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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905864/determining-friction-and-effective-loading-for-sled-sprinting
#1
Matt R Cross, Farhan Tinwala, Seth Lenetsky, Pierre Samozino, Matt Brughelli, Jean-Benoit Morin
Understanding the impact of friction in sled sprinting allows the quantification of kinetic outputs and the effective loading experienced by the athlete. This study assessed changes in the coefficient of friction (µk) of a sled sprint-training device with changing mass and speed to provide a means of quantifying effective loading for athletes. A common sled equipped with a load cell was towed across an athletics track using a motorised winch under variable sled mass (33.1-99.6 kg) with constant speeds (0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871106/thoracic-injury-risk-curves-for-rib-deflections-of-the-sid-iis-build-level-d
#2
Annette L Irwin, Greg Crawford, David Gorman, Sikui Wang, Harold J Mertz
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871105/development-and-full-body-validation-of-a-5th-percentile-female-finite-element-model
#3
Matthew L Davis, Bharath Koya, Jeremy M Schap, F Scott Gayzik
To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871096/responses-and-injuries-to-pmhs-in-side-facing-and-oblique-seats-in-horizontal-longitudinal-sled-tests-per-faa-emergency-landing-conditions
#4
John R Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar, Richard L DeWeese, David M Moorcroft, Amanda M Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834560/very-heavy-sled-training-for-improving-horizontal-force-output-in-soccer-players
#5
Jean-Benoît Morin, George Petrakos, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes, Scott R Brown, Pierre Samozino, Matt R Cross
Sprint running acceleration is a key feature of physical performance in team sports, and recent literature shows that the ability to generate large magnitudes of horizontal ground reaction force and mechanical effectiveness of force application are paramount. We tested the hypothesis that very-heavy loaded sled sprint training would induce an improvement in horizontal force production, via an increased effectiveness of application. Training-induced changes in sprint performance and mechanical outputs were computed using a field method based on velocity-time data, before and after an 8-week protocol (16 sessions of 10x20-m sprints)...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824504/repeatability-study-of-replicate-crash-tests-a-signal-analysis-approach
#6
Jeremy Seppi, Jacek Toczyski, Jeff R Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
OBJECTIVE: To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. METHODS: Test data from DRoTS tests, Deceleration Rollover Sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, Small Overlap Impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability...
November 8, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813331/sliding-on-dna-from-peptides-to-small-molecules
#7
Kan Xiong, Graham S Erwin, Aseem Z Ansari, Paul C Blainey
Many DNA binding proteins utilize one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along DNA to accelerate their DNA target recognition. Although 1D diffusion of proteins along DNA has been studied for decades, a quantitative understanding is only beginning to emerge and few chemical tools are available to apply 1D diffusion as a design principle. Recently, we discovered that peptides can bind and slide along DNA-even transporting cargo along DNA. Such molecules are known as molecular sleds. Here, to advance our understanding of structure-function relationships governing sequence nonspecific DNA interaction of natural molecular sleds and to explore the potential for controlling sliding activity, we test the DNA binding and sliding activities of chemically modified peptides and analogs, and show that synthetic small molecules can slide on DNA...
November 4, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689132/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-selected-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-concentrations-during-an-ultramarathon-sled-dog-race
#8
Matthew W Brunke, Christopher W Frye, Corri B Levine, Cristina Hansen, Joseph J Wakshlag
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of running a 1000-mile (1600 km) endurance sled dog race on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3). Serum was examined from 12 sled dogs prior to the race, at midrace (approximately 690 km), and again at the finish. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 were assessed using radioimmunoassay or enzyme linked immune-absorbance assays. Mean prerace concentrations were significantly higher than midrace and end-race concentrations at 215...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683451/effects-of-voluntary-exercise-on-structure-and-function-of-cortical-microvasculature
#9
Adrienne Dorr, Lynsie Am Thomason, Margaret M Koletar, Illsung L Joo, Joe Steinman, Lindsay S Cahill, John G Sled, Bojana Stefanovic
Aerobic activity has been shown highly beneficial to brain health, yet much uncertainty still surrounds the effects of exercise on the functioning of cerebral microvasculature. This study used two-photon fluorescence microscopy to examine cerebral hemodynamic alterations as well as accompanying geometric changes in the cortical microvascular network following five weeks of voluntary exercise in transgenic mice endogenously expressing tdTomato in vascular endothelial cells to allow visualization of microvessels irrespective of their perfusion levels...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647564/abstracts-of-the-26th-world-congress-on-ultrasound-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-rome-italy-24-28-september-2016
#10
J Lim, P Muthusami, S Madathil, M Zhu, B S Saini, P Porayette, V Chau, S Portnoy, C Macgowan, J G Sled, J C Kingdom, M Seed, S Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647440/ep15-17-fetal-brain-to-liver-volume-ratio-measured-by-mri-is-a-useful-indicator-of-iugr-in-vivo-in-late-gestation
