayo type II fractures and minimum 12-month follow-up...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116989/the-influence-of-body-mass-on-physical-fitness-test-performance-in-male-firefighter-applicants
#4
Devin B Phillips, Michael P Scarlett, Stewart R Petersen
OBJECTIVE: The influence of body mass on test performance was investigated in 414 male firefighter applicants who completed a maximal treadmill test and five task-simulation tests while dressed in fire protective ensemble. METHODS: Subjects were assigned to six mass categories from less than 70 kg to more than 110 kg, in 10 kg increments (n = 69 in each). RESULTS: Treadmill performance was lower (P < 0.05) in the two heaviest groups...
November 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116001/high-intensity-short-duration-pulling-in-heavy-horses-physiological-effects-of-competition-and-rapid-weight-change
#5
Persephone Greco-Otto, Shannon Massie, Erin Shields, Marie-France Roy, Edmond Pajor, Renaud Léguillette
BACKGROUND: The Heavy Horse Pull is a competition where teams of two horses pull an increasingly heavy sled for a short distance. Similar to human wrestlers, some horses may undergo rapid weight change in order to enter a lower weight category. The objectives were to study the physiological effects of this practice as well as of the pulling competition in draft horses. RESULTS: Fifty horses were divided into light-, middle- and heavyweight categories based on their arrival weights and competed 1-3 days after...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099624/pelvic-restraint-cushion-sled-test-evaluation-of-pelvic-forward-motion
#6
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Joseph Ash, Salvador Acosta, Sara Heltzel, Patrick Riley, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a pelvic restraint cushion (PRC), a submarining countermeasure that deploys under the thighs when a crash is detected in order to block the forward motion of the pelvis. METHODS: Sled tests approximating low and high speed frontal impacts were conducted with four PMHS female subjects restrained by a lap and shoulder belt in the right front passenger seat. The subjects were tested with and without a PRC...
November 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096589/health-challenges-in-long-distance-dog-sled-racing-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#7
Giovanna Calogiuri, Andi Weydahl
Long-distance dog sled races, e.g. Iditarod (Alaska) and Finnmarksløpet (Northern Norway), are extremely demanding sporting events that might expose mushers, handlers and a large number of organisers and volunteers to risks for their health. The purpose of this systematic literature review (PROSPERO registration n. CRD42017069136) was to identify and summarise all available scientific literature relative to health issues connected to participating in these races. Using a literature search strategy in line with PRISMA guidelines, 117 scientific studies, sought through databases (Google Scholar and PubMed, between 2(nd) and 9(th) May 2017) and scrutiny of reference lists, were screened...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081874/testing-high-dimensional-covariance-matrices-with-application-to-detecting-schizophrenia-risk-genes
#8
Lingxue Zhu, Jing Lei, Bernie Devlin, Kathryn Roeder
Scientists routinely compare gene expression levels in cases versus controls in part to determine genes associated with a disease. Similarly, detecting case-control differences in co-expression among genes can be critical to understanding complex human diseases; however statistical methods have been limited by the high dimensional nature of this problem. In this paper, we construct a sparse-Leading-Eigenvalue-Driven (sLED) test for comparing two high-dimensional covariance matrices. By focusing on the spectrum of the differential matrix, sLED provides a novel perspective that accommodates what we assume to be common, namely sparse and weak signals in gene expression data, and it is closely related with Sparse Principal Component Analysis...
September 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067745/human-umbilical-cord-blood-relaxation-times-and-susceptibility-at-3-t
#9
Sharon Portnoy, Natasha Milligan, Mike Seed, John G Sled, Christopher K Macgowan
PURPOSE: To characterize the magnetic susceptibility and relaxation times (T1 and T2 ) of fetal blood at 3 T as a function of the hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO2 ). METHODS: Susceptibility and relaxometry measurements were performed on cord blood specimens (N = 90, derived from six caesarean deliveries) with a range of hematocrits and oxygen saturations (0.09 < Hct < 0.82, 7 < sO2  < 100%). To obtain simple, analytic relationships between MRI properties and blood properties, data were fit to established two-compartment (plasma and erythrocytes) models...
October 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053753/3d-morphological-analysis-of-the-mouse-cerebral-vasculature-comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-methods
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joe Steinman, Margaret M Koletar, Bojana Stefanovic, John G Sled
Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total) were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972697/feasibility-of-sustained-low-efficiency-dialysis-in-critically-sick-pediatric-patients-a-multicentric-retrospective-study
#11
Sidharth K Sethi, Rajiv Sinha, Pranaw Jha, Nikita Wadhwani, Veena Raghunathan, Maninder Dhaliwal, Shyam B Bansal, Vijay Kher, Valentine Lobo, Jyoti Sharma, Rupesh Raina
INTRODUCTION: Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) has emerged as a cost effective alternative to Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the management of hemodynamically unstable adult patients with acute kidney injury. The objective of the study was to document the SLED practices in these centers, and to look at the feasibility, and tolerability of SLED in critically sick pediatric patients. METHODS: It was a retrospective record review from January 2010 to June 2016 done in four tertiary pediatric nephrology centers in India...
October 3, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962695/arterio-venous-fetoplacental-vascular-geometry-and-hemodynamics-in-the-mouse-placenta
#12
Monique Y Rennie, Lindsay S Cahill, S Lee Adamson, John G Sled
INTRODUCTION: The fetoplacental vasculature network is essential for the exchange of nutrients, gases and wastes with the maternal circulation and for normal fetal development. The present study quantitatively compares arterial and venous morphological and functional differences in the mouse fetoplacental vascular network. METHODS: High resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography was used to visualize the 3D geometry of the arterial and venous fetoplacental vasculature in embryonic day 15...
October 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945690/epidemiology-of-anterior-tibial-spine-fractures-in-young-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-122-cases
#13
Derek P Axibal, Justin J Mitchell, Meredith H Mayo, Jorge Chahla, Chase S Dean, Claire E Palmer, Kristen Campbell, Armando F Vidal, Jason T Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Historically, bicycle accidents were described as the most common mechanism for pediatric anterior tibial spine fractures (ATSFs). There is a paucity of current literature examining the demographic factors associated with these injuries. The purpose of this cohort study was to characterize the epidemiology of ATSFs presenting to a single tertiary referral pediatric hospital. METHODS: A consecutive cohort of 122 pediatric patients with ATSFs between 1996 and 2014 were reviewed...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944722/is-strength-training-frequency-a-key-factor-to-develop-performance-adaptations-in-young-elite-soccer-players
#14
Carlos Otero-Esquina, Moisés de Hoyo Lora, Óliver Gonzalo-Skok, Sergio Domínguez-Cobo, Hugo Sánchez
The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a combined strength-training programme (full-back squat, YoYo(TM) leg curl, plyometrics and sled towing exercises) on performance in elite young soccer players and to examine the effects when this training programme was performed one or two days per week. Thirty-six male soccer players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to experimental groups (EXP1: 1 s w(-1); EXP2: 2 s w(-1)) or a control group (CON). Performance was assessed through a countermovement jump (CMJ) test (relative peak power [CMJPP] and CMJ height [CMJH]), a 20-m linear sprint test with split-times at 10-m, and a change of direction test (V-cut test) 1 week before starting the training programme and also 1 week after performing such training programme...
November 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937917/head-impact-exposure-measured-in-a-single-youth-football-team-during-practice-drills
#15
Mireille E Kelley, Joeline M Kane, Mark A Espeland, Logan E Miller, Alexander K Powers, Joel D Stitzel, Jillian E Urban
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts in practice drills within a youth football team to determine how head impact exposure varies among different types of drills. METHODS On-field head impact data were collected from athletes participating in a youth football team for a single season. Each athlete wore a helmet instrumented with a Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System head acceleration measurement device during all preseason, regular season, and playoff practices...
November 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930879/repeat-effort-performance-is-reduced-24-h-following-acute-dehydration-in-mixed-martial-arts-athletes
#16
Oliver R Barley, Fiona Iredale, Dale W Chapman, Amanda Hopper, Chris Abbiss
This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902107/reliability-of-the-maximal-resisted-sprint-load-test-and-relationships-with-performance-measures-and-anthropometric-profile-in-female-field-sport-athletes
#17
George Petrakos, Nicola C Tynan, Adam M Vallely-Farrell, Cillian Kiely, Abdelhak Boudhar, Brendan Egan
Resisted sled sprint (RSS) training is an effective modality for the improvement of linear sprint speed. Previous methods of RSS load prescription e.g. an absolute load or as a percentage of body mass (%BM), do not account for inter-individual differences in strength, power or speed characteristics, although the 'maximum resisted sled load' (MRSL) method of RSS load prescription may provide a solution. MRSL is defined as the final RSS load before an athlete can no longer accelerate between two phases (10-15 m and 15-20 m) of a 20 m linear sprint...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872389/training-related-changes-in-force-power-profiles-implications-for-the-skeleton-start
#18
Steffi L Colyer, Keith A Stokes, James L J Bilzon, Danny Holdcroft, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: Athletes' force-power characteristics influence sled velocity during the skeleton start, which is a crucial determinant of performance. This study characterised force-power profile changes across an 18-month period and investigated the associations between these changes and start performance. METHODS: Seven elite- and five talent-squad skeleton athletes' (representing 80% of registered athletes in the country) force-power profiles and dry-land push-track performances were assessed at multiple time-points over two 6-month training periods and one 5-month competition season...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861917/feto-and-utero-placental-vascular-adaptations-to-chronic-maternal-hypoxia-in-the-mouse
#19
Lindsay S Cahill, Monique Y Rennie, Johnathan Hoggarth, Lisa X Yu, Anum Rahman, John C Kingdom, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan, John G Sled
KEY POINTS: Chronic fetal hypoxia is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and is known to cause fetal growth restriction. The structural adaptations of the placental vasculature responsible for growth restriction with chronic hypoxia are not well elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic maternal hypoxia in combination with micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy, we found several placental adaptations that were beneficial to fetal growth including capillary expansion, thinning of the interhaemal membrane and increased radial artery diameters, resulting in a large drop in total utero-placental vascular resistance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813547/an-experimental-and-numerical-study-of-hybrid-iii-dummy-response-to-simulated-underbody-blast-impacts
#20
Karthik Somasundaram, Anil Kalra, Don Sherman, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, John Cavanaugh
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as the Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbody blast impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration, large magnitude vertical accelerations in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate underbody blast loading conditions...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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