#11
A Duan, M Zhu, S Portnoy, N Milligan, J Lim, J Keunen, C Macgowan, J G Sled, J C Kingdom, M Seed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646466/abstracts-of-the-26th-world-congress-on-ultrasound-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-rome-italy-24-28-september-2016
#12
A Duan, J Keunen, S Portnoy, M Zhu, C Anastasiadis, G Ryan, P Porayette, B Saini, J G Sled, C Macgowan, M Seed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644945/abstracts-of-the-26th-world-congress-on-ultrasound-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-rome-italy-24-28-september-2016
#13
L Sun, B Saini, P Porayette, C Macgowan, J Sled, S Yoo, L Grosse-Wortmann, E Jaeggi, B McCrindle, J C Kingdom, E Hickey, S Miller, M Seed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600850/longitudinal-study-of-white-matter-development-and-outcomes-in-children-born-very-preterm
#14
Julia M Young, Benjamin R Morgan, Hilary E A Whyte, Wayne Lee, Mary Lou Smith, Charles Raybaud, Manohar M Shroff, John G Sled, Margot J Taylor
Identifying trajectories of early white matter development is important for understanding atypical brain development and impaired functional outcomes in children born very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age [GA]). In this study, 161 diffusion images were acquired in children born very preterm (median GA: 29 weeks) shortly following birth (75), term-equivalent (39), 2 years (18), and 4 years of age (29). Diffusion tensors were computed to obtain measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), which were aligned and averaged...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596046/adverse-fetal-outcome-in-road-accidents-injury-mechanism-study-and-injury-criteria-development-in-a-pregnant-woman-finite-element-model
#15
F Auriault, L Thollon, J Pérès, M Behr
This study documents the development of adverse fetal outcome predictors dedicated to the analysis of road accidents involving pregnant women. To do so, a pre-existing whole body finite element model representative of a 50th percentile 26 weeks pregnant woman was used. A total of 8 accident scenarios were simulated with the model positioned on a sled. Each of these scenarios was associated to a risk of adverse fetal outcome based on results from real car crash investigations involving pregnant women from the literature...
September 2, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586117/protection-of-children-in-forward-facing-child-restraint-systems-during-oblique-side-impact-sled-tests-intrusion-and-tether-effects
#16
Hans W Hauschild, John R Humm, Frank A Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan, Bruce Kaufman, Jinyong Kim, Matthew R Maltese, Kristy B Arbogast
OBJECTIVE: Testing was conducted to quantify the kinematics, potential for head impact, and influence on head injury metrics for a center-seated Q3s in a forward-facing child restraint system (FFCRS) in oblique impacts. The influences of a tether and intruded door on these measures were explored. METHODS: Nine lateral oblique sled tests were conducted on a convertible forward-facing child restraint seat (FFCRS). The FFCRSs were secured to a bench seat from a popular production small SUV at the center seating position utilizing the lower anchor and tether for children (LATCH)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586115/neck-forces-and-moments-of-human-volunteers-and-post-mortem-human-surrogates-in-low-speed-frontal-sled-tests
#17
Stephanie M Beeman, Andrew R Kemper, Stefan M Duma
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of active muscles (e.g. conscious bracing, resting tone, and reflex response) and acceleration severity on the neck forces and moments generated during low-speed frontal sled tests with adult male human volunteers and post mortem human surrogates (PMHSs). METHODS: A total of 24 frontal sled tests were analyzed including male volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight (n = 5) and PMHSs (n = 2)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586114/non-censored-rib-fracture-data-during-frontal-pmhs-sled-tests
#18
Andrew R Kemper, Stephanie M Beeman, David J Porta, Stefan M Duma
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain non-censored rib fracture data due to three-point belt loading during dynamic frontal post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The PMHS responses were then compared to matched tests performed using the Hybrid-III 50(th) percentile male ATD. METHODS: Matched dynamic frontal sled tests were performed on two male PMHSs, which were approximately 50(th) percentile height and weight, and the Hybrid-III 50(th) percentile male ATD...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586113/assessment-of-an-innovative-seat-belt-with-independent-control-of-the-shoulder-and-lap-portions-using-thor-tests-the-thums-model-and-pmhs-tests
#19
Bengt Pipkorn, Francisco J López-Valdés, Oscar Juste-Lorente, Ricardo Insausti, Christer Lundgren, Cecilia Sunnevång
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the potential chest injury benefits and influence on occupant kinematics of a belt system with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions. METHODS: This article investigates the kinematics and dynamics of human surrogates in 35 km/h impacts with 2 different restraints: a pretensioning (PT), force-limiting (FL) seat belt, a reference belt system, and a concept design with a split buckle consisting (SB) of 2 separate shoulder and lap belt bands...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586112/evaluation-of-kinematics-and-injuries-to-restrained-occupants-in-far-side-crashes-using-full-scale-vehicle-and-human-body-models
#20
Mike W J Arun, Sagar Umale, John R Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Prasanaah Hadagali, Frank A Pintar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. METHODS: The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